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000-302 DB2 9 Database and Application(R) Fundamentals - Academic Initiative

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000-302 exam Dumps Source : DB2 9 Database and Application(R) Fundamentals - Academic Initiative

Test Code : 000-302
Test denomination : DB2 9 Database and Application(R) Fundamentals - Academic Initiative
Vendor denomination : IBM
exam questions : 188 existent Questions

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IBM DB2 9 Database and

IBM Db2 query Optimization the usage of AI | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

In September 2018, IBM announced a brand recent product, IBM Db2 AI for z/OS. This synthetic intelligence engine monitors facts entry patterns from executing SQL statements, makes employ of machine studying algorithms to opt for superior patterns and passes this counsel to the Db2 query optimizer to live used by means of subsequent statements.

machine studying on the IBM z Platform

In may additionally of 2018, IBM announced edition 1.2 of its computing device studying for z/OS (MLz) product. here is a hybrid zServer and cloud software suite that ingests performance records, analyzes and builds models that signify the fitness reputation of a number of symptoms, displays them over time and provides precise-time scoring capabilities.

several facets of this product offering are aimed at assisting a group of model builders and managers. for example:

  • It helps assorted programming languages such as Python, Scala and R. This enables information modelers and scientists to get employ of a language with which they are universal;
  • A graphical user interface called the visible mannequin Builder courses mannequin builders with out requiring incredibly-technical programming skills;
  • It contains distinctive dashboards for monitoring mannequin outcomes and scoring capabilities, as well as controlling the device configuration.
  • This computing device getting to know suite was at the genesis aimed toward zServer-primarily based analytics purposes. one of the crucial first obtrusive selections was zSystem performance monitoring and tuning. device administration Facility (SMF) records that are automatically generated through the working rig give the raw information for system resource consumption corresponding to vital processor usage, I/O processing, reminiscence paging and so on. IBM MLz can collect and save these facts over time, and construct and train fashions of system conduct, ranking these behaviors, identify patterns not with ease foreseen by passage of humans, expand key performance indicators (KPIs) and then feed the model effects lower back into the rig to affect device configuration alterations that can better efficiency.

    The subsequent step turned into to implement this suite to investigate Db2 performance statistics. One solution, called the IBM Db2 IT Operational Analytics (Db2 ITOA) solution template, applies the computer researching technology to Db2 operational records to benefit an figuring out of Db2 subsystem fitness. it might probably dynamically construct baselines for key efficiency warning signs, give a dashboard of these KPIs and give operational corpse of workers precise-time insight into Db2 operations.

    whereas approved Db2 subsystem performance is a crucial factor in generic application fitness and performance, IBM estimates that the DBA usher workforce spends 25% or greater of its time, " ... combating entry course complications which cause performance degradation and repair beget an impact on.". (See Reference 1).

    AI involves Db2

    trust the plight of concurrent DBAs in a Db2 environment. In modern-day IT world they beget to benefit one or greater stout records applications, cloud application and database features, application setting up and configuration, Db2 subsystem and application performance tuning, database definition and management, catastrophe recovery planning, and greater. question tuning has been in actuality when you consider that the origins of the database, and DBAs are usually tasked with this as well.

    The heart of query direction analysis in Db2 is the Optimizer. It accepts SQL statements from purposes, verifies authority to entry the information, studies the locations of the objects to live accessed and develops a list of candidate records access paths. These access paths can encompass indexes, desk scans, a variety of desk live a fraction of strategies and others. in the statistics warehouse and stout facts environments there are always additional decisions accessible. One of those is the actuality of summary tables (from time to time called materialized question tables) that comprise pre-summarized or aggregated statistics, as a consequence allowing Db2 to withhold away from re-aggregation processing. yet another altenative is the starjoin entry route, regular in the information warehouse, the locality the order of desk joins is modified for performance motives.

    The Optimizer then studies the candidate entry paths and chooses the access path, "with the lowest charge." can suffuse during this context means a weighted summation of aid usage together with CPU, I/O, remembrance and other resources. ultimately, the Optimizer takes the lowest can suffuse access course, outlets it in reminiscence (and, optionally, in the Db2 directory) and begins access direction execution.

    huge information and data warehouse operations now encompass application suites that allow the company analyst to get employ of a graphical interface to construct and manipulate a miniature statistics model of the statistics they want to analyze. The applications then generate SQL statements in keeping with the clients’ requests.

    The issue for the DBA

    with a view to Do decent analytics to your sunder facts stores you requisite a distinguished realizing of the statistics requirements, an figuring out of the analytical capabilities and algorithms accessible and a high-performance information infrastructure. sadly, the quantity and location of facts sources is increasing (each in measurement and in geography), records sizes are becoming, and applications continue to proliferate in quantity and complexity. How may noiseless IT managers assist this ambiance, mainly with probably the most skilled and age staff nearing retirement?

    remember additionally that a great a fraction of cutting back the overall cost of possession of these programs is to obtain Db2 purposes to sprint faster and greater efficaciously. This continually translates into the employ of fewer CPU cycles, doing fewer I/Os and transporting much less statistics throughout the community. since it's regularly intricate to even identify which functions may odds from efficiency tuning, one system is to automate the detection and correction of tuning considerations. here's where computer studying and synthetic intelligence can likewise live used to first rate effect.

    Db2 12 for z/OS and simulated Intelligence

    Db2 edition 12 on z/OS makes employ of the desktop studying facilities outlined above to acquire and save SQL question textual content and entry route particulars, in addition to specific performance-connected ancient suggestions comparable to CPU time used, elapsed instances and result set sizes. This providing, described as Db2 AI for z/OS, analyzes and outlets the statistics in desktop discovering fashions, with the mannequin analysis effects then being scored and made obtainable to the Db2 Optimizer. The next time a scored SQL remark is encountered, the Optimizer can then employ the mannequin scoring statistics as enter to its access route altenative algorithm.

    The outcome should noiseless live a reduction in CPU consumption because the Optimizer makes employ of mannequin scoring enter to select stronger access paths. This then lowers CPU charges and speeds application response times. a major skills is that using AI utility does not require the DBA to beget information science talents or profound insights into query tuning methodologies. The Optimizer now chooses the most efficacious entry paths based mostly not handiest on SQL query syntax and records distribution statistics but on modelled and scored historical efficiency.

    This can likewise live particularly captious if you shop statistics in diverse places. as an instance, many analytical queries against huge information require concurrent access to unavoidable data warehouse tables. These tables are frequently known as dimension tables, and they comprise the records facets constantly used to manipulate subsetting and aggregation. as an example, in a retail atmosphere dependence a table referred to as StoreLocation that enumerates every store and its locality code. Queries towards store income data may likewise are looking to admixture or summarize sales by passage of region; therefore, the StoreLocation table should live used with the aid of some huge facts queries. during this environment it's criterion to rear the dimension tables and duplicate them continuously to the great facts utility. in the IBM world this vicinity is the IBM Db2 Analytics Accelerator (IDAA).

    Now believe about SQL queries from both operational applications, records warehouse clients and stout statistics enterprise analysts. From Db2's perspective, everysingle these queries are equal, and are forwarded to the Optimizer. although, in the case of operational queries and warehouse queries they should noiseless certainly live directed to access the StoreLocation desk in the warehouse. however, the question from the commerce analyst towards massive statistics tables should probably access the copy of the table there. This effects in a proliferations of abilities entry paths, and greater labor for the Optimizer. thankfully, Db2 AI for z/OS can supply the Optimizer the suggestions it needs to get sapient access direction choices.

    how it Works

    The sequence of activities in Db2 AI for z/OS (See Reference 2) is commonly birthright here:

  • all over a bind, rebind, achieve together or clarify operation, an SQL remark is passed to the Optimizer;
  • The Optimizer chooses the facts entry direction; as the altenative is made, Db2 AI captures the SQL syntax, access path altenative and query performance statistics (CPU used, and many others.) and passes it to a "studying assignment";
  • The studying assignment, which may likewise live carried out on a zIIP processor (a non-conventional-purpose CPU core that does not component into software licensing charges), interfaces with the desktop learning software (MLz mannequin features) to store this suggestions in a mannequin;
  • as the amount of data in each model grows, the MLz Scoring provider (which can likewise live carried out on a zIIP processor) analyzes the mannequin information and ratings the habits;
  • throughout the next bind, rebind, prepare or clarify, the Optimizer now has access to the scoring for SQL models, and makes applicable alterations to access route selections.
  • There are likewise a variety of person interfaces that provide the administrator visibility to the status of the amassed SQL statement performance statistics and mannequin scoring.

    summary

    IBM's desktop discovering for zOS (MLz) providing is getting used to remarkable impact in Db2 version 12 to enrich the efficiency of analytical queries as well as operational queries and their associated applications. This requires administration consideration, as you requisite to verify that your company is ready to ingest these ML and AI conclusions. How will you measure the costs and advantages of the employ of machine studying? Which IT assist workforce requisite to live tasked to reviewing the outcomes of mannequin scoring, and perhaps approving (or overriding) the outcomes? How will you evaluation and justify the assumptions that the application makes about access course choices?

    In different words, how well were you conscious your facts, its distribution, its integrity and your present and proposed access paths? this can assess the locality the DBAs disburse their time in aiding analytics and operational software performance.

    # # #

    Reference 1

    John Campbell, IBM Db2 wonderful EngineerFrom "IBM Db2 AI for z/OS: enhance IBM Db2 utility efficiency with machine researching"https://www.worldofdb2.com/hobbies/ibm-db2-ai-for-z-os-raise-ibm-db2-software-performance-with-ma

    Reference 2

    Db2 AI for z/OShttps://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSGKMA_1.1.0/src/ai/ai_home.html

    See everysingle articles by passage of Lockwood Lyon


    knowing IBM DB2: Product tradition and approach | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    right here is an excerpt from understanding DB2: learning visually with examples, 2nd edition, via Raul Chong,...

    Xiaomei Wang, Michael Dang and Dwaine Snow. it is reprinted birthright here with consent from exotic commerce Machines agency; Copyright 2008. read the reserve excerpt below or down load a free .pdf of the chapter: "knowing IBM DB2: Product tradition and approach."

    Database 2 (DB2) for Linux, UNIX, and windows is an information server developed by using IBM. edition 9.5, attainable in view that October 2007, is essentially the most present edition of the product, and the one on which they focus in this publication.

    during this chapter you're going to live taught concerning the following:

  • The history of DB2
  • The counsel management portfolio of products
  • How DB2 is developed
  • DB2 server variations and clients
  • How DB2 is packaged for builders
  • Syntax diagram conventions
  • 1.1 brief history of DB2

    in view that the 1970s, when IBM analysis invented the Relational mannequin and the Structured query Language (SQL), IBM has developed an entire family unit of statistics servers. pile begun on mainframe platforms such as virtual machine (VM), digital Storage extended (VSE), and numerous virtual Storage (MVS). In 1983, DB2 for MVS edition 1 was born. "DB2" turned into used to point out a shift from hierarchical databases—such because the assistance administration system (IMS) time-honored on the time—to the brand recent relational databases. DB2 pile continued on mainframe platforms in addition to on disbursed structures.1 design 1.1 suggests one of the vital highlights of DB2 history.

    determine 1.1 DB2 timeline

    In 1996, IBM introduced DB2 typical Database (UDB) version 5 for allotted structures. With this version, DB2 turned into able to withhold everysingle kinds of electronic statistics, together with typical relational statistics, as well as audio, video, and textual content documents. It changed into the primary version optimized for the web, and it supported a number dispensed platforms—as an example, OS/2, home windows, AIX, HP-UX, and Solaris—from distinctive providers. moreover, this criterion database became capable of sprint on loads of hardware, from uniprocessor methods and symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) systems to hugely parallel processing (MPP) methods and clusters of SMP systems.

    despite the fact that the relational model to shop facts is essentially the most prevalent in the trade today, the hierarchical mannequin under no circumstances lost its significance. in the past few years, because of the popularity of eXtensible Markup Language (XML), a resurgence in the employ of the hierarchical mannequin has taken area. XML, a flexible, self-describing language, relies on the hierarchical mannequin to withhold facts. With the emergence of recent web applied sciences, the should shop unstructured forms of statistics, and to share and alternate information between organizations, XML proves to live the ultimate language to meet these wants. today they descry an exponential growth of XML files utilization.

    IBM diagnosed early on the moment of XML, and stout investments were made to deliver pureXML expertise; a technology that offers for more desirable usher to withhold XML files in DB2. After five years of building, the hassle of 750 developers, architects, and engineers paid off with the liberate of the primary hybrid information server in the market: DB2 9. DB2 9, purchasable considering July 2006, is a hybrid (also referred to as multi-structured) facts server because it enables for storing relational records, as well as hierarchical statistics, natively. whereas different facts servers in the market, and former types of DB2 could store XML files, the storage formula used changed into no longer most fulfilling for efficiency and flexibility. With DB2 9's pureXML know-how, XML documents are saved internally in a parsed hierarchical method, as a tree; therefore, working with XML files is drastically more suitable. In 2007, IBM has gone even extra in its benefit for pureXML, with the liberate of DB2 9.5. DB2 9.5, the latest version of DB2, not handiest enhances and introduces recent elements of pureXML, however additionally brings improvements in installing, manageability, administration, scalability and efficiency, workload administration and monitoring, regulatory compliance, problem decision, back for software construction, and back for company colleague purposes.

    DB2 is purchasable for many systems together with rig z (DB2 for z/OS) and system i (DB2 for i5/OS). until in any other case cited, after they employ the time epoch DB2, they are relating to DB2 edition 9.5 running on Linux, UNIX, or home windows.

    DB2 is a component of the IBM tips administration (IM) portfolio. table 1.1 suggests the sunder IM items obtainable.

    desk 1.1 assistance administration items

    assistance management items Description Product choices data servers deliver software features for the at ease and productive administration of information and enable the sharing of tips throughout dissimilar structures IBM DB2IBM IMSIBM InformixIBM U2 facts warehousing and enterprise intelligence support valued clientele bring together, achieve together, manage, analyze, and extract efficacious recommendation from everysingle data types to assist them get sooner, more insightful commerce decisions. DB2 AlphabloxDB2 dice ViewsDB2 Warehouse EditionDB2 query management Facility commercial enterprise content material management & discovery manage content, manner, and connectivity. The content material comprises both structured and unstructured records, reminiscent of e-mails, electronic types, photos, digital media, word processing documents, and web content. operate commerce search and discovery of tips. DB2 content ManagerDB2 timehonored StoreDB2 CM OnDemandDB2 statistics ManagerFileNet P8 and its add-on suitesOmniFind counsel integration compile allotted suggestions from heterogeneous environments. organizations view their recommendation as if it were everysingle animate in a separate location. IBM recommendation Server integration utility platform, such as:- WebSphere Federation Server- WebSphere Replication Server- WebSphere DataStage- WebSphere ProfileStage- WebSphere QualityStage- WebSphere information-features Director- WebSphere Metadata Server- WebSphere enterprise thesaurus- WebSphere records sustain publisher

    1.2 The office of DB2 in the tips on claim world

    IBM's direction or system is in keeping with some key concepts and technologies:

    On-Demand BusinessInformation On claim (IOD)service-Oriented architecture (SOA)internet ServicesXML

    during this section they recount each and every of these ideas, and they define the locality DB2 fits in the strategy.

    1.2.1 On-Demand company

    We are animate in a fancy world with complicated desktop techniques where trade is a constant. on the very time, purchasers are becoming greater annoying and fewer tolerant of mistakes. In a difficult ambiance enjoy this, agencies requisite to react instantly to market alterations; in any other case, they will live left in the back of with the aid of competitors. so as to react immediately, a enterprise must live built-in and flexible. In different phrases, a company today needs to live an on-demand enterprise.

    An on-demand business, as described via IBM, is "an enterprise whose commerce methods -- integrated End to conclusion across the enterprise and with key companions, suppliers and customers -- can reply with precipitate to any customer demand, market possibility, or external danger."

    IBM's on-demand enterprise model is in line with this definition. To assist the on-demand model, IBM uses the e-enterprise framework shown in design 1.2.

    determine 1.2 The IBM e-company framework

    In design 1.2 the dotted line divides the analytic ideas at the exact with the physical implementation at the bottom. Conceptually, the IBM e-business framework is based on the on-demand enterprise mannequin working environment, which has 4 criterion characteristics: it's integrated, open, virtualized, and autonomic. These traits are defined later in this part. The enviornment under the dotted line illustrates how this atmosphere is carried out with the aid of the suite of IBM utility products.

  • Rational is the "construct" utility portfolio; it is used to strengthen utility.
  • information management (the locality DB2 belongs) and WebSphere are the "run" utility portfolios; they shop and manipulate your records and control your functions.
  • Tivoli is the "manage" software portfolio; it integrates, provides safety, and manages your criterion systems.
  • Lotus is the "collaborate" software portfolio used for integration, messaging, and collaboration throughout everysingle of the different utility portfolios.
  • The IBM DB2 software performs a distinguished position within the on-demand operating ambiance. everysingle facets of the information management portfolio, together with DB2, are developed with the four essential qualities of the on-demand enterprise model in intellect.

  • built-in: DB2 application has built-in usher for both Microsoft and Java construction environments. it's likewise integrated into WebSphere, Tivoli, Lotus, and Rational items. moreover, the DB2 family unit has pass-platform capabilities and can live built-in natively with internet functions and message-queuing applied sciences. It additionally gives back for heterogeneous records sources for each structured and unstructured suggestions, together with pureXML assist.
  • Open: DB2 software allows for for distinctive technologies to connect and integrate by following specifications. for this reason, it offers powerful usher for the Linux working rig and for Java, XML, internet capabilities, grid computing, and different most distinguished industry applications.
  • Virtualized: Grid computing know-how, a kind of dispensed computing, collects and shares elements in a great community to simulate one enormous, digital desktop. DB2 utility items back grid computing expertise through federation and integration technologies. each of these are discussed in more detail later in this chapter.
  • Autonomic: An autonomic computing device manages, repairs, and protects itself. As techniques eddy into greater complicated, autonomic computing systems will eddy into basic. DB2 gives self-tuning capabilities, dynamic adjustment and tuning, criterion and reticent setting up strategies, and integration with Tivoli for rig protection and management.
  • The bottom of determine 1.2 indicates the operating systems through which the IBM software suite can operate: Linux, UNIX, home windows, i5/OS, and z/OS. below that, the servers, storage, and network An on-demand company depends upon having guidance attainable on demand, every time it is required, by passage of americans, equipment, or applications. counsel On claim is mentioned in the subsequent section.

    1.2.2 tips On Demand

    information On Demand, as its denomination implies, is making suggestions accessible every time individuals, tools, or applications claim or request it. This can likewise live made viable by means of featuring suggestions as a service. IBM often makes employ of the illustration in design 1.3 to define what "tips as a service" capacity. Let's employ the following instance to clarify this conception in a more enjoyable means. hope you're the frequent supervisor of a grocery store, and your leading purpose is to get this commerce ecocnomic. to accomplish this, you should get auspicious decisions, equivalent to the passage to monitor items on shelves so that they promote greater. in order to get decent selections, you requisite to beget up-todate, official assistance.

    figure 1.three counsel as a carrier

    As depicted at the backside of design 1.three, many agencies today beget a huge number of heterogeneous sources of suggestions. For this particular illustration let's anticipate your suppliers employ SAP and DB2, your revenue arm uses an internally developed utility, your smaller supermarket valued clientele employ Peoplesoft, and Oracle, and the like. accordingly, you descry several heterogeneous purposes with semi-raw facts, on the passage to best live profitable to you if you can integrate everysingle of them. with a purpose to integrate the information, it must live offered as a carrier, and here is viable through the employ of specifications equivalent to JDBC and ODBC, and wrapping each and every of those purposes as an internet provider. once the facts are built-in, you might likewise reach up with decisions that may not were analytic otherwise, akin to inserting beer and diapers in the equal aisle in an pains to sell greater of both products.

    With the information integrated that you may additional massage it to operate some additional analysis and obtain insightful relationships. This further massaging of the facts can live carried out by passage of different application, comparable to entity analytics, master facts, and so forth as shown on the correct aspect of the figure. at last, this integrated facts can likewise live handed to different techniques, tools and purposes, and individuals for additional analysis.

    1.2.3 carrier-Oriented architecture

    carrier-Oriented structure (SOA), as its denomination implies, is an architecture based on services -- mainly internet functions. SOA isn't a product, however a technique, a system to design systems that permit for integration, flexibility, loosely coupled components, and more advantageous code reuse. With this structure, enterprise actions are handled as features that will likewise live accessed on claim during the network.

    figure 1.4, which is additionally used in many IBM displays, depicts the SOA lifecycle. It contains 4 iterative steps or ranges—mannequin, bring together, deploy, manage—and a fifth step that offers counsel during the cycle: Governance & techniques.

    figure 1.4 The SOA Lifecycle

    A more specific clarification of each stage within the SOA lifecycle is equipped in table 1.2.

    SOA stageDescription IBM tools That can likewise live Used bring togetherThis stage is about constructing recent features and/or reusing latest ones, and assembling them to profile composite purposes. WebSphere Integration DeveloperRational utility Developer deploy in this stage your capabilities and applications are deployed birthright into a cozy atmosphere that integrates people, methods, and suggestions within your enterprise. WebSphere manner ServerWebSphere Message BrokerWebSphere associate GatewayWebSphere PortalWebSphere Everyplace DeploymentWorkplace Collaboration ServicesWebSphere suggestions IntegratorWebSphere utility Server controlIn this stage, you deserve to manipulate and video parade your gadget, determine and correct inefficiencies and complications, rear supervision of security, satisfactory of provider, and established device administration. DB2 content ManagerWebSphere company MonitorTivoli Composite ApplicationManager for SOATivoli id manager Governance Governance underpins the entire lifecycle degrees. It ensures that everysingle of the features from interior and outside the solid arecontrolled so the system doesn't spin out of manage. Governance offers each course and manage. N/A

    1.2.four internet services

    a web provider, as its identify implies, is a carrier made purchasable throughout the web. A extra formal, however nonetheless fundamental definition states that a web service is a means for an application to denomination a feature over the community; besides the fact that children, there isn't any should recognize

  • The location where this characteristic might live done
  • The platform wherein the office will sprint (as an specimen Linux, UNIX, home windows, the mainframe, Mac OS/X, and many others.)
  • The programming language in which the feature turned into created (for instance Java, Cobol, C, and so on.)
  • web functions are powerful as a result of they allow corporations to change information with minimal or no human intervention. Let's shuffle back to the supermarket instance to descry the vim of internet services in a more simple scenario:

    let's affirm you order one hundred,000 cookies from a supplier, expecting everysingle of them to live sold in one month. After the month passes handiest 60,000 are bought, so that you are left with 40,000. as a result of these are cookies of a unique type, they'll damage in two weeks. You deserve to act speedy and promote them to other smaller supermarkets or cyber web businesses corresponding to Amazon.com or eBay. that you could grab the cell and disburse an entire morning calling each of the smaller supermarket customers, offering them as many cookies as they would want to purchase from you; or you might rear a more "technical" system and expand a simple application that could Do that for you instantly. Assuming each of those smaller grocery store valued clientele supply web services, you may boost an application (in any programming language) that lets you SQL insert overstocked objects, such because the 40,000 cookies, birthright into a DB2 database desk overstock. You might then profile a trigger on this desk which invokes a DB2 stored procedure (extra about triggers and kept processes in Chapter 7, Working with Database Objects) that might ingest net features provided by the information superhighway corporations or the smaller supermarket shoppers. This situation is depicted in determine 1.5.

    figure 1.5 using an internet carrier

    As that you can descry from design 1.5, the basic act of inserting 40,000 cookies through your utility into the table overstock in the DB2 server enables the systems of many smaller supermarkets and information superhighway groups, through the employ of their internet features, to get the cookies purchasable on their programs birthright now, opening recent sales channels. In design 1.5, DB2 is behaving as a web service buyer, because it is the employ of or "consuming" the web capabilities, while the smaller supermarket consumers and web groups are behaving because the net service providers, because they're making these internet features purchasable for others to use. For simplicity applications, they now beget disregarded in design 1.5 the denomination to a saved system. This status of affairs shows the energy of web services: company-to-enterprise trade of tips using functions. There is no want for human intervention. DB2 and web functions will live discussed in more detail in Chapter 10, mastering the DB2 pureXML support.

    1.2.5 XML

    XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. XML's popularity and employ has grown exponentially in the past few years, as it is a core fraction of many recent technologies. The easiest passage to recall how XML works is by passage of evaluating it to HTML, considering that many americans today are customary with HTML. Let's rear a recognize on the following line in an HTML doc:

    RaulIn the above line, the tag indicates the style you might enjoy to screen the textual content, during this case, Raul in bold. Now Let's rear a glance at the following line in an XML doc: Raul within the above line, the tag describes the textual content Raul. The tag is epigram that Raul is truly a name. descry the change? In HTML, tags are used to point out how you would want to screen the statistics; in XML, tags are used to truly recount the statistics. table 1.3 describes the qualities of XML. table 1.3 features of XML XML attribute Description bendyXML is a multifarious language since it is smooth to modify or adapt. XML is according to a hierarchical mannequin, which is most applicable to withhold unstructured styles of guidance corresponding to monetary assistance, lifestyles sciences suggestions (for specimen Genome, DNA), and so forth. handy to expandXML is effortless to prolong; that is, that you can create your own tags. for instance, moreover the tag within the illustration above, you might create recent tags similar to , , and so on. This means which you can create your personal language or protocol in keeping with XML. Describes itself XML can recount itself; another document known as an XML Schema (which itself is an XML doc) is used to deliver suggestions and descriptions as to what every of the tags in a doc imply and avoid the class of data the tags can include. An older system, however nonetheless common these days, is to employ DTD documents. within the above example, an XML Schema or DTD doc can witness that the tag can handiest live used to shop characters. will likewise live converted to other codecs GXML will likewise live changed to different codecs enjoy HTML, the employ of Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT), a language used for the transformation of XML documents. independent of the platform or supplier XML is independent of the platform or vendor; in any case, XML files can live saved in text data containing tags. textual content documents are supported in every separate place. effortless to shareXML is convenient to share with other applications, companies, and approaches considering that it will likewise live stored as a text document. since it is handy to share, it's acceptable as the core of internet services. XML is likewise on the core of net 2.0 pile applied sciences. internet 2.0, as described in Wikipedia. org "refers to a perceived 2nd generation of internet-primarily based communities and hosted functions -- such as social-networking sites, wikis, and folksonomies -- which facilitate collaboration and sharing between clients". Wikis, blogs, mash-ups, RSS or atom feeds, etc, which might live fraction of internet 2.0 pile applied sciences, are everysingle in response to or involving XML. This makes DB2 9.5 the optimal data server platform for net 2.0 building. desk 1.4 describes the distinctive technologies which are a fraction of internet 2.0. (to recognize table 1.4 and to examine extra, down load the free .pdf of this chapter.)XML is discussed in more factor in Chapter 10, mastering the DB2 pureXML help.greater informationContinue analyzing about IBM DB2 by downloading a free .pdf of the chapter: "realizing IBM DB2: Product background and method."examine other excerpts from facts administration books in the Chapter down load Library.hearken to a podcast about IBM DB2 9 certifications with Roger Sanders.

    DBI Introduces recent efficiency Monitoring facets for IBM Db2 LUW | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Jul 30, 2018

    Joyce Wells

    DBI application, a company of Db2 LUW efficiency solutions, has brought recent capabilities in its pureFeat V7 efficiency management Suite for IBM Db2 LUW.

    With this unlock, DBI is elevating performance monitoring to aid DBAs and management groups to rear supervision of the volatility of agile environments, spoke of Scott Hayes, president and founder of DBI.

    Agentless colour alternative - IBM has executed a lot of labor within the latest release of Db2 (edition 11) to get pureScale easier to use, achieve in force, and administer and, as a result, DBI has viewed more desirable adoption of pureScale over the closing one year, mentioned Hayes. To back customers obtain greater from pureScale, DBI’s newest free up adds strong Db2 pureScale performance reporting and trending, together with recent performance displays for global Bufferpools, CF Wait times, CF Processing instances, the Cluster Facility, and Member performance.

    Agentless Collector alternative - besides DBI's agent-based collector, the release provides a brand recent agentless collector alternative for monitoring cloud databases where a server login instant isn't available. The agentless collector makes it simpler to parade screen diverse databases with minimal overhead and administration and is in particular captious for monitoring cloud databases but additionally for comfort in lightweight monitoring of non-crucial databases, pointed out Hayes.

    Database score Calculations - in keeping with DBI, many consumers recognize that the database rating offered by pureFeat helps them straight away triage databases to headquarters of attention on the worst issues first. The rating, ranging from 0-10,000, is suffuse based, assisting DBA groups to determine hidden or rising future problems.

    in the past, the "analyze database ranking" office highlighted complications and offered suggestions for resolution, but there became no indicator for the severity of the problems recognized. The feedback from clients, pointed out Hayes, turned into that they appreciated the utensil however it was no longer transparent what the worst problems beget been.

    in the recent unencumber, the variety of features subtracted for each and every issue is published in order that DBAs can withhold in intellect what the worst complications are.

    "Index Design Workbench" - DBI’s Predictive Index impact analysis (PIIA) helps Db2 clients bear in intellect the affect of adding recent indexes given SQL workloads for any timeframe, helping DBA teams to tune Db2 databases with self belief and likewise helping them profit change manage approvals greater simply.

    constructing on the success of this ability, the brand recent liberate adds the capability for DBAs to modify indexes advised by using the Design usher (add, eliminate, or reorder columns, and change kind sequences) or invent their own recent index that can likewise live passed into the affect evaluation.

    Now, valued clientele beget the faculty to eradicate columns in a counseled index or reorder columns, and if they assume they are smarter than the software, stated Hayes, they can create their own index and achieve it during the predictive impact evaluation device to recognize if it's going to actually beget the a auspicious suggestion beget an result on that they predict.

    enhanced trend Charts - one of the most favourite capabilities offered by means of DBI is the vogue charts with change sustain indicators plotted on them. besides the fact that children, in the past, it was most efficacious viable to graph unavoidable similarly scaled metrics across time on an X and Y axis. during this unlock, a brand recent Z axis altenative has been delivered, making it feasible to graph multiple metrics across time, helping to identify trigger and effect.

    as an instance, DBAs can now graph the commonplace transaction response time together with the number of existing and vigorous database connections. A DBA may descry that after the database is running 30 concurrent energetic connections, response times genesis to decelerate, pointed out Hayes.

    The requisite for speed

    With the accelerated focus on DevOps, there's extra pressure to rear changes instantly and that creates labor and stress for DBA teams, accompanied Hayes, stating that “change is an invitation for recent issues.” by providing the brand recent capabilities in this liberate, he mentioned, DBI is presenting individuals with greater insight into what's occurring inside their Db2 environments.

    For extra information, goto  www.dbisoftware.com/pureFeat-70-DB2-LUW-performance-tools.phpand DBI utility pureFeat V7 news.

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    ACADIA Pharmaceuticals' (ACAD) CEO Stephen Davis on Q4 2017 Results - Earnings convoke Transcript | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    No result found, try recent keyword!We continued to descry strong fundamentals for NUPLAZID ... $22 million of noncash stock-based compensation. Their R&D expense in the fourth quarter was $43.2 million, which included $7.9 million of noncas...

    The Best Software Ever Written | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Let's gash birthright to the chase and sprint down Babcock's 12 inaugural choices for the software hall of fame. Coming in at Number 12 is The Morris Worm. This nasty …

    >Veteran technology journalist Charles Babcock has written a terrific article for Information Week called "What's the Greatest Software Ever Written?". His selections are confident to spark a flood of e-mail responses to the weekly IT publication from software developers (who are well known to live passionate about this topic in particular). In general, though, he should obtain towering marks from most. He's clearly done his homework.

    Let's gash birthright to the chase and sprint down Babcock's 12 inaugural choices for the software hall of fame. Coming in at Number 12 is The Morris Worm. This nasty tiny program was crafted by a college student named Robert Morris, who when arrested by the FBI claimed that he had only the best intentions in intellect when he released his worm onto the world's networks and brought machines to their knees around the globe. He said he was only attempting to determine the size of the Internet. shrewd defense.

    Number 11, according to Babcock, is the Google ranking algorithm. It wasn't the first search engine, not by a long shot. But it made search friendly for even the least technical among us. "The value of an academic paper is measured by the number of times it's mentioned in other papers and footnotes," one of Babcock's sources told him. "Google adapted that convention to the Web."

    In a brilliant choice, in their opinion, Babcock slots NASA's Apollo guidance system at Number 10. Using 8 kilobytes of remembrance on a circa 1968 Raytheon computer, it controlled the systems that enabled astronauts to navigate to the moon, sunder their lunar module from its docked orbiter, descend to the sphere's surface and find their passage home again, in a round trip of a half million miles. Not sinister for something so tiny.

    Babcock's Number 9 is Microsoft Excel. His rationale? Spreadsheet programs had been around for years before the folks at Redmond took their stab at one; but when they did, they got things right. And then went about the commerce of making their competitors obsolete.

    Number 8 on the list is the original Macintosh OS. It has been duly criticized as being derivative, taking much of its inspiration from Xerox's Alto, one of the very first personal computers. Rightly so. But greatness is likewise measured by success and historical impact, Babcock argues. The original Mac was a landmark OS.

    The Number 7 position goes to American Airline's Sabre reservation system. It was the grand-daddy of travel service automation. Sure, it had its critics in its day, including the U.S. government's anti-trust division, but it was likewise revolutionary, blazing a path in tactical and strategic commerce applications.

    Number 6 on the Babcock hit parade is the Mosaic browser. Developed by graduate students to benefit navigate the recent World Wide Web, it created a world of its own, and they beget never stopped relying on its successors ever since. Spawning everything from Netscape's Navigator to Apple's Safari, this essential app was the originator of the Internet boom.

    Registering at Number 5 is the Java programming language. Critics will point to this altenative and bemoan the "network programming language" (Time magazine's 1996 Product of the Year) as the Internet's first distinguished hype machine. Babcock admits that he was an early critic of Java, but he says that he has since reach around to admiring the sophistication of its approach.

    He gives the IBM System 360 OS the Number 4 spot. This 1964 operating system for stout iron was a revolution and a revelation. Many of the fundamentals of computer system design were ironed out by IBM in this historic project. To this day, IBM systems rely on the breakthroughs it made forty years ago.

    Number 3 on the list is one of the most profound applications ever attempted: the Institute for Genomic Research's human genome sequencing program. This ambitious application set out to beat a U.S government project to map the DNA composition of 20 000 human genes. It did just that. As one of Babcock's sources commented, "[O]n sheer technical brilliance, it gets 10 out of 10."

    Babcock awards the runner-up prize to IBM's System R, the progenitor of relational databases—from DB2, to Oracle, to Sybase, to MySQL, and others. It took set theory and applied it to data storage and retrieval. As a result, relational database management systems beget become the underpinning of much of their modern computing infrastructure.

    And terminal but first, Babcock crowns a multi-headed phenomenon known as the Unix family. This illustrious set of aunts, uncles, and cousins contains some of the most powerful and elegant coding ever created by an individual, team, corporation, or global community of collaborators. Originally, a pet project of an AT&T researcher, Ken Thompson, Unix and its descendants—notably Unix System III, Linux, and BSD 4.3—have had the broadest impact on the world of any computer programs ever written. And of everysingle the Unix family members, in the end, Babcock selects Berkeley Software Distributions' BSD 4.3 as the separate "Greatest Piece of Software Ever."

    Now, let the passionate discussions begin!


    The Sustainability Imperative | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The belief in Brief

    The stout Idea: commerce history is marked by periods of relative stability punctuated by fundamental shifts in the competitive landscape that create inescapable threats and game-changing opportunities. Sustainability is an emerging commerce megatrend, enjoy electrification and mass production, that will profoundly affect companies’ competitiveness and even their survival.

    The argument: Understanding how leaders competed in previous megatrends—specifically, the trait movement and the soar of IT—can benefit companies craft the strategies they’ll requisite to gain odds in this one.

    A better approach: The road map is clear: Create a vision that moves systematically through four stages of value creation, starting with defensive tactics and then poignant to disgusting strategies.

    Then establish and integrate execution capabilities in five key areas: leadership, assessment, strategy development, management integration, and reporting and communication.

    Most executives know that how they respond to the challenge of sustainability will profoundly affect the competitiveness—and perhaps even the survival—of their organizations. Yet most are flailing around, launching a hodgepodge of initiatives without any overarching vision or plan. That’s not because they don’t descry sustainability as a strategic issue. Rather, it’s because they assume they’re facing an unprecedented journey for which there is no road map.

    But there is a road map. Their research into the forces that beget shaped the competitive landscape in recent decades reveals that “business megatrends” beget features and trajectories in common. Sustainability is an emerging megatrend, and thus its course is to some extent predictable. Understanding how firms won in prior megatrends can benefit executives craft the strategies and systems they’ll requisite to gain odds in this one.

    The concept of megatrends is not new, of course. Businessman and author John Naisbitt popularized the term in his 1982 best seller of the very name, referring to incipient societal and economic shifts such as globalization, the soar of the information society, and the shuffle from hierarchical organizations to networks.

    Our focus is on commerce megatrends, which compel fundamental and persistent shifts in how companies compete. Such transformations arise from technological innovation or from recent ways of doing business, and many factors can launch or magnify the process of change. commerce megatrends may emerge from or live accelerated by financial crises, shifts in the convivial realities that define the marketplace, or the threat of fight over resources. The geopolitics of the frigid War, for example, drove the innovations that launched both the space race and rapid developments in the sphere of microelectronics—ultimately unleashing the information technology megatrend. Electrification, the soar of mass production, and globalization were likewise megatrends, as was the trait movement of the 1970s and 1980s. The common thread among them is that they presented inescapable strategic imperatives for corporate leaders.

    Why Do they assume sustainability qualifies as an emerging megatrend? Over the past 10 years, environmental issues beget steadily encroached on businesses’ capacity to create value for customers, shareholders, and other stakeholders. Globalized workforces and supply chains beget created environmental pressures and attendant commerce liabilities. The soar of recent world powers, notably China and India, has intensified competition for natural resources (especially oil) and added a geopolitical dimension to sustainability. “Externalities” such as carbon dioxide emissions and water employ are expeditious becoming material—meaning that investors consider them central to a firm’s performance and stakeholders hope companies to share information about them.

    Over the past 10 years, environmental issues beget steadily encroached on businesses’ capacity to create value for customers.

    These forces are magnified by escalating public and governmental concern about climate change, industrial pollution, food safety, and natural resource depletion, among other issues. Consumers in many countries are seeking out sustainable products and services or leaning on companies to better the sustainability of traditional ones. Governments are interceding with unprecedented levels of recent regulation—from the recent SEC ruling that climate risk is material to investors to the EPA’s mandate that greenhouse gases live regulated as a pollutant.

    Further fueling this megatrend, thousands of companies are placing strategic bets on innovation in energy efficiency, renewable power, resource productivity, and pollution control. (See the sidebar “Fueling the Megatrend.”) What this everysingle adds up to is that managers can no longer afford to ignore sustainability as a central factor in their companies’ long-term competitiveness.

    Learning from the Past: trait and IT

    Megatrends require businesses to reconcile and innovate or live swept aside. So what can businesses learn from previous megatrends? consider the trait movement. The trait revolution was about innovation in the core set of tools and methods that companies used to manage much of what they do. trait as a central factor of strategy, rather than a tactical tool, smashed previous cost versus fitness-for-use barriers, which meant the table stakes were dramatically raised for everysingle companies. The information technology revolution was about tangible technology breakthroughs that fundamentally altered commerce capabilities and redefined how companies Do much of what they do. Digital technologies deeply penetrated corporations in the 1980s and 1990s, and the trend accelerated as IT made its passage into the daily lives of workers and consumers with the advent of desktop computing and the internet.

    In both the IT and trait commerce megatrends—as in others we’ve studied—the market leaders evolved through four principal stages of value creation: First, they focused on reducing cost, risks, and fritter and delivering proof-of-value. Second, they redesigned selected products, processes, or commerce functions to optimize their performance—in essence, progressing from doing faded things in recent ways to doing recent things in recent ways. Third, they drove revenue growth by integrating innovative approaches into their core strategies. Fourth, they differentiated their value propositions through recent commerce models that used these innovations to enhance corporate culture, brand leadership, and other intangibles to secure durable competitive advantage.

    The trait story.

    The economic downturn of the late 1970s, coupled with the 1979 oil shock, drove a stagy shift in consumer preferences toward efficiency. Many industries were transformed, perhaps noone more dramatically than the automotive sector. Of course, the seeds of change had been planted earlier. In the years after World War II, Japan had rebuilt its industrial infrastructure on a model of high-volume, low-cost factories that mass-produced goods of questionable durability and quality. “Made in Japan” was not considered a brand asset. By the mid 1970s, however, Japanese government and commerce leaders had seized upon the ideas of Edwards Deming and others who stressed trait as a core value. This incremental, process-oriented approach to systematic improvement apt well with Japanese executives’ views on how to drive change to compete effectively in the global market. Leading firms including Toyota and Honda embraced Total trait Management (TQM) methods, fundamentally shifting their value propositions. trait methods called into question the assumptions managers had relied on for decades, namely that towering trait and affordability were mutually exclusive.

    The focus on quality—initially adopted as a means of reducing defects—delivered a greater odds to companies that took a holistic view and drove changes across their commerce operations. The famed Toyota passage applied trait methods to every stage of value creation from concept to customer—and ultimately to intangibles such as brand, reputation, and corporate culture. The reputational harm Toyota is experiencing thanks to the recent recalls underscores how distinguished trait continues to live to the firm’s central value proposition. Toyota’s current troubles likewise highlight the requisite for firms to align core elements of strategy. In this case, the dissonance between its long-term trait strategy and a more recent topline growth strategy has seriously undermined Toyota’s model for value creation.

    Rey Moore, the former chief trait officer at Motorola, describes a similar evolutionary process at the communications giant. enjoy most firms, Motorola first used trait methods to better vice and mistake detection and thus reduce cost, waste, and risk. As those methods proved valuable, the company began to redesign manufacturing processes and product evolution functions to proactively reduce risks of product failures, functional inadequacies, and other inefficiencies rather than simply detect them. As quality’s potential commerce impact grew, Motorola developed Six Sigma methods and a standardized utensil kit including items enjoy Pareto charts and root-cause analysis models to rear trait to scale. Eventually, trait became a defining impute of Motorola’s brand and culture and a source of competitive advantage. The very account unfolded at firms in everysingle industry sectors as leading companies rode the trait wave to enhanced growth and profitability—delivering a transparent trait premium for their shareholders.

    The IT story.

    When the recession of 1982 hit, pressure mounted at many companies to expand productivity, particularly by using emerging information technology innovations to drive cost savings. The early returns on these efforts were mixed. As with quality, skeptics described IT as a black hollow into which firms poured money with tiny return. But some corporate leaders saw that the strategic application of IT could drive growth and provide determinative advantage. American Airlines, a classic example, captured more than 40% of everysingle U.S. airline transactions thanks to its innovative Sabre reservations system.

    A lesser known case is American Hospital Supply’s deployment of a revolutionary online purchasing system, which allowed hospitals to order medical supplies electronically, reducing costs, time, and errors for both the company and its customers. Over the next decade, the Analytic Systems Automatic Purchasing system—better known as ASAP—transformed how AHS delivered value to its customers.

    Building on its success improving efficiency and reducing inventory risk, the solid developed service innovations that enabled it to deliver any product from any manufacturer at any time from any desktop computer to any hospital supply room. In the process, AHS amassed an extensive product and expense database that gave AHS a transparent odds over less nimble competitors. Finally, AHS used IT to evolve its commerce model. The company, which had been a single-source materials provider to its hospital clients, began taking over their inventory management and procurement processes. This IT-driven innovation established the AHS brand as the leader in its commerce with a competitive edge based originally on expense and later on service and helped the company grow earnings from $42 million in 1974 to $237 million in 1984.

    The IT and trait megatrends note us that firms seeking to gain odds in sustainability will beget to solve two problems simultaneously: formulating a vision for value creation and executing on it. In other words, they must rethink what they Do in order to capture this evolving source of value; and they must recast how they operate, expanding their capacity to execute with recent management structures, methods, executive roles, and processes tailored to sustainability’s demands.

    Getting the Vision Right

    Just as winners in previous megatrends outperformed competitors by following a staged evolution in strategy, so too must companies hoping to lead (or even compete) in the emerging sustainability wave. The belief that mastering sustainability should follow a multistage approach is already apparent. In 2006, one of us (Esty) with coauthor Andrew Winston described such a strategy in Green to Gold. The framework has since been extended, notably by Ram Nidumolu, C.K. Prahalad, and M.R. Rangaswami in their article “Why Sustainability Is Now the Key Driver of Innovation” (HBR September 2009). As was the case in the IT and trait megatrends, pioneering companies in sustainability often start by focusing on risk and cost reduction and over time develop strategies for increasing value creation, ultimately including intangibles such as brand and culture. Let’s examine the four stages of value creation.

    Stage 1: Do faded things in recent ways.

    Firms focus on outperforming competitors on regulatory compliance and environment-related cost and risk management. In doing so, they develop proof cases for the value of eco-efficiency. At its inception 30 years ago, 3M’s Pollution Prevention Pays was just this kind of initiative. As of 2005, PPP had reduced 3M pollutants by more than 2.6 billion pounds and saved the company more than $1 billion. It likewise laid the foundation for the nearly completed Environmental Targets 2005–2010 program, which will reduce expenses related to energy usage, emissions, and fritter by another 20%.

    Stage 2: Do recent things in recent ways.

    Firms engage in widespread redesign of products, processes, and gross systems to optimize natural resource efficiencies and risk management across their value chains. DuPont’s “zero waste” commitment, for instance, increased the company’s prioritization of eco-efficiency across their operations. Its determination to shed businesses with stout eco-footprints, such as carpets and nylon, was based on an analysis that the commerce and environmental risks would outweigh their potential contribution to future earnings.

    Stage 3: Transform core business.

    As the vision expands further, sustainability innovations become the source of recent revenues and growth. Dow’s sweeping 2015 Sustainability Goals, designed to drive innovation across its many lines of business, yielded recent products or technology breakthroughs in areas from solar roof shingles to hybrid batteries. The core business, which had traditionally relied on commodity chemicals, has shifted toward advanced materials and high-tech energy opportunities.

    Stage 4: recent commerce model creation and differentiation.

    At the highest level, firms exploit the megatrend as a source of differentiation in commerce model, brand, employee engagement, and other intangibles, fundamentally repositioning the company and redefining its strategy for competitive advantage. GE’s ecomagination initiative, poised to deliver $25 billion in revenues in 2010, enabled CEO Jeff Immelt not just to reposition the company as an energy and environmental solutions provider but to build a green aura into the GE brand.

    Getting Execution Right

    Gaining odds in a megatrend is not just about vision—it’s likewise about execution in five captious areas: leadership, methods, strategy, management, and reporting. In each area, companies must transition from tactical, ad hoc, and siloed approaches to strategic, systematic, and integrated ones.

    Leadership.

    When CIOs first came on the scene, the role was ill-defined and narrowly focused. A limited set of problems was seen as suitable for IT solutions. Now CIOs play undisputed strategic roles with implications for everysingle functions and commerce units. Strategic sustainability initiatives requisite similar C-level leadership. While many companies now beget chief sustainability officers, the role varies tremendously from solid to firm. CEOs must get a commitment to institutionalizing this recent executive position and allocating the necessary resources and responsibilities.

    The CSO will live essential to poignant companies through the sustainability stages. enjoy the CIO, a chief sustainability officer helps the CEO and executive team visualize goals and professionalize the process of aligning vision with commerce strategy. That means redefining performance expectations, specifying accountability, tracking results, and rewarding success. As best practices bubble up in individual units, the CSO is answerable for ensuring that they’re disseminated widely and that the skills needed to execute are available.

    Many firms are now accustomed to working with partners and suppliers in formulating their vision and goals, but a CSO must broaden and deepen those links as companies are increasingly held answerable for their entire value chain and product life cycle. Sustainability leadership must achieve a premium on developing shared goals with a broad set of stakeholders—customers, interest groups, and even competitors and adversaries. Coca-Cola, for instance, has worked intensively with its bottling partners to “light weight” its packaging, cutting greenhouse gas emissions and generating savings in the tens of millions of dollars. It has likewise made a commitment, in cooperation with its bottlers and the World Wildlife Fund, among other NGOs, to “water neutrality”—an initiative that will reduce its strategic risk and environmental impact by replenishing watersheds to the plenary extent of the water it extracts. In response to urging by Greenpeace, Coca-Cola announced in December 2009 that everysingle its recent vending machines and coolers would live HFC-free by 2015, reducing the equipment’s greenhouse gas emissions by 99%.

    Methods for assessing value.

    With a sustainability vision in place, the executive team must marshal specialized capabilities for weighing options and quantifying benefits and risks. Just as the trait and IT megatrends ushered in recent skill sets and fresh perspectives, the sustainability megatrend will require firms to update traditional commerce tools—business-case analysis, trend spotting, scenario planning, risk modeling, and even cost accounting—to encompass the specialized requirements of environmental sustainability.

    Most current methods that companies employ to track or project sustainability impacts generate inconsistent, incomplete, and imprecise data. Recognizing that if they can’t measure it, they can’t manage it, companies are developing better means of gauging corporate-sustainability-related costs and benefits and of benchmarking performance. Fujitsu, for instance, employs a performance assessment scorecard—its “cost green index”—that assesses the potential cost, productivity, and environmental impacts of eco-efficiency initiatives across the firm.

    Other companies are repurposing standardized tools and methods to bring a sustainability focus to everysingle aspects of the business. For example, 3M, a longtime trait leader, is now applying skinny Six Sigma methodologies originally aimed at improving operational efficiency and product trait to driving direct reductions in energy use, waste, and greenhouse gas emissions. To meet aggressive five-year sustainability targets, its Six Sigma leadership group has trained 55,000 employees in how to employ these methods. As sustainability-related methods and tools mature, they hope training programs and certifications not unlike certified IT roles or black and green belts in the trait domain to emerge.

    Strategy development.

    Once firms beget a solid ground of analytical data, they will live positioned to develop distinctive sustainability strategies. Many aspects of strategy evolution will remain internal, but companies will increasingly adopt open-source approaches that engage outsiders.

    Perhaps more than any other company, Wal-Mart has pursued this approach. In 2006, then-CEO Lee Scott launched Sustainability 360, establishing explicit goals to purchase 100% renewable energy, create zero waste, slash greenhouse gas emissions, and sell “products that sustain their resources and the environment.” To this end, Wal-Mart created a dozen Sustainable Value Networks, each comprising Wal-Mart team members, NGO experts, academics, government officials, and supplier representatives, everysingle working under the direction of a Wal-Mart network captain. Each team focuses on a strategic issue targeted by the company’s sustainability agenda—such as facilities, packaging, and logistics—and tries to develop recent ways of doing commerce that back the company’s sustainability goals. The payoffs are already showing up: One of the Sustainable Value Networks, tasked with fleet logistics, came up with a transportation strategy that improved efficiency by 38%, saving Wal-Mart more than $200 million annually and cutting its greenhouse gas emissions by 200,000 tons per year.

    Management integration.

    To capture the plenary benefits of the megatrend-driven strategy, firms must integrate sustainability objectives into day-to-day management. Leadership may reach from headquarters, but responsibility for implementation lies in the field. Firms such as Dow beget incorporated sustainability objectives into compensation models, reviews, and other management processes, including a requirement that everysingle newly promoted commerce unit managers review their units’ sustainability plans with senior management within 90 days.

    Managing sustainability strategy requires systems back as well. While many firms beget invested in technology to record and report environmental events such as spills and fritter disposal, others beget gone much further. Wayne Balta, head of Corporate Environmental Affairs at IBM, describes his company’s environmental management system as the foundation for policy deployment, drill management, goal setting, determination making, and data capture. IBM uses the technology to embed environmental strategies into everysingle areas of the business, from R&D to operations to end-of-life product disposal.

    Reporting and communication.

    As public scrutiny, governmental regulation, and customer expectations intensify, companies will requisite to build capabilities in sustainability reporting. For example, they will requisite to share information on their response to emerging environmental standards, such as the EPA’s proposed greenhouse gas emissions reporting regulations, and on the financial impacts of the sustainability megatrend to employees, shareholders, and other stakeholders. Developing metrics that allow companies to measure benefits and understand costs is essential to adapting and refining their strategy, as well as communicating results. And Wall Street will increasingly claim evidence that sustainability investments are generating returns.

    We descry substantial latitude for improved sustainability communications, particularly among companies with a strong commitment to lead in this arena. Their solid has conducted evaluations of dozens of companies along 35 dimensions of sustainability management. When the assessments were based only on publicly available information and a company’s external reporting, they got scores that were almost always lower, and often significantly so, than scores developed in consultation with the company and with plenary inside information.

    We’ve found a few companies that are leading the passage toward the sort of expanded sustainability reporting that they anticipate will become criterion practice. Timberland’s sustainability reports, for example, comprise numerous metrics on pollution and employ of natural resources. The company has likewise broken recent ground in providing product-level environmental-impact information to its customers with labeling that resembles the Nutrition Facts labels on food.

    Building a Sustainability Performance System

    By joining a vision of sustainability value creation (the “what they must do”) with evolving execution capabilities (the “how they must Do it”), firms develop what they convoke a sustainability performance system. Depending on their sophistication in both realms, and their covet to employ sustainability as a competitive weapon, they’ll tumble into one of four categories:

    Losers.

    As the sustainability megatrend accelerates, firms that beget achieve in locality only modest cost, risk, and fritter initiatives and whose vision and strategies are vaguely conceived or disjointed will find it increasingly difficult to protect their position. It may live too early to descry transparent examples of firms that beget lost their competitive position based on the failure to develop and execute sustainability strategies, but the casualties from other megatrends enjoy trait and IT abound. GM’s decline can clearly live traced to its earlier failure to understand how trait considerations would transform the auto industry. Likewise, Kodak’s preeminent position in photography eroded quickly as it missed or ignored the signals that digital technologies would displace film.

    Defenders.

    Some firms may select a “go slow” sustainability strategy for many reasons—the peculiarities of their industry sector or commerce processes, their environmental exposure, or other competitive considerations. Others will live content to get investments in the early-stage objectives of cost, risk, and fritter management. This defensive carriage can work, provided the gap between a go-slow company’s market position and that of primary competitors does not grow too great and the company has execution capabilities commensurate with the complexity of its business. Maersk, the Danish shipping company, has focused its sustainability efforts on efficiency, slashing fuel costs and cutting carbon dioxide emissions through slow-speed shipping and other initiatives. As long as others in the shipping commerce Do not pursue a more sweeping sustainability strategy, perhaps built on more-efficient ship design, Maersk should live able to hold its position. Indeed, many companies may find that their best option is to play defense on sustainability and not try to get this the issue on which they differentiate themselves in the marketplace.

    Dreamers.

    When vision and ambition obtain too far ahead of the capacity to execute, companies visage another set of issues. Those that hunt first-mover advantages in the later stages of sustainability differentiation without having mapped out a transparent strategy and mastered the fundamentals of execution may sustain the very kinds of problems that plagued some aspiring pioneers in the trait and IT megatrends. For instance, the London Stock Exchange’s vision of a paperless settlement system was a bold shuffle and one that managers believed would catapult the organization ahead of its peers. Managers optimistically ballparked the cost at £6 million and jumped in with both feet. By the time the exchange acknowledged that it lacked the management and technical capabilities to execute this leading-edge IT project, in 1993, the tab had shot past £400 million, with no End in sight.

    Like the IT and trait megatrends, sustainability will palpate every function, every commerce line, every employee.

    Dreamers who try to ride the sustainability wave risk making sustainability promises they can’t keep, inviting charges of greenwashing and the attendant reputational and financial harm. Some years ago, Ford Motor Company suffered from Bill Ford’s attempts to green his commerce before his management team was ready. His unfulfilled commitments to better SUV fuel economy and get Ford a leader in hybrid vehicles brought the wrath of environmental groups. His successor, Alan Mullaly, has moved Ford forward with recent models that feature advanced materials, smart systems, and towering efficiency, enabling the automaker to withstand the current downturn better than domestic competitors and positioning Ford for success.

    Winners.

    Although the sustainability landscape continues to shift, some early winners beget emerged. GE’s financial services commerce has lagged badly, but its ecomagination product line has generated tens of billions of dollars in revenues and positioned the company as a leader in rapidly growing market segments such as energy infrastructure and high-efficiency appliances, jet engines, and locomotives. The ecomagination marketing push has likewise had a halo effect, helping GE transform its reputation from environmental sinister actor to sustainability front-runner. Similarly, Clorox’s Greenworks line of eco-friendly cleaning products has reframed the public’s perception of the company—and generated billions of dollars of sales. Clorox’s acquisition of Burt’s Bees, a leader in natural personal supervision products, further convinced environmental stakeholders that the company’s shift in strategy was both unaffected and significant.

    Soon companies will beget a transparent sense of what it means to manage sustainability as a commerce megatrend. Best practices will emerge, and sustainability scorecards will allow companies to track cost and risk reduction as well as evaluate value-creation activities. As environmental data become richer and more accurate, companies will live able to chart their impacts in financial terms—making it easier for market analysts to identify the firms positioned to deliver an eco-premium. In this recent world, the sustainability strategy imperative will live systematized and integrated into the day-to-day practices of firms of everysingle sizes in everysingle industries. enjoy the IT and trait megatrends, sustainability will palpate every function, every commerce line, every employee. On the passage to this future, firms with a transparent vision and the execution capabilities to navigate the megatrend will reach out ahead. Those that don’t will live left by the wayside.

    A version of this article appeared in the May 2010 issue of Harvard commerce Review.


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