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HP0-277 - OpenVMS Version 7.x to 8.2 Migration - Dump Information

Vendor : HP
Exam Code : HP0-277
Exam Name : OpenVMS Version 7.x to 8.2 Migration
Questions and Answers : 62 Q & A
Updated On : October 16, 2018
PDF Download Mirror : HP0-277 Brain Dump
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HP0-277 Questions and Answers

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HP0-277 OpenVMS Version 7.x to 8.2 Migration

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HP0-277 exam Dumps Source : OpenVMS Version 7.x to 8.2 Migration

Test Code : HP0-277
Test Name : OpenVMS Version 7.x to 8.2 Migration
Vendor Name : HP
Q&A : 62 Real Questions

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HP HP OpenVMS Version 7.x

skinny-and-light ThinkPad P1 pitches for the portable laptop market | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Lenovo's ThinkPad P1 moveable workstation has just long past on sale, and or not it's a beautiful option for any one with round £2,000 to £4,500 to spend on a significant business computer. It provides a top-end Xeon/Quadro specification in a 15.6-inch layout that appears greater like a ThinkPad X1 Carbon.

It has ISV certifications from leading independent software companies such as ArcGIS, AutoCAD, CATIA, Creo, Inventor, Microstation, NX, PDMS, Revit, strong part, SolidWorks and Vectorworks. in case you run one or more of these, you're in the goal market. The ThinkPad P1 should additionally appeal to Adobe artistic Cloud clients, primarily folks that run Premier seasoned.

The ThinkPad P1 feels like a much bigger version of the X1 and shares the carbon fibre building to in the reduction of the burden to 1.7kg (three.75 pounds). The standard dimensions are 361.8mm with the aid of 245.7mm by means of 18.4mm (14.2 x 9.7 x 0.7 inches).

the key aspects encompass the potential to pack in 64GB of reminiscence and two SSD drives. patrons additionally get a choice of two monitors: FHD (1,920 x 1,080) non-touch and 4K UHD (3,840 x 2,a hundred and sixty) touch. Most alternate options can also be customised.

All models have a good preference of ports. The left facet of the ThinkPad P1 has two Thunderbolt 3 ports, HDMI 2, a mini Gigabit Ethernet port, a headphone jack and an influence socket. The right aspect has two USB 3.1 (type A) ports, a wise card slot, and a Kensington lock. there is also area for an non-compulsory SD card reader.

SEE: windows 10 April 2018 update: An insider's e book (free PDF)

if you can justify buying a precise-of-the-range computer, that you may have an eighth-generation Intel Xeon E-2176M, 64GB of RAM, an Nvidia Quadro P2000 pictures card with 4GB of reminiscence, 2TB of NVMe M.2 SSD storage, a sensible card reader, a 4K UHD (3,840 x 2,one hundred sixty) touch reveal and three years of on-website carrier. in the UK, that involves £four,695.forty (inc. VAT).

An entry-degree system with an Intel Core i5-8400H, Quadro P1000 pix card, 8GB of RAM and a 256GB difficult drive is a greater economical £1,929. despite the fact, upgrading the standard 1,920 by using 1,080 non-touch monitor to the 4K version - which offers 100% Adobe shade gamut -- adds £322.80 to the expense.

a good compromise -- with a Core i7-8850H, 32GB of RAM and excessive-res monitor -- comes in at around £3,000, which is roughly the equal as a 15-inch MacBook pro with a Core i7 and 32GB (£three,059). The evident difference is that the entire ThinkPad P1 models within the UK include three years of on-website provider, whereas the Mac purchaser would must add £329 for AppleCare.

The necessities and service alternate options differ in distinct geographies, so determine your local Lenovo web page for particulars.

whereas the ThinkPad P1 may entice some MacBook patrons, its actual competitors comprises the Dell XPS 15, which is a bigger edition of the vastly successful XPS 13, and Dell's Precision moveable workstations. HP's ZBook 15 cellular laptop can be one more contender.

Lenovo laptop thinkpad-P1

Lenovo's ThinkPad P1 moveable computing device is obtainable now.

picture: Lenovo

contemporary AND related content material

Lenovo ThinkPad X1 Carbon 6th Gen assessment: A peerless enterprise ultraportableThe 2018 ThinkPad X1 Carbon is still the enterprise computing device to beat, offering a tricky chassis, a superb keyboard and all-day battery lifestyles for all but the most worrying vigour clients.

Dell XPS 15 9560 (2017) UHD review: Compact, solid and configurableSolidly built, neatly special and very configurable, Dell's 2017 XPS 15 should go well with the annoying enterprise consumer. it might probably get expensive, notwithstanding, and the minimal-bezel monitor makes for an awkward digital camera place.

HP's new monster ZBooks: newest Intel Xeons, up to 32GB RAM, 4TB SSDHP unveils its fifth era of excessive-end laptops with Intel's newest Xeon processors.

The Lenovo ThinkPad P52 computing device: a fine fit for energy users and VR builders (TechRepublic)The VR-capable powerhouse computer comes with an Nvidia Quadro P3200 GPU, 4K, and as much as 128GB RAM.

HP ZBook x2 G4 detachable notebook evaluate: A hybrid for creativesThe ZBook x2 G4 is a top class machine with a price tag to healthy. if you are hunting for a computing device-category removable with striking pen input, it's your best option presently.

Lenovo ThinkPad P1 and ThinkPad P72 (CNET)The enterprise finally presents a powerful mobile laptop beneath four kilos.


Tata H7X SUV (Harrier 7-seater) - IAB Rendering | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IndianAutosBlog.com' Shoeb R Kalania has created a digital mockup of the Tata H7X (codename), the 7-seat edition of the Tata Harrier (codename H5X) which launches in the last quarter of the latest economic yr.

Tata H7X IAB renderThe Harrier and H7X will be the primary members on the OMEGA platform.

With the Harrier and the H7X, Tata Motors is out to prove that it might probably promote automobiles in top class segments the place transactions cross the INR 20 lakh mark. while Tata already sells the Hexa with fees going up to INR 21.44 lakhs, ex-Showroom, the upcoming Harrier and H7X, which are in line with the modular OMEGA platform, will provide the enterprise authentic economies of scale in the top rate section, if they get it appropriate. The OMEGA structure is derived from Land Rover's D8 platform.

The H7X will rival the Mahindra XUV500, greater versions of the Jeep Compass and Hyundai Tucson, and entry-degree editions of the upcoming Honda CR-V. Given its three-row configuration, patrons of the Toyota Innova Crysta will even be tempted to examine the H7X as expenses for both utility motors should be equivalent. conserving its payload means and cost as center of attention features, Tata Motors is unlikely to present a 4WD variant of the H7X. It additionally has to do with the fact that the majority of consumers during this section select a 2WD configuration owing to the cost and utility, and Tata intends to target this viewers.

The H7X, like present Tata items, will also be assumed to retail in XE, XM, XT and XZ variations. The accurate-conclusion variant is expected to be loaded with twin and side airbags (already offered on the Hexa), ABS, TCS, computerized local weather handle, projector headlights, diamond cut alloy wheels and a touchscreen entertainment gadget with Apple CarPlay and Android Auto.

Tata Harrier right side profile Spy imageThe Harrier (codename H5X) is introduced to launch within the remaining quarter of the existing fiscal. The H7X is anticipated in showrooms about a yr after the Harrier.

additionally examine: Tata Tiago, Tata Tigor creation to hit 12,000 devices a month this October - file

The H7X and Harrier will share engines and gearboxes. The engine in question is FCA's 2.0-liter MultiJet II diesel, though, in comparison to the Harrier which is expected to get a 140 hp tune, the H7X is anticipated with a much better energy output to atone for the rear overhang. A 6-velocity guide and Hyundai-sourced 6-velocity automated will be on offer on each SUVs.


HP Spectre x360 13 vs. Lenovo Yoga 920: fighting for convertible 2-in-1 primacy | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The 13-inch (or so) convertible 2-in-1 makes for a fine all-round workstation. It’s usually thin and light-weight adequate that it makes for a satisfactory pill for taking notes, whereas still performing as well as common clamshell notebooks for widely wide-spread productivity tasks. With the advent of Intel’s eighth-era quad-core CPUs, the form aspect also gives some added oomph for greater annoying projects like video enhancing while having fun with some critically respectable battery existence for easier initiatives like paperwork, looking, and consuming media. In our HP Spectre x360 vs. Lenovo Yoga 920 cage suit, we take a look at two refreshed 2-in-1s that make terrific use of Intel’s latest processors.

The Lenovo Yoga 910 and the early 2017 edition of the Spectre x360 were two of our favorite notebooks. really, the HP has been our favorite 2-in-1 that’s choicest for pc use. With their newest refreshes, both machines have taken a step forward. Now, the simplest query is, which one takes the lead?

HP’s Spectre x360 13 has had exquisite design both aesthetically and structurally, given that its 2016 version. It acquired a new dark Ash Silver and Copper accent color scheme in early 2017 that introduced it in accordance with the leisure of the Spectre line. Now, HP has refreshed it as soon as once again, including in yet yet another colour, pale Rose Gold, and chiseling the edges to give it a sleeker and much more contemporary appearance.

It also shaved off a fraction of a millimeter in thickness, made the display bezels even smaller, and dropped some weight. The Spectre x360 13 is now nearly as skinny, easy, and respectable looking as feasible, while protecting a high-quality build best that’s compromised most effective by using the slightest bit of provide when squeezing the lid slightly too tough.

The Lenovo Yoga 920 additionally got a refresh over the Yoga 910 that preceded it. the cultured adjustments are less dazzling, with some delicate alterations corresponding to further angles providing a a bit of cleaner universal appearance and a complete of three subtler color schemes (Platinum, Bronze, and Copper). The Yoga 920 is also fractionally thinner, with smaller screen bezels allowing a reduction in usual width and depth as smartly. Even enhanced — Lenovo managed to trim down the bezels without having to relocate the webcam.

That’s a extremely important improvement over the Yoga 910. when you consider that the Yoga 920 activities a 13.9-inch screen versus the Spectre’s 13.3-inch edition, Lenovo have the ability to pack lots of laptop into a relatively svelte frame. The Yoga 920 is also built like a tank, and it’s one of the crucial effective 2-in-1’s in the marketplace these days.

Mark Coppock/Digital trends

in the end, we appreciated the Spectre x360 13’s lighter weight (2.seventy eight pounds versus 3.02 pounds) and smaller chassis, and we additionally locate the HP’s design to be stand out more in a crowded field. You’ll like the Yoga 920 more suitable if you need to fade into the background, however the Spectre x360 13 strikes a more robust stability between contemporary good looks and conservative understatement. It’s a tough call, but within the conclusion, we ought to provide the nod to HP.

Winner: HP Spectre x360 13

efficiency

both the Yoga 920 and the Spectre x360 13 are outfitted with one of the vital latest and ultimate cell CPUs, the eighth-generation Intel Core sequence, both in i5 and i7 versions. Our overview instruments used the Intel Core i7-8550U, the high-conclusion chip within the sequence. This chip packs in 4 cores, doubling the old technology, whereas managing clock speeds to give extraordinary performance when obligatory and terrific efficiency when battery existence is paramount. both HP and Lenovo managed to squeeze remarkable performance out of processors, however the Yoga 920’s a bit higher chassis gave it a thermal abilities over the Spectre x360 13.

That’s most obvious in our Handbrake look at various that encodes a 420MB video to H.265. There, the Yoga 920 took a really brief 613 seconds to complete the assignment, while the Spectre x360 13 took a little longer at 723 seconds. That’s nonetheless a great influence in comparison to seventh-era CPUs that usually take greater than 1,000 seconds, and both the HP and the Lenovo are closely matched in the shorter Geekbench 4 benchmark.

The Yoga 920, hence, wins this round, however not by a big margin — each 2-in-1s are remarkably decent performers that may handle some excessive-end initiatives in a pinch. It’s value noting that whereas the Yoga 920’s CPU efficiency is a bit stronger, the Spectre x360 13’s solid-state drive (SSD) turned into greatly quicker in reading counsel.

Winner: Lenovo Yoga 920

Keyboard, Mouse, and Pen

The HP Spectre x360 13’s keyboard is unchanged from the old version’s — and that’s a very good thing. We discovered it to be a snappier and more exact keyboard that allow us to rise up to pace more effectively than the Yoga 920’s stiffer version. The HP’s touchpad makes use of Synaptic drivers in preference to the more responsive Microsoft Precision Touchpad protocol, but we also discovered the Yoga 920’s Microsoft Precision touchpad to be a little uncharacteristically twitchy. each machines game equally responsive touch shows that make swiping and tapping a breeze.

hp spectre x360 vs lenovo yoga 920 pb2083772

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Mark Coppock/Digital traits

ultimately, while the Yoga 920’s lively pen is extra precise, with the more modern 4,096 degrees of force sensitivity versus the Spectre x360 13’s 1,024, the latter helps tilt, has a rechargeable battery, and its built-in gyroscope lets it function as a kind of “laser pointer” for giving presentations. It’s greater for productiveness than for artists, however that makes feel for this classification of laptop. along with the superior keyboard, that compels us to aware the HP the win.

lenovo yoga 920 overview 14903

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Mark Coppock/Digital tendencies

Winner: HP Spectre x360 13

Connectivity

in terms of connectivity, the Spectre x360 13 and Yoga 920 are in the main equally neatly-outfitted. They both have a single USB-A three.0 port, two USB-C ports with Thunderbolt 3 guide, and a three.5mm combo audio jack, to move together with 2×2 MU-MIMO Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. That makes them each able to address legacy gadgets whereas being future-proof, with the expansive monitor options, high-end peripheral, and exterior GPU support offered via Thunderbolt 3 compliance.

The simplest ameliorations are that HP includes an SD card reader, which is new to this refresh, and it offers each infrared facial consciousness and a fingerprint reader for windows 10 hi there help. The Yoga 920 makes due with simply the capacity to swipe a finger to log in, and there’s no SD card assist.

These are small issues but they save the want for another dongle and provide greater password-less login flexibility — and people are respectable issues in our publication. The Spectre x360, therefore, edges out the Yoga 920 during this category.

Winner: HP Spectre x360 13

reveal

We found the Spectre x360 13’s 13.3-inch Full HD (1,920 x 1,080 or 166 PPI) reveal to be ordinary at foremost. Its contrast, brightness, and colour aid were all smack dab within the middle of the pack, based on our colorimeter, whereas subjectively we enjoyed the display however thought it was simply the slightest bit too mild for gazing video. It’s also a step down from the screen HP sourced for the 2016 version, which was stronger across the board.

The Yoga 920’s 13.9-inch Full HD (158 PPI) monitor turned into handiest marginally improved. Its distinction and color help had been slightly superior, its brightness become virtually similar, and its gamma became excellent and so video became neither too shiny nor too darkish. on the identical time, it’s now not as sharp given its slightly larger dimensions but equal resolution — pixel peepers will find more to bitch about. in the conclusion, while the Yoga 920’s display tested a little bit more suitable, we in reality couldn’t inform a lot of a top quality difference in every day use. And, it’s worth noting that typical displays today are significantly enhanced than high-conclusion shows just just a few years in the past.

where HP wins out is in terms of the shows that can be found for its 2-in-1. both machines have 4K UHD options (3,840 x 2,160, or 331 PPI for the HP and 317 PPI for the Lenovo), but the Spectre x360 13 additionally inherits the HP bound View privateness monitor from the enterprise-category Elitebook x360 G2. in case you work with delicate records that you simply want to hold safe from prying eyes, then the HP is the better option. however average, we’ll have to name it a draw given the moderate drop in exceptional in the newest version of the Spectre x360.

Winner: Draw

Portability and Battery life

Intel’s eighth-era CPUs are demonstrating themselves to be particularly effective when performing regular productiveness tasks. They’ll burn during the battery like a knife via butter if you’re encoding video, however scale lower back to workplace, internet searching, or observing a film and they’ll sip vigour like teetotalers. We had been hence hopeful that both 2-in-1s would deliver some respectable battery life.

as it seems, we have been impressed with both. The Spectre x360 13 packs in sixty three watt-hours of battery lifestyles to the Yoga 920’s 70 watt-hours, while wearing a smaller Full HD display. in the conclusion, the HP’s slightly lessen performance when pushing the CPU difficult and its smaller monitor resulted in an awful lot more advantageous battery existence in our aggressive Basemark browser benchmark examine and just a bit of more advantageous battery existence when shopping the web and looping a local video.

When two machines can play video for roughly 14 hours, that’s unbelievable. however the Spectre x360 13 offers well-nigh nearly as good performance for more stressful tasks while lasting tremendously longer on a cost (fifty one minutes longer, definitely), and that’s nothing to sneeze at. additionally, it’s lighter body make it easier to elevate round and throw for your bag.

Winner: HP Spectre x360 13

Availability and cost

both the Spectre x360 13 and the Yoga 920 sit down firmly within the premium laptop house, in particular within the configurations we verified. When fitted with the Core i7-8550U, 8GB of RAM, a 256GB SSD, and a Full HD monitor, the Spectre x360 13 retails for $1,250 while the Yoga 920 lists for $1,330. searching on the optimum configurations that up the RAM to 16GB, the SSD to 1TB, and the screen to 4K UHD, and the HP costs $1,800 while the Lenovo is available in at $2,000.

briefly, you’ll retailer a bit cash on the low end and considerable money on the high conclusion. if you’re pinching pennies, you then’ll discover the Spectre x360 13 to be the more frugal option.

Winner: HP Spectre x360 13

The HP Spectre x360 13 eeks out the win, but only narrowly

deciding on a winner between two such mind-blowing machines changed into certainly a tricky project. sure, the HP wins most of our classes, however the wins are very narrow. The Spectre x360 13 doesn’t blow the doorways off of the Yoga 920 in any single aspect.

although, when using every machine, it’s the total gestalt that gives the Spectre x360 13 the win. prefer the two machines aside and neither comes out on properly. but take each and every one as an entire and the HP just feels superior in exact use. We feel fully at ease recommending both, but with a gun put to our heads, we’d have to say that the HP Spectre x360 13 is in the end the more desirable convertible 2-in-1.


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Understanding PIX Firewall/ASA | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Introduction

Non-Official Cisco SupportIntroduction - How PIX Operates and the CLI.Basic PIX configurationSlightly Advanced PIX ConfigurationTCP, UDP, NAT and PAT as the PIX sees itAccess Control Lists and Content FilteringObject Grouping

Official Cisco SupportUsing PIX FirewallCisco Security Appliance Command Line Configuration Guide, Version 7.0

Security Level as Stateful Firewall feature foundation

Cisco ASA/PIX Firewall is designed as stateful firewall. From Cisco implementation perspective, there is a concept of Security Level as foundation of all stateful firewall features.

In basic firewall concept, there are three security zones. The first zone is Untrusted network where Cisco implements as Outside network. The second zone is Trusted network where Cisco implements as Inside network. The third zone is DMZ network where Cisco also implements as DMZ network.

A firewall in its nature is designed as perimeter guarding traffic flow between zones. With the concept of Security Level, the Untrusted (Outside) network has the lowest level of trust where Cisco by default assign the trust level as 0 (zero). Consequently the Trusted (Inside) network has the highest level of trust where Cisco by default assign the security level of 100. Since DMZ network is considered somewhat trusted and untrusted, Cisco by default assign (typically) even number between 0 and 100.

Based on associated Security Level; you may notice that the higher a network level is, the more trusted a network is. In other words, Inside network is more trusted or more secure that DMZ network and DMZ network is more trusted or more secure than Outside network. When you put Cisco ASA/PIX Firewall as your Internet gateway or Internet firewall for example, the Outside network is the Internet, the Inside network is your internal network, and the DMZ network is your publicly-accessible web or email server.

If you like to go further, you may segment your internal network further by putting a dedicated firewall between your internal servers and users' PC where the Inside network is where the internal servers are and the Outside network is where the users' PC are. When you consider to use only one firewall for all, then you may want to create multiple DMZ networks where the Outside network (Security Level 0) is the Internet, Inside network (Security Level 100) is the internal servers, DMZ 1 network (i.e. Security Level 1) is the publicly-accessible web or email server, DMZ 2 network (i.e. Security Level 4) is a guest wireless network, DMZ 3 network (i.e. Security Level 6) is the user's PC, and so on and so forth.

Additionally, any incoming traffic from lower Security Level to higher Security Level is by default denied. When you have publicly-accessible web or email server let's say on your DMZ network, then you have to permit certain incoming traffic from the lower Security Level (the Internet or Outside) network to enter higher Security Level network which is the DMZ by using either nat command or static command. You can also control how many incoming permitted sessions for further protection.

How Cisco ASA/PIX Firewall Treats TCP-based traffic differently than ICMP-based traffic

In general, typical traffic initiated from Inside network (Trusted) to Outside network (Untrusted) are permitted. These typical traffic are mostly protocols TCP and UDP based traffic. In OS 6.x or earlier, the fixup command controls these traffic types by default, while the inspect command instead controls the traffic in OS 7.0 and later.

Protocol ICMP on the other hand is considered not part of typical traffic, in addition to different behavior compared to protocols TCP and UDP. In order to make the ICMP traffic flow go successfully through the firewall from Inside to Outside, you have to create permit rule for incoming ICMP echo reply packets from least trusted network as a response of ICMP echo packets issued by a machine within more trusted network.

For TCP-based traffic, by default all returning TCP traffic coming from least trusted network as a response of TCP packet initiated by a machine within more trusted network are permitted. Therefore you don't need to create rules to permit such returning TCP traffic.

The reason of no need to create rules to permit such returning TCP traffic is that the firewall understands the concept of 3-way TCP handshake. Every time there is outbound TCP-based traffic initiated from more trusted network to less trusted network is inspected and stored in connectivity table (the show conn command reveals such table). When the firewall sees matching TCP packet coming from less trusted network toward the more trusted network as part of the 3-way handshake, the firewall permits those returning traffic. In PIX/ASA firewall implementation, the fixup and inspect commands ensure these situations take place.

ICMP-based traffic however has different properties. Since there is no concept of 3-way handshake in ICMP, each ICMP traffic is treated as one-way traffic. Therefore you have to permit any necessary incoming ICMP traffic from less trusted network towards more trusted network when you plan to use something like ICMP ping or traceroute from more trusted network to less trusted network.

Discussion»[HELP] ASSA 5520 ASDM 7.1 denied traffic»[Config] Connectivity issues behind my ASA 5505

TCP Transaction Protection

Of those TCP traffic, all incoming TCP traffic are inspected by Cisco ASA/PIX Firewall to make sure that there will be a 3-way handshake per TCP mechanism to complete TCP transaction. The firewall will drop any incomplete TCP transaction for protection from possible TCP-based attack.

As example, the firewall keeps TCP session as part of the TCP 3-way handshake protection mechanism where there is some kind of hold timer. The firewall expects to receive responses from server within the hold timer interval, which the timer will expire. At the time the firewall does not receive the server response when the timer expires, the firewall drops any related TCP session and also drops "late" server response.

Another example is having the firewall drops TCP packets when the TCP client keeps sending TCP synchronization (SYN) packet or sending TCP acknowledge (ACK) packet without sending TCP SYN packet first. In this situation, the firewall drops the TCP SYN and TCP ACK accordingly.

There is also a TCP Initial Sequence Number (ISN) randomization protection feature which by default randomizing TCP sequence number to negotiate between client and server in order to provide TCP Sequence Prediction Attacks protection.

One optional feature is setting maximum number of simultaneous TCP and UDP connections through the firewall for the entire subnet. The default is 0, which means unlimited connections and the firewall lets the server determine the number.

Another optional feature is specifying the maximum number of embryonic connections per host. An embryonic connection is a connection request that has not finished the necessary handshake between source and destination. Set a small value for slower systems, and a higher value for faster systems. The default is 0, which means unlimited embryonic connections.

The embryonic connection limit lets you prevent a type of attack where processes are started without being completed. When the embryonic limit is surpassed, the TCP intercept feature intercepts TCP SYN packets from clients to servers on a higher security level. The software establishes a connection with the client on behalf of the destination server, and if successful, establishes the connection with the server on behalf of the client and combines the two half-connections together transparently. Thus, connection attempts from unreachable hosts never reach the server. The PIX firewall and ASA accomplish TCP intercept functionality using SYN cookies.

TCP/UDP Application-Specific Protocol Protection

By default, the PIX Firewall and ASA provide TCP/UDP application-specific protection of the following protocols.

Various Cisco ASA/PIX Firewall Features

1. SSH and Telnet as firewall management access

You can only use SSH for the firewall management access when you are sitting in non-Inside network. By default you can use either telnet or SSH for the firewall management access when you are sitting in Inside network.

2. NAT

In the PIX or ASA OS version prior 8.3, by default there is NAT in place for traffic between zones. In these earlier OS versions, you typically use the nat 0 command to eliminate NAT for traffic between zones. You could also use static command with the same IP subnet of pre- and post- NAT process. Further, there is a rule called NAT Order of Operation in earlier OS version to make sure that the NAT-related business is in order.

NAT Concept on PIX Firewall running OS version 6.3 or later and ASA running OS version prior 8.3

Introduction to NAT Operation

In network environment where there is a private network that is not (and should not) be visible directly from Outside network should be made invisible to the Outside network. PIX Firewall and ASA were originally designed to provide such invisibility and do NAT by default for traffic across security zones such as between Inside and Outside network.

When the Outside network access is needed from more trusted network, you need to NAT the outbound traffic by using nat command. If the traffic is just outbound where connections are initiated from more trusted network to less trusted network, then the nat command should be associated with a global command.

For inbound traffic where connections are initiated from less trusted network to more trusted network, the static command is needed to accommodate the NAT process. With the static command, the traffic flow between the less and more trusted network is established both way; meaning that the Outside network (less trusted network) can initiate traffic to the Inside network (more trusted network) at anytime and vice versa. There is no need to create specific nat command to accommodate the traffic flow.

In regards of the static command use, you have a choice to either use the same or different IP address/subnet between the less and more trusted network. Following is list of possibilities where you want to use different IP address/subnet appearing on the less trusted network.

1. The private network (residing at the more trusted network) uses IP scheme that is not routable at the less trusted network; i.e. Internet access from LAN using private network of 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, or 192.168.0.0/16 (non-Internet-routeable subnets per RFC 1918).

2. The less trusted network is unable to do routing. In this case, the more trusted network uses NAT-ed IP address that is within the less trusted network IP subnet

3. There is conflicting IP scheme between less and more trusted network. In this case, the more trusted network uses NAT-ed IP address that is within the less trusted network IP scheme. Furthermore, you need to NAT the inbound traffic from less to more trusted network using NAT-ed IP address that is within the more trusted network IP scheme.

When none of the above situation meets, you should use the same IP address/subnet between less and more trusted network. Note that just because you use the same IP address/subnet between less and more trusted network, it does not mean that there will be security risk on the more trusted network since the PIX Firewall or ASA provides sufficient stateful security feature as mentioned at earlier discussion.

Different Types of NAT

1. Dynamic PAT

Commands to use: nat, globalObjective: to allow outbound traffic from more trusted network to less trusted network where inbound traffic is not needed

Example 1.1nat (inside) 1 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0global (outside) 1 203.43.45.93

Description:Any hosts within Inside IP subnet of 192.168.1.0/24 will be PAT-ed into 203.43.45.93 when there is outbound traffic from Inside to Outside network

Example 1.2nat (outside) 1 203.43.45.0 255.255.255.0global (inside) 1 192.168.1.93

Description:Any hosts within Outside IP subnet of 203.43.45.0/24 will be PAT-ed into 192.168.1.93 when there is inbound traffic from Outside to Inside network

2. Static PAT

Commands to use: staticObjective: to allow outbound traffic from more trusted network to less trusted network where inbound traffic is needed

Example 2.1static (inside,outside) tcp 203.43.45.93 80 192.168.45.93 80 netmask 255.255.255.255

Description:Host 192.168.45.93 will be PAT-ed to 203.43.45.93 when there is outbound traffic initiated from 192.168.45.93 (within the Inside network) using TCP port 80 as source TCP port to the Outside network. Similarly, any IP address within Outside network will access 203.43.45.93 using TCP port 80 as destination TCP port in order to access 192.168.45.93 on TCP port 80

Example 2.2static (outside,inside) tcp 192.168.45.93 80 203.43.45.93 80 netmask 255.255.255.255

Description:Host 203.43.45.93 will be PAT-ed to 192.168.45.93 when there is inbound traffic initiated from 203.43.45.93 (within the Outside network) using TCP port 80 as source TCP port to the Inside network. Similarly, any IP address within Inside network will access 192.168.45.93 using TCP port 80 as destination TCP port in order to access 203.43.45.93 on TCP port 80

3. Static NAT of single IP address

Commands to use: staticObjective: to allow outbound traffic from more trusted network to less trusted network where inbound traffic is needed. Furthermore, the command uses the entire IP protocols and ports within the provided IP address.

Example 3.1static (inside,outside) 203.43.45.93 192.168.45.93 netmask 255.255.255.255

Description:Host 192.168.45.93 will be NAT-ed to 203.43.45.93 when there is outbound traffic initiated from 192.168.45.93 (within the Inside network) using any IP protocol (including ESP, TCP, and UDP) to the Outside network. Similarly, any IP address within Outside network will access 203.43.45.93 using any IP protocol in order to access 192.168.45.93.

Note:This static statement may seem as security risk since you are opening the IP address to any incoming IP protocol from less to more trusted network. Such risk is mitigated when there is access-list controlling inbound traffic to open necessary IP protocol and ports (i.e. just open inbound TCP port 80 and 443 where others are denied).

Example 3.2static (outside,inside) 192.168.45.93 203.43.45.93 netmask 255.255.255.255

Description:Host 203.43.45.93 will be PAT-ed to 192.168.45.93 when there is inbound traffic initiated from 203.43.45.93 (within the Outside network) using any IP protocol (including ESP, TCP, and UDP) to the Inside network. Similarly, any IP address within Inside network will access 192.168.45.93 using any IP protocol in order to access 203.43.45.93.

4. Static NAT of entire IP subnet

Commands to use: staticObjective: to allow outbound traffic from more trusted network to less trusted network where inbound traffic is needed. Furthermore, the command uses the entire IP protocols and ports within the provided IP address.

Example 4.1static (inside,outside) 203.43.45.0 192.168.45.0 netmask 255.255.255.0

Description:Any hosts within 192.168.45.0/24 will be NAT-ed to 203.43.45.0/24 when there is outbound traffic initiated from 192.168.45.0/24 (within the Inside network) using any IP protocol (including ESP, TCP, and UDP) to the Outside network. Similarly, any IP address within Outside network will access 203.43.45.0/24 using any IP protocol in order to access 192.168.45.0/24.

Using IP subnet static NAT indicates the following static NAT in placeAs you can see, the last octet will be the same while only the first three octets are different between the Outside and the Inside IP addresses.

Note:The command is useful when you need to NAT the entire subnet without the requirement of creating multiple static command of each pair of Outside-Inside IP addresses. You can simply create static NAT for the entire subnet instead.

Example 4.2static (outside,inside) 192.168.45.0 203.43.45.0 netmask 255.255.255.0

Description:Any hosts within 203.43.45.0/24 will be NAT-ed to 192.168.45.0/24 when there is outbound traffic initiated from the Inside network using any IP protocol (including ESP, TCP, and UDP) to the Outside network. Similarly, IP address within 203.43.45.0/24 Outside network will access the any IP addresses within Inside network as 192.168.45.0/24 using any IP protocol.

5. Static NAT of entire IP subnet and keep the same IP scheme between less and more trusted network

Command to use: access-list, nat 0, and/or staticObjective: to allow outbound traffic from more trusted network to less trusted network where inbound traffic is needed. Furthermore, the command uses the entire IP protocols and ports within the provided IP address. All of these processes take place while keeping the same IP scheme between less and more trusted network.

Example 5.1 - NAT exemption

access-list nonat_inside-outside permit ip 192.168.45.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0nat (inside) 0 access-list nonat_inside-outside

Description:Any hosts within 192.168.45.0/24 will appear as themselves when there is outbound traffic initiated from 192.168.45.0/24 (within the Inside network) using any IP protocol (including ESP, TCP, and UDP) to the Outside network of 192.168.1.0/24. Similarly, any IP address within Outside network of 192.168.1.0/24 will access 192.168.45.0/24 using any IP protocol directly.

Example 5.2

static (inside,outside) 192.168.45.0 192.168.45.0 netmask 255.255.255.0

Description:Any hosts within 192.168.45.0/24 will appear as themselves when there is outbound traffic initiated from 192.168.45.0/24 (within the Inside network) using any IP protocol (including ESP, TCP, and UDP) to any Outside network IP address. Similarly, any IP address within Outside network will access 192.168.45.0/24 using any IP protocol directly.

Example 5.3 - Identity NAT

nat (inside) 0 192.168.45.0 255.255.255.0static (inside, outside) 192.168.45.0 192.168.45.0 netmask 255.255.255.0

Description:The behavior is similar as Examples 5.1 and 5.2. This configuration is less popular since it seems more complex than it has to.

6. Static NAT Policy

Command to use: access-list and staticObjective: to allow outbound traffic from more trusted network to less trusted network where inbound traffic is needed. Furthermore, the command uses the entire IP protocols and ports within the provided IP address. All of these processes take place while keeping the same IP scheme between less and more trusted network.

Example 6.1

access-list nat1_inside-outside permit ip 192.168.45.0 255.255.255.0 23.54.6.0 255.255.255.0access-list nat2_inside-outside permit ip 192.168.45.0 255.255.255.0 23.54.7.0 255.255.255.0nat (inside) 1 0.0.0.0static (inside,outside) 23.54.6.254 access-list nat1_inside-outsidestatic (inside,outside) 23.54.7.254 access-list nat2_inside-outsideglobal (outside) 1 203.43.45.32

Description:Any 192.168.45.x within Inside network will be statically NAT as 23.54.6.254 when 192.168.45.x access 23.54.6.x that resides at Outside network. Similarly, any 192.168.45.x within Inside network will be statically NAT as 23.54.7.254 when 192.168.45.x access 23.54.7.x that resides at Outside network. When 192.168.45.x access any other IP addresses at Outside network beside 23.54.6.x and 23.54.7.x, the 192.168.45.x will be dynamically PAT-ed as 203.43.45.32.

NAT Implementation Illustration

For the sake of illustration, we assume the following

Outside network: any IP subnetDMZ 1 network: 192.168.0.0/24, 192.168.1.0/24DMZ 2 network: 192.168.2.0/24, 192.168.3.0/24Inside network: 192.168.32.0/24, 192.168.33.0/24, 192.168.45.0/24

Example 1

access-list nonat permit ip 192.168.32.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0nat (inside) 0 access-list nonatnat (inside) 1 192.168.32.0 255.255.255.0global (outside) 1 203.45.32.84

Description:When any IP address within 192.168.32.0/24 access the 192.168.1.0/24, the 192.168.32.x appears as themselves. If the 192.168.32.x access anything else that is at Outside network, there will be dynamic PAT to use 203.45.32.84 IP address to appear on the Outside network.

Further, any machine within 192.168.1.0/24 can access 192.168.32.0/24 as themselves. In other words, 192.168.32.0/24 appears as themselves in the 192.168.1.0/24 presence and vice versa.

The 192.168.33.x cannot access anything beyond Inside network. Similarly, the 192.168.0.x cannot access anything beyond DMZ 1 network. Anything at Outside and DMZ 2 cannot access anything at DMZ 1 and 192.168.33.x Inside network.

Example 2

access-list nonat permit ip 192.168.32.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0nat (inside) 0 access-list nonatnat (inside) 1 0.0.0.0nat (dmz1) 2 192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0global (dmz2) 1 192.168.2.254global (outside) 2 204.54.65.231static (inside,outside) 192.168.32.0 192.168.32.0 netmask 255.255.254.0

Description:The 192.168.0.x and 192.168.32.x can see each other as themselves. Any IP address within Inside network (including those that are not 192.168.32.x or 192.168.33.x if any such as 192.168.45.x) is able to access 192.168.2.x and 192.168.3.x using PAT-ed IP address of 192.168.2.254. Both 192.168.32.x and 192.168.33.x will appear as themselves when they are accessing Outside network. Any 192.168.0.x will appear as 204.54.65.231 to access Outside network.

Example 3

access-list nonat permit ip 192.168.32.0 255.255.254.0 192.168.0.0 255.255.254.0access-list nonat permit ip 192.168.45.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.0 255.255.254.0access-list nat1_inside-dmz2 permit ip 192.168.32.0 255.255.254.0 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0access-list nat1_inside-dmz2 permit ip 192.168.45.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0access-list nat2_inside-dmz2 permit ip 192.168.32.0 255.255.254.0 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0access-list nat2_inside-dmz2 permit ip 192.168.45.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0access-list nat_inside-outside permit ip 192.168.32.0 255.255.254.0 anyaccess-list nat_inside-outside permit ip 192.168.45.0 255.255.255.0 anynat (inside) 0 access-list nonatnat (inside) 1 access-list nat1_inside-dmz2nat (inside) 2 access-list nat2_inside-dmz2nat (inside) 3 access-list nat_inside-outsideglobal (dmz2) 1 192.168.2.254global (dmz2) 2 192.168.3.254global (outside) 3 204.54.65.231-204.54.65.253global (outside) 3 204.54.65.254static (dmz1,outside) 204.54.64.0 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0

Description:The 192.168.32.x, 192.168.33.x, and 192.168.45.x appear as themselves when they access 192.168.0.x, 192.168.1.x and vice versa. The 192.168.32.x, 192.168.33.x, and 192.168.45.x appear as 192.168.2.254 when they access 192.168.2.x and appear as 192.168.3.254 when they access 192.168.3.x.

The 192.168.0.x appear as 204.54.64.x when they access Outside network. Similarly, Outside network access 204.54.64.x in order to access 192.168.0.x.

The 192.168.32.x, 192.168.33.x, and 192.168.45.x on the Inside network appear as any available IP address within range of 204.54.65.231 and 204.54.65.253 when those Inside networks access Outside network. Such range is called NAT pool where there will be dynamic one-one NAT relationship between 192.168.32.x, 192.168.33.x, 192.168.45.x on the Inside network and any available IP address within range of 204.54.65.231 and 204.54.65.253. When all IP addresses within the NAT pool are used up, the 204.54.65.254 will be used as last resort (as dynamic PAT instead of dynamic NAT).

Note:For illustration, please check out all sample configuration using Cisco ASA/PIX Firewall in this Cisco Forum FAQ to better understand how Cisco firewall implementation look like.

Traffic Flow Across Security Zones

1. Default Behavior and Ways To Tweak

As a firewall, PIX Firewall and ASA by default expect to have traffic flow comes from one security zone to another. Any routing traffic that comes from one security zone and bounce back to the same security zone (called hair pinning) is denied. Another default behavior is to block traffic flow between security zones with equal security level.

In regards of traffic flow coming from one security zone to another, following is default behavior* Initiated from Less-Trusted zone to More-Trusted zone, traffic is denied* Initiated from More-Trusted zone to Less-Trusted zone, traffic is permitted* Initiated from one security zone to another with equal security level, traffic is denied* Initiated from one security zone and bounce back (hair pinning), traffic is denied

To adjust the above default behavior, following is the list of choices that applies for PIX Firewall and ASA running OS version 6.3 and later

* Implement nat 0 or static command in addition to implement access-group command tied with specific access-list command to allow initiating traffic from Less-Trusted zone to More-Trusted zone* Implement access-group command tied with specific access-list command to restrict initiating traffic from More-Trusted zone to Less-Trusted zone

When the PIX Firewall or ASA runs OS version 7.0 or later, following is a list of choices to adjust various default behaviors* Implement same-security-traffic permit command to allow initiating traffic from one security zone to another with equal security level. The same command is used to also allow hair-pinning traffic* Transform the Layer-3 firewall default behavior into Layer-2 firewall using firewall transparent command to avoid the firewall participating in routing* Transform the single physical firewall into multiple virtual firewall using mode command to allow Active/Active or Active/Standby traffic flow separating routing table between each virtual firewall

2. Traffic Flow Order of Operation

For those traffic flow initiating from Less-Trusted to More-Trusted network, here is what Cisco devices including PIX Firewall and ASA expect* Incoming traffic hits IP address as seen in the IP scheme of the Less-Trusted network. If there is NAT in place, then the incoming traffic hits the NAT-ed IP address.* Cisco devices check incoming traffic to see if there is a match within the access-list. When there is a match; Cisco devices stop searching, treat the traffic per the rule, and exit. When there is no match, by default Cisco devices deny traffic* If static command is in place to manage the NAT/PAT-ed IP addresses, Cisco devices translate IP address accordingly and forward the traffic based on the routing table

Since PIX Firewall and ASA are firewall, by design the firewall does traffic inspection before forwarding traffic based on the routing table as mentioned in early discussion. Any traffic that do not pass the inspection will be dropped and will not be forwarded.

What Is New On ASA (Or PIX OS 7.2 and above) Compared To PIX Firewall Running PIX OS 6.3?

Note:* PIX Firewall 500 series only support PIX OS up to 8.0(4) version. The ASA 5500 series support beyond OS 8.0(4) with possible DRAM/Flash upgrade* There is no known "real" differences between PIX OS 7.x and ASA OS 7.x from software perspective

For further info, check out the following official Cisco online documentation links for specific OS version features.

Features

Legacy OS 6.3(5)http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/pix/pix63/release/notes/pixrn635.html

OS 7.0(1)http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/pix/pix70/release/notes/pix_70rn.html#wp169795

OS 7.0(4)http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/pix/pix70/release/notes/pix704rn.html#wp213502

OS 7.0(5)http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/pix/pix70/release/notes/pix705rn.html#wp213502

OS 7.2(1)http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/pix/pix72/release/notes/pixrn72.html#wp185529

OS 7.2(2)http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/pix/pix72/release/notes/pixrn722.html#wp191103

OS 7.2(3)http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/pix/pix72/release/notes/pixrn723.html#wp213761

OS 8.0http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/pix/pix80/release/notes/pixrn80.html#wp191103

OS 8.0(3)http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/pix/pix80/release/notes/prn803.html#wp191103

OS 8.0(4)http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/pix/pix80/release/notes/pixrn804.html#wp191103

OS 8.1http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/asa/asa81/release/notes/asarn81.html#wp229690

Enable/Disable Communication on OS 7.0 image and newer

1. Troubleshooting on OS 7.0 image and newer

Establish and Troubleshoot Connectivity through PIX/ASAPacket/Traffic Troubleshooting

2. Sample Configuration on OS 7.0 image and newer

ASA/PIX EIGRP Routing Support

Backup/Failover Routing

Single Firewall Partitioned Into Multiple Independent Firewalls: Introduction to Multiple Context

Active/Active PIX/ASA Stateful Redundancy

Active/Standby PIX/ASA Stateful Redundancy

Transparent (Layer-2) Firewall

QoS

ASA As SSL ServerSSL VPN Client (SVC) on ASA with ASDM Configuration ExampleClientless SSL VPN (WebVPN) on ASA Configuration ExampleThin-Client SSL VPN (WebVPN) on ASA with ASDM Configuration Example

Block or Restrict the Instant Messaging (IM) Traffic

URL Filtering

New Features and Deprecated Commands Starting at OS version 8.3

You may notice that PIX Firewall appliances are unable to run latest OS version. PIX 501 can only run up to OS version 6.3(5) while PIX 515E and larger appliances can only run up to OS version 8.0. You need ASA 5500 series appliance to run newer OS version than 8.0.

Cisco ASA 5500 Migration Guide for Version 8.3

Discussion of OS version 9.1»ASA 5520 Fan Question

Default Behaviors Starting at OS version 8.3

One default behavior with this newer OS version is that no NAT is in place. Further, static and nat commands have been consolidated into a newer format of nat command. In addition, there is also a new format of object-group command to incorporate the new nat format command.

NAT and PAT Statement Use on the Cisco Secure ASA Firewall Configuration Example

Following is an illustration.

Cisco ASA NAT Cheat Sheet

Example 1

The first part of object command is to define a network as part of the obj-Inside-Network network object. You may notice two things that1. The object-group command is now replaced by an object command2. The network-object command is now replaced by a subnet command

The second part of the object command is to define how the subnets as source subnets to work with nat command. This second part basically saying all subnets defined in obj-Inside-Network network object will be coming from inside interface and will be natted into outside interface IP address dynamically (PAT) when there are traffic initiated from such subnets from inside interface towards outside interface.

Example 2

Regular Static NAT

Pre-8.3 NAT8.3 NATRegular Static PAT

Pre-8.3 NAT8.3 NATStatic Policy NAT

Pre-8.3 NAT8.3 NATExample 3

Regular Dynamic PAT

Pre-8.3 NAT8.3 NATRegular Dynamic PAT

Pre-8.3 NAT8.3 NATRegular Dynamic PAT of All Internal Subnets

Pre-8.3 NAT8.3 NATDynamic Policy NAT

Pre-8.3 NAT8.3 NATPolicy Dynamic NAT (with multiple ACEs)

Pre-8.3 NAT8.3 NATOutside NAT

Pre-8.3 NAT8.3 NATNAT and Interface PAT together

Pre-8.3 NAT8.3 NATNAT and Interface PAT with additional PAT together

Pre-8.3 NAT8.3 NATTwice NAT with both source IP, Dest IP and Source port, Dest port change.

On the inside:Source IP: 10.30.97.129Dest IP: 10.30.97.200Source port: 5300Dest port: any port

On the outside:Source IP: Interface IPDest IP: 172.16.1.10Source port: 5300Dest port: 1022

8.3 NATStatic NAT for a Range of Ports

8.3 NAT

Not Possible - Need to write multiple Statements or perform a Static one-to-one NATOriginal Ports: 10000 - 10010Translated ports: 20000 - 20010

NAT Order of Operation behavior starting OS 8.3

Here they are starting from higher priority to lower, as displayed in show nat command.

Section 1. Manual NAT policiesSection 2. Auto NAT policiesSection 3. Manual NAT policies

Here are some descriptions, as displayed in show running nat command.

Manual NAT policies (Section 1)

The NAT commands with source parameter are part of this section. Illustration is as follows.

nat (Inside,any) source dynamic [SOURCE DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT real] [SOURCE DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT shown as] destination static [DEST DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT real] [DEST DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT shown as]

nat (Outside,any) source dynamic [SOURCE DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT real] [SOURCE DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT shown as] destination static [DEST DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT real] [DEST DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT shown as]

nat (Inside,Outside) source static [SOURCE DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT real] [SOURCE DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT shown as] destination static [DEST DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT real] [DEST DEFINED NETWORK OBJECT shown as]

Auto NAT policies (Section 2)

The NAT commands with combination of object network and nat commands are part of this section. Illustration is as follows.

object network [OBJECT NETWORK NAME defining the real IP address]nat (Inside,Outside) static [shown-as IP address]

Manual NAT policies (Section 3)

The NAT commands with after-auto parameter are part of this section. Illustration is as follows.

nat (Inside,Outside) after-auto source dynamic [OBJECT NETWORK NAME defining the real IP address] interface

OS and Hardware Compatibility

Thinking of upgrading to certain OS version? Check the following link to verify your hardware compatibility.Cisco ASA Compatibility

Hair Pinning feature

OS version 8.3 or later

nat (outside,outside)ASA: 8.3 "Nat U-turn" Example - RA VPN Client traffic

Application Inspection

Cisco documentationConfiguring Special Actions for Application Inspections (Inspection Policy Map)

New Features starting OS version 9.2

Finally ASA firewall supports BGP among other things as noted below.Release Notes for the Cisco ASA Series, 9.2(x)

Licenses

For those who are eager to get their hands on ASA or PIX Firewall, they need to consider the license factor. With either ASA or PIX Firewall, you should get the one with Unlimited Inside Hosts instead of 10 or 50 Inside Hosts. For PIX Firewall, one with Unrestricted license has more features compared to one with Restricted license; while one with the Failover license can only work as backup firewall of the Unrestricted license. For ASA, one with Security Plus license supports more features similarly. Both Inside Hosts number and license type that firewall carries can be verified through the show version.

Upgrading from lower license to higher license may cost you dearly where at that point, getting a new firewall with higher license may cost you less compared to upgrade your existing firewall to have higher license.

You can check out the following discussion for some illustration.»[HELP] Upgrade ASA 5505 License

Failover in ASA

When stateful failover is enabled, the Active unit continually passes per-connection state information to the Standby unit. After a failover occurs, the same connection information is available at the new active unit. Supported end-user applications are not required to reconnect to keep the same communication session.

The state information passed to the Standby unit includes these:

* The NAT translation table* The TCP connection states* The UDP connection states* The ARP table* The Layer 2 bridge table (when it runs in the transparent firewall mode)* The HTTP connection states (if HTTP replication is enabled)* The ISAKMP and IPSec SA table* The GTP PDP connection database

The information that is not passed to the Standby unit when stateful failover is enabled includes these:

* The HTTP connection table (unless HTTP replication is enabled)* The user authentication (uauth) table* The routing tables* State information for security service modules

If failover occurs within an active Cisco IP SoftPhone session let's say, the call remains active because the call session state information is replicated to the standby unit. When the call is terminated, the IP SoftPhone client loses connection with the Call Manager. This occurs because there is no session information for the CTIQBE hang-up message on the standby unit. When the IP SoftPhone client does not receive a response back from the Call Manager within a certain time period, it considers the Call Manager unreachable and unregisters itself.

After all this replication happens the ASA assume the active ip address and send a gratuitous arp to the devices on the network so they can update their ARP entries.

A better solution to implement failover perhaps is to use a virtual mac address, similar to Cisco HSRP mechanism. If you will use the Virtual mac address for failover then the ARP entries will not get changed and there will be no timeout anywhere on the network. If you are not using the virtual mac address and failover occurs, the arp entries will be changed; and when the new device takes over the active state then it will send the gratuitous arp.

Redundant and Port Channel Interfaces

Redundant Interface

A logical redundant interface is a pair of one active and one standby physical interface. When the active interface fails, the standby interface becomes active.

The firewall will remove all interface settings when adding the physical interface to a redundant group.

The logical redundant interface will take the MAC address of the first interface added to the group, because this will also become the active interface. This MAC address is not changed with the member interface failures, but changes when you swap the order of the physical interfaces added to the pair; optionally, a vMAC can be configured for the redundant interface. With redundant interfaces, the nameif, security-level, and IP address configuration is done at the logical interface level. This feature is not preemptive.

Etherchannel (Port Channel)

In Etherchannel configuration, ASA supports both active and passive modes; where active initiates the LACP negotiation, and passive expects to receive LACP negotiations. The logical portchannel interface will take the MAC address of the lowest number interface from the group; optionally, a vMAC can be configured for the etherchannel interface.

Sample Configuration

interface Ethernet0/0no nameifno security-levelno ip address

interface Ethernet0/2no nameifno security-levelno ip address

interface Redundant1member-interface Ethernet0/0member-interface Ethernet0/2nameif OUTSIDEsecurity-level 0ip address 136.1.34.17 255.255.255.0

interface Ethernet0/1channel-group 1 mode passiveno nameifno security-levelno ip address

interface Ethernet0/3channel-group 1 mode passiveno nameifno security-levelno ip address

interface Port-channel1lacp max-bundle 2 port-channel load-balance src-dst-ip-portnameif INSIDEsecurity-level 100ip address 136.1.93.17 255.255.255.0

Check ARP table on router side to confirm that MAC address fo the first ASA interfaces added to the group show up here.Switch configurations to support these features.

Redundant interface configs:Ether-channel config:

The Woes of Using an ASA as a Default Gateway

Consider the following network setup, where the ASA firewall runs OS version 8.2.

Requirements:

* Hosts Must Use 10.1.1.100 as their Gateway* ASA Must Direct Traffic Destined to 100.1.1.0/24 to 10.1.1.200* ASA Must Perform PAT (NAT Overload) for traffic going to the Internet* No STATICs or ACL for inbound traffic

At first glance, this seems really simple. We've all done this with routers, so we just need the ASA equivalent of ip route 100.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.200. Right? That should be easy. Let's just go ahead and configure up our ASA for PAT and then add the static route.

interface ethernet0/1nameif insidesecurity-level 100ip address 10.1.1.100 255.255.255.0!interface ethernet0/0nameif outsidesecurity-level 0ip address 66.49.27.1 255.255.255.0!global (outside) 1 interfacenat (inside) 1 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0!route outside 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 66.49.27.153route inside 100.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.200

Well that was easy, but does it work? When you try to ping something on 100.1.1.0/24 from a host that is using the ASA as a default gateway, you will find that it fails. You've seen that before, right? Remember, we always have to turn on ICMP inspection on ASA's. The shortcut for that is:

fixup protocol icmp

Great, but it still doesn't work. Then it hits you. The ASA is a product that came from the PIX firewall. The PIX, if you recall, will never forward a packet out the same interface it was received on. But the ASA was supposed to allow this with a strange command.

same-security-traffic permit intra-interface

That's still not too bad, if that was all you actually had to do. Unfortunately it still doesn't seem to work. Maybe we better take a look at how the ASA is processing our ICMP echo. We can issue a command like packet-tracer input inside icmp 10.1.1.50 0 0 100.1.1.20. That will show us all of the steps that the ASA goes through when processing the packet. What you will find is that the ASA is actually trying to do NAT and there is a missing global statement for the inside interface. But we don't really want to do NAT for traffic to or from our third party network. So we need to write a NAT exemption rule and test our connectivity once again.

access-list NONAT_inside-outside extended permit ip any 100.1.1.0 255.255.255.0nat (inside) 0 access-list NONAT_inside-outside

Now let's ping something in 100.1.1.0/24 from one of our hosts again. Success! It should be working at this point, but we're not done yet. Try using the TCP protocol to reach something at 100.1.1.0/24. If you look at this in Wireshark, you'll probably see something like SYN, SYN-ACK, ACK, RST or SYN, SYN-ACK, ACK, ACT (Retrans), ACK (Retrans). What is going on? The ASA is actually trying to create a session for the TCP connection. It is actually inspecting the TCP traffic. Since the router delivers the second part of the three-way handshake directly to the host, the ASA never sees the "SYN-ACK". Therefore, the ASA doesn't believe the three-way handshake has occurred and does not allow the third packet. Well that just sucks. The ASA is trying to create a traffic session that doesn't even go through the appliance. What to do?

ASA OS 8.2 introduced a feature called TCP State Bypass. That allows the ASA to pass traffic without validating the TCP state. The configuration of that uses the modular policy framework (MPF).

access-list STATEBYPASS extended permit ip any 100.1.1.0 255.255.255.0!class-map STATEBYPASSmatch access-list STATEBYPASSpolicy-map STATEBYPASSclass STATEBYPASSset connection advanced-options tcp-state-bypass!service-policy STATEBYPASS interface inside

Now a test using TCP from one of the hosts to something on 100.1.1.0/24 should succeed. What else should we do? Anytime I am doing anything strange with NAT on the ASA, I disable proxy-arp. This case shouldn't require it, but I have had cases where the ASA responds to ARPs that it shouldn't and it's really hard to track down. So for good measure, I would add the following command.

sysopt noproxyarp inside

The final configuration looks something like the following:

interface ethernet0/1nameif insidesecurity-level 100ip address 10.1.1.100 255.255.255.0!interface ethernet0/0nameif outsidesecurity-level 0ip address 66.49.27.1 255.255.255.0!nat (inside) 0 access-list NONAT_inside-outsidenat (inside) 1 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0!global (outside) 1 interface!route outside 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 66.49.27.153route inside 100.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.200!access-list NONAT_inside-outside extended permit ip any 100.1.1.0 255.255.255.0!access-list STATEBYPASS extended permit ip any 100.1.1.0 255.255.255.0!same-security-interface permit intra-interface!class-map STATEBYPASSmatch access-list STATEBYPASSpolicy-map STATEBYPASSclass STATEBYPASSset connection advanced-options tcp-state-bypass!service-policy STATEBYPASS interface inside!sysopt noproxyarp inside

In conclusion, the ASA is not a router. The network setup is also not recommended. A best practice in this case is to not having ASA as default gateway, rather using a router or Layer-3 switch. Any traffic destined to the 100.1.1.0/24 (or anything internal) should not reach the ASA to avoid confusion.

Different approach would be having the router serving the 100.1.1.0/24 to terminate at one of the ASA's DMZ interface. In other words, there would be one DMZ interface dedicated for reaching 100.1.1.0/24 in addition to the existing inside and outside networks. The router's LAN interface is no longer part of the 10.1.1.0/24, rather to be part of the DMZ LAN interface. The 10.1.1.0/24 remains part of inside network, still having the 10.1.1.100 ASA inside interface IP address as default gateway.

This solution is recommended when the 100.1.1.0/24 is managed-services network, part of business partner network, or has lower security level or less trusted network compared to inside network. There would be a need to assign new network to be the DMZ LAN interface part of, which ought to be a simple process.

As mentioned, this illustration assumes OS version 8.2 or later. If you are using PIX or ASA running older OS version, features described might not be available. Regardless going through the exercise of making the ASA behave like a router can help you understand some of the logic and processing order of the firewall appliance.

Single vs. Multiple Context

»ASA LLQ

Discussions

[Config] Crossing internal networks[Config] Which route will be used....?[Config] Question about a pix 506eFirewallsCisco ASA latest version VPN issue



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ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
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ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [746 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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IBM [1530 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [269 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





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HP HP0-277 Exam (OpenVMS Version 7.x to 8.2 Migration) Detailed Information



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