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000-513 DB2 UDB V7.1 for UNIX, Linux, Windows and OS/2 Database Administration

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000-513 exam Dumps Source : DB2 UDB V7.1 for UNIX, Linux, Windows and OS/2 Database Administration

Test Code : 000-513
Test name : DB2 UDB V7.1 for UNIX, Linux, Windows and OS/2 Database Administration
Vendor name : IBM
exam questions : 137 actual Questions

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IBM DB2 UDB V7.1 for

Introduction to DB2 UDB | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The DB2 ordinary Database (UDB) is a pass-platform database tackle developed by using IBM. This chapter introduces the newest version of this utility, and enumerates the facets that yield UDB a beneficial choice for your business.

This chapter is from the publication 

DATABASE 2 (DB2) habitual Database (UDB) for Linux, UNIX, and home windows is a relational database management device (RDBMS) developed via IBM. version eight.2, available since September 2004, is probably the most present version of the product, and the one mentioned during this booklet.

during this chapter you are going to find out about:

  • The history of DB2
  • The DB2 portfolio of counsel management products
  • How DB2 is developed
  • DB2 server editions and consumers
  • How DB2 is packaged for builders
  • Syntax diagram conventions
  • due to the fact that the 1970s, when IBM analysis invented the Relational model and the Structured query Language (SQL), IBM has developed a complete family unit of RDBMS utility. development started on mainframe platforms equivalent to virtual desktop (VM), digital Storage prolonged (VSE), and assorted virtual Storage (MVS). In 1983, DB2 for MVS version 1 was born. "DB2" was used to point out a shift from hierarchical databases&8212;like the guidance administration gadget (IMS) accepted at the time&8212;to the brand unusual relational databases. DB2 construction continued on mainframe structures as well as on disbursed systems. [1]determine 1.1 shows one of the highlights of DB2 background.

    In 1996, IBM introduced DB2 UDB version 5 for distributed systems. With this edition, DB2 changed into capable of support everybitof types of digital records, including typical relational records, in addition to audio, video, and text files. It become the first version optimized for the internet, and it supported various distributed systems&8212;for instance, OS/2, windows, AIX, HP-UX, and Solaris&8212;from assorted companies. in addition, this common database was capable of avoid on a number of hardware, from uniprocessor techniques and symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) techniques to hugely parallel processing (MPP) methods and clusters of SMP programs. IBM included the time term "universal" within the name to portray the brand unusual capabilities of this version. everybitof types of DB2 on disbursed platforms and on MVS, AS/400, VM, and VSE enjoy adopted the identify DB2 UDB.

    nowadays, DB2 represents a portfolio of tips management products. desk 1.1 shows the DB2 information administration portfolio and the product offerings under every classification. To mainly dispute with database servers, "UDB" has to be delivered to the identify, as in DB2 UDB . In most books and files, together with this one, the phrases "DB2" and "DB2 UDB" are used interchangeably. except in any other case cited, once they employ any one of these phrases during this publication, they are referring to DB2 running on Linux, UNIX, or windows.

    desk 1.1. DB2 advice administration products

    assistance administration products

    Description

    Product choices

    Database Servers

    store digital statistics and permit the sharing of assistance across part systems.

    IBM DB2 UDB

    IBM Informix

    IBM IMS

    IBM pink Brick Warehouse

    IBM U2

    IBM Cloudscape

    DB2 enterprise Intelligence

    assist customers bring together, prepare, manipulate, analyze, and extract efficient guidance from everybitof facts varieties to aid them yield more insightful trade choices sooner.

    DB2 Warehouse supervisor

    IBM DB2 guidance Integrator

    DB2 OLAP Server

    DB2 clever Miner

    DB2 text Miner

    DB2 Search Extender

    DB2 UDB facts Warehouse edition

    DB2 cube Views

    question Patroller

    DB2 content administration

    control content (unstructured data) akin to photos, digital media, observe processing documents, and net content material.

    IBM DB2 content supervisor

    IBM DB2 CommonStore

    IBM DB2 CM OnDemand

    IBM DB2 document manager

    IBM DB2 facts supervisor

    DB2 information Integration

    bring together dispensed tips from heterogeneous environments. businesses view their suggestions as if it was everybitof dwelling in one vicinity.

    IBM DB2 assistance Integrator

    IBM DiscoveryLink for everybitof times Sciences

    DB2 and IMS tools

    Automate services to aid organizations in the reduction of administrative costs.

    IMS & DB2 tackle & Utilities

    DB2 Multiplatform tools


    IBM iSeries (AS/400) DB2 UDB: revise 10 knowledgeable questions | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This tip firstly seemed on Search400.com

    Kent Milligan, IBM iSeries/i5 DB2 UDB knowledgeable, has been answering Search400.com's member questions for greater than 5 years. iSeries users enjoy asked Kent the identical questions time and again. so as to deliver you time, they enjoy now compiled the accurate 10 questions requested about IBM iSeries/i5 DB2 for you. sequel you've got a question it is now not listed here? putaquestionto Kent your IBM DB2 questions.

      desk OF CONTENTS  1. recommended index now not used  2. constructing a default library in IBM DB2  3. CHAR fields vs. VARCHAR  4. The factual change between IBM DB2 databases  5. trade the size of an current container  6. gaining access to an specific file member using SQL  7. Date formats & making a table with SQL  eight. what is the dissimilarity between DB2/four hundred and IBM DB2 UDB for the iSeries?  9. access facts in SQL Server from the iSeries  10. How am i able to inform which indexes are being used by course of IBM DB2 and the query optimizer to enrich efficiency?

     

    1. counseled index no longer used

    question: Operation Navigator recommends the employ of an index for SQL efficiency monitoring. I created the informed index, nevertheless it looks dote the gadget doesn't employ it. I discover it peculiar that the index is counseled and then not used. is that this normal?

    Milligan: in spite of the fact that the query optimizer advises developing an index, it does not everybitof the time choose to employ it when growing its entry plan. There are some causes for this:

    The question optimizer does not at everybitof times propose the flawless index. The intuition for here is that currently, most efficient local preference is used when choosing what index to suggest -- it does not yet correspond with be allotment of, order by means of, or group through columns. subsequently, after you create that advised index, it will possibly now not choose to employ it, because it remains not the flawless index. You may wish to manually intervene -- check the question and believe the be a allotment of, community by using, and order with the aid of columns to check what the ultimate index is and create that index.

    however, it could be recommending that index so that it may possibly extract stats from the index to further evaluate the choicest access formulation. as an example, as soon as the index has been created, it may well be using statistics from the index to check that question will revert many rows, accordingly a table scan is the inexpensive access formulation.

    To more desirable support in humor the theory of a flawless index and how indexes assist the query optimizer with data, which you can read the white paper Indexing and statistics recommendations for DB2 for i5/OS.

     

    2. developing a default library in IBM DB2

    question: How can i installation a default library in IBM DB2 with a view to not exchange their SQL statements? really, they are migrating from IBM B2 UDB home windows Server to the iSeries. in fact, in windows ambiance, their SQL statements avoid neatly and with the SET existing SCHEMAS = "EMPORIUM", they profile default schemas in order that they sequel not exigency to explicitly specify it in each and every of their SQL statements. How am i able to sequel that in an iSeries atmosphere? I deserve to define a library akin to select ... FROM MCMLIB.COMMANDES where. are you able to aid me?

    Milligan: It depends upon the application programming interface that you're the usage of. IBM DB2 UDB for iSeries introduced support for the SET present SCHEMA statement in V5R2. The iSeries entry ODBC and JDBC drivers assist connection keywords and residences to allow specifying a default library. right here's an instance of the ODBC connection key phrase:

    DefaultLibraries=Schema1,Schema2

     

    three. CHAR fields vs. VARCHAR

    question: What are the most suitable practice instructions with respect to the usage of CHAR fields vs. VARCHAR fields on a IBM DB2 database for the iSeries?

    i am pile a brand unusual database for a .net software and that i was on the grounds that VARCHAR for some longer fields to retailer storage. I had hoped that the VARCHAR container would besides eradicate the trailing blanks from the string class fields. besides the fact that children, in my initial tests, it doesn't appear that VARCHAR has any enjoy an sequel on on these trailing blanks. Is there any surroundings on the iSeries that will besides be changed to instantly trim them?

     Milligan: In generic on IBM DB2 UDB for iSeries, VARCHAR statistics types should still be used for columns containing long descriptions or memos that are not referenced very regularly. 50 bytes is likely the smallest size you could exigency to employ for a VARCHAR column. DB2 does should allocate some additional bytes for each row with variable size columns to preserve song of the varying size records, so one of the crucial house impress downs could be consumed by these "further tracking" bytes. because of this overhead, the area reductions would best be sizeable on tables with a colossal variety of rows.

     

    four. The precise change between IBM DB2 databases

    query: certainly one of their consumers is starting a challenge with transportable applications solution ambiance (PASE) below V5R3. The programmers tried to work from that with C-program's to change assistance with the indigenous database and enjoy some fundamental issues with things similar to host variables and others. counsel that can support to remedy these complications is infrequently attainable -- certainly in Germany. The German IBM software service appears to be a bunch of "we are iSeries; enjoy no feeling a beneficial deal about the leisure of the IT world." can you support with assistance about the precise change between the UDB databases in the UNIX/windows and iSeries versions?

    Milligan: click here to be trained the actual  variations between the UDB databases within the UNIX/windows and iSeries versions.

     

    5. trade the length of an current box

    query: am i able to alternate the size of a realm in a actual file devoid of recompiling it?

    Milligan: The highest character approach to trade the size of an present box is the CHGPF CL command.

     

    6. having access to an express file member using SQL

    query: can you entry an specific file member the usage of interactive SQL? I wish to access a multi-member *PF.

    Milligan: yes, the easiest fashion is to create an alias for every secondary member that you just exigency to entry, and then employ the ALIAS identify on your SQL request. developing an alias is just a one-time setup operation.

    here's an example:CREATE ALIAS mylib/a1 FOR mylib/myfile(mbr1)

    choose * FROM mylib/a1 where f1>0

     

    7. Date formats & creating a table with SQL

    question: i'm trying to create a table the usage of SQL. i want the dates to be of the *country (mm/dd/yyyy) structure. everybitof of their data enjoy been created with DDS and everybitof of their dates are DATFMT *us of a. i would dote to create some unusual files with SQL, but I can not pickup the dates within the format that they use. How can i sequel that?

    Milligan: The DATFMT can not be exact on SQL Create desk. everybitof date values, youngsters, are saved through DB2 within the identical internal layout in spite of the DATFMT it really is distinctive on the column or realm definition. When that facts is examine from the SQL table it should be converted to the output date structure precise via the software -- on your case the *u . s . a . structure.

     

    8. what's the dissimilarity between DB2/400 and IBM DB2 UDB for the iSeries?

    query: what's the dissimilarity between DB2/400 and IBM DB2 UDB for the iSeries?

    Milligan: DB2/400 and DB2 UDB for iSeries are very nearly the identical issue. iSeries (AS/four hundred) changed into able to undertake the IBM DB2 UDB branding when it delivered lots of unusual database functionality in V4R4 of OS/400, so the database changed into renamed from DB2/400 to DB2 UDB for iSeries in that unlock.

    that you could discover extra information on IBM iSeries and the DB2 UDB family here.

     

    9. entry information in SQL Server from the iSeries

    query: are you able to order me what I exigency to access information in a MS SQL database from the iSeries?

     Milligan: The white paper you are searching for is Heterogeneous statistics entry for iSeries applications.

    To access a non-DB2 records source (together with Microsoft SQL Server) from an iSeries program written in any excessive-level programming language, employ WebSphere tips Integrator (previously DB2 tips Integrator - DB2 II). This product requires that the data access to be carried out with an SQL-based interface similar to CLI, embedded SQL or JDBC.

     

    10. How can i inform which indexes are being used by course of IBM DB2 and the question optimizer to enhance performance?

     query: How am i able to order which indexes are being used by course of IBM DB2 and the question optimizer to enhance efficiency?

     answer: In V5R3, a unusual device changed into introduced to iSeries Navigator referred to as Index Evaluator. This unusual characteristic makes it effortless to anatomize which indexes (and keyed logical files) are helping your SQL and query efficiency and which indexes aren't pulling their weight. You can't import on the demur timestamp "ultimate used date" because that cost is not at everybitof times up-to-date via the question optimizer.

    For each and every index defined over the desk, the evaluator returns information concerning the remaining time an index changed into used within the implementation of a query and/or used to provide data concerning the desk records to the question optimizer. furthermore, it returns a import number for the number of times the question optimizer used an index object.

    beneath, you survey the output of the Index Evaluator, which is initiated by course of correct-clicking on a desk demur in iSeries Navigator and identifying the note Indexes project -- the project name is Indexes on V5R3).


    IBM eServer units unusual checklist For Baan ERP efficiency | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    IBM eServer units unusual listing For Baan ERP performance

    IBM these days announced its unusual IBM eServer pSeries 680 server has set a unusual world record for Baan commercial enterprise resource Planning (ERP) utility performance.

    The benchmark examine was avoid on a 24-method pSeries 680 using breakthrough IBM silicon-on-insulator microprocessors, working DB2 customary Database on the trade's most suitable UNIX working device, AIX four.3.three.(2) The benchmark demonstrates the scalability of Baan ERP solutions running on IBM's unusual p680 UNIX server.

    The p680's world checklist become relative the employ of the confidential BaanERP benchmark suite in two-tier customer/server mode which determines the actual variety of Baan Reference clients (BRUs) that can besides be supported on a specific seller's laptop equipment. Joint Baan and IBM solutions are designed to scale to answer the calls for of the world's largest agencies, and support quick company boom.

    Benchmark particulars

    * The p680 operating DB2 generic Database registered a brand unusual checklist for performance with BaanERP in a Hosted configuration.

    * These results had been done at IBM's Austin, Texas facility on a 24-method p680, working BaanERP 5.0b with DB2 UDB v7.1 with PI in a two-tier Hosted configuration. With this setup, a impress of 11,886 Baan Reference users (BRUs) become attained.

    * A BRU represents a lone user executing a session that generates a reference load on the device. by relating everybitof BaanERP periods to that reference load, the specific amalgamate of periods finished at any given implementation will investigate the translation from the benchmark BRU to the optimum variety of concurrent clients for that implementation.

    For more information, dispute with www.baan.com, or www.ibm.com.


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    DB2 UDB V7.1 for UNIX, Linux, Windows and OS/2 Database Administration

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    Introduction to DB2 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter introduced DB2 and its history, discusses the types of clients and servers available with DB2, and covers the types of clients and servers available with DB2.

    This chapter is from the reserve 

    DATABASE 2 (DB2) for Linux, UNIX, and Windows is a data server developed by IBM. Version 9.5, available since October 2007, is the most current version of the product, and the one on which they focus in this book.

    In this chapter you will learn about the following:

  • The history of DB2
  • The information management portfolio of products
  • How DB2 is developed
  • DB2 server editions and clients
  • How DB2 is packaged for developers
  • Syntax diagram conventions
  • Since the 1970s, when IBM Research invented the Relational Model and the Structured Query Language (SQL), IBM has developed a complete family of data servers. development started on mainframe platforms such as Virtual Machine (VM), Virtual Storage Extended (VSE), and Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS). In 1983, DB2 for MVS Version 1 was born. "DB2" was used to argue a shift from hierarchical databases—such as the Information Management System (IMS) approved at the time—to the unusual relational databases. DB2 development continued on mainframe platforms as well as on distributed platforms.1Figure 1.1 shows some of the highlights of DB2 history.

    In 1996, IBM announced DB2 Universal Database (UDB) Version 5 for distributed platforms. With this version, DB2 was able to store everybitof kinds of electronic data, including traditional relational data, as well as audio, video, and text documents. It was the first version optimized for the Web, and it supported a ambit of distributed platforms—for example, OS/2, Windows, AIX, HP-UX, and Solaris—from multiple vendors. Moreover, this universal database was able to avoid on a variety of hardware, from uniprocessor systems and symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) systems to massively parallel processing (MPP) systems and clusters of SMP systems.

    Even though the relational model to store data is the most prevalent in the industry today, the hierarchical model never lost its importance. In the past few years, due to the popularity of eXtensible Markup Language (XML), a resurgence in the employ of the hierarchical model has taken place. XML, a flexible, self-describing language, relies on the hierarchical model to store data. With the emergence of unusual Web technologies, the exigency to store unstructured types of data, and to partake and exchange information between businesses, XML proves to be the best language to meet these needs. Today they survey an exponential growth of XML documents usage.

    IBM recognized early on the weight of XML, and great investments were made to deliver pureXML technology; a technology that provides for better support to store XML documents in DB2. After five years of development, the exertion of 750 developers, architects, and engineers paid off with the release of the first hybrid data server in the market: DB2 9. DB2 9, available since July 2006, is a hybrid (also known as multi-structured) data server because it allows for storing relational data, as well as hierarchical data, natively. While other data servers in the market, and previous versions of DB2 could store XML documents, the storage fashion used was not example for performance and flexibility. With DB2 9's pureXML technology, XML documents are stored internally in a parsed hierarchical manner, as a tree; therefore, working with XML documents is greatly enhanced. In 2007, IBM has gone even further in its support for pureXML, with the release of DB2 9.5. DB2 9.5, the latest version of DB2, not only enhances and introduces unusual features of pureXML, but it besides brings improvements in installation, manageability, administration, scalability and performance, workload management and monitoring, regulatory compliance, problem determination, support for application development, and support for trade colleague applications.

    DB2 is available for many platforms including System z (DB2 for z/OS) and System i (DB2 for i5/OS). Unless otherwise noted, when they employ the term DB2, they are referring to DB2 version 9.5 running on Linux, UNIX, or Windows.

    DB2 is allotment of the IBM information management (IM) portfolio. Table 1.1 shows the different IM products available.

    Table 1.1. Information Management Products

    Information Management Products

    Description

    Product Offerings

    Data Servers

    Provide software services for the secure and efficient management of data and enable the sharing of information across multiple platforms.

    IBM DB2

    IBM IMS

    IBM Informix

    IBM U2

    Data Warehousing and trade Intelligence

    Help customers collect, prepare, manage, analyze, and extract valuable information from everybitof data types to support them yield faster, more insightful trade decisions.

    DB2 Alphablox

    DB2 Cube Views

    DB2 Warehouse Edition

    DB2 Query Management Facility

    Enterprise Content Management & Discovery

    Manage content, process, and connectivity. The content includes both structured and unstructured data, such as e-mails, electronic forms, images, digital media, word processing documents, and Web content. effect enterprise search and discovery of information.

    DB2 Content Manager

    DB2 Common Store

    DB2 CM OnDemand

    DB2 Records Manager

    FileNet P8 and its add-on suites

    OmniFind

    Information Integration

    Bring together distributed information from heterogeneous environments. Companies view their information as if it were everybitof residing in one place.

    IBM Information Server integration software platform, consisting of:

  • - WebSphere Federation Server
  • - WebSphere Replication Server
  • - WebSphere DataStage
  • - WebSphere ProfileStage
  • - WebSphere QualityStage
  • - WebSphere Information Services Director
  • - WebSphere Metadata Server
  • - WebSphere trade Glossary
  • - WebSphere Data Event Publisher

  • Understanding IBM DB2: Product history and strategy | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The following is an excerpt from Understanding DB2: Learning visually with examples, 2nd edition, by Raul Chong,...

    Xiaomei Wang, Michael Dang and Dwaine Snow. It is reprinted here with permission from International trade Machines Corporation; Copyright 2008. Read the reserve excerpt below or download a free .pdf of the chapter: "Understanding IBM DB2: Product history and strategy."

    Database 2 (DB2) for Linux, UNIX, and Windows is a data server developed by IBM. Version 9.5, available since October 2007, is the most current version of the product, and the one on which they focus in this book.

    In this chapter you will learn about the following:

  • The history of DB2
  • The information management portfolio of products
  • How DB2 is developed
  • DB2 server editions and clients
  • How DB2 is packaged for developers
  • Syntax diagram conventions
  • 1.1 Brief history of DB2

    Since the 1970s, when IBM Research invented the Relational Model and the Structured Query Language (SQL), IBM has developed a complete family of data servers. development started on mainframe platforms such as Virtual Machine (VM), Virtual Storage Extended (VSE), and Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS). In 1983, DB2 for MVS Version 1 was born. "DB2" was used to argue a shift from hierarchical databases—such as the Information Management System (IMS) approved at the time—to the unusual relational databases. DB2 development continued on mainframe platforms as well as on distributed platforms.1 pattern 1.1 shows some of the highlights of DB2 history.

    Figure 1.1 DB2 timeline

    In 1996, IBM announced DB2 Universal Database (UDB) Version 5 for distributed platforms. With this version, DB2 was able to store everybitof kinds of electronic data, including traditional relational data, as well as audio, video, and text documents. It was the first version optimized for the Web, and it supported a ambit of distributed platforms—for example, OS/2, Windows, AIX, HP-UX, and Solaris—from multiple vendors. Moreover, this universal database was able to avoid on a variety of hardware, from uniprocessor systems and symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) systems to massively parallel processing (MPP) systems and clusters of SMP systems.

    Even though the relational model to store data is the most prevalent in the industry today, the hierarchical model never lost its importance. In the past few years, due to the popularity of eXtensible Markup Language (XML), a resurgence in the employ of the hierarchical model has taken place. XML, a flexible, self-describing language, relies on the hierarchical model to store data. With the emergence of unusual Web technologies, the exigency to store unstructured types of data, and to partake and exchange information between businesses, XML proves to be the best language to meet these needs. Today they survey an exponential growth of XML documents usage.

    IBM recognized early on the weight of XML, and great investments were made to deliver pureXML technology; a technology that provides for better support to store XML documents in DB2. After five years of development, the exertion of 750 developers, architects, and engineers paid off with the release of the first hybrid data server in the market: DB2 9. DB2 9, available since July 2006, is a hybrid (also known as multi-structured) data server because it allows for storing relational data, as well as hierarchical data, natively. While other data servers in the market, and previous versions of DB2 could store XML documents, the storage fashion used was not example for performance and flexibility. With DB2 9's pureXML technology, XML documents are stored internally in a parsed hierarchical manner, as a tree; therefore, working with XML documents is greatly enhanced. In 2007, IBM has gone even further in its support for pureXML, with the release of DB2 9.5. DB2 9.5, the latest version of DB2, not only enhances and introduces unusual features of pureXML, but it besides brings improvements in installation, manageability, administration, scalability and performance, workload management and monitoring, regulatory compliance, problem determination, support for application development, and support for trade colleague applications.

    DB2 is available for many platforms including System z (DB2 for z/OS) and System i (DB2 for i5/OS). Unless otherwise noted, when they employ the term DB2, they are referring to DB2 version 9.5 running on Linux, UNIX, or Windows.

    DB2 is allotment of the IBM information management (IM) portfolio. Table 1.1 shows the different IM products available.

    Table 1.1 Information Management Products

    Information management products Description Product offerings Data servers Provide software services for the secure and efficient management of data and enable the sharing of information across multiple platforms IBM DB2IBM IMSIBM InformixIBM U2 Data warehousing and trade intelligence Help customers collect, prepare, manage, analyze, and extract valuable information from everybitof data types to support them yield faster, more insightful trade decisions. DB2 AlphabloxDB2 Cube ViewsDB2 Warehouse EditionDB2 Query Management Facility Enterprise content management & discovery Manage content, process, and connectivity. The content includes both structured and unstructured data, such as e-mails, electronic forms, images, digital media, word processing documents, and Web content. effect enterprise search and discovery of information. DB2 Content ManagerDB2 Common StoreDB2 CM OnDemandDB2 Records ManagerFileNet P8 and its add-on suitesOmniFind Information integration Bring together distributed information from heterogeneous environments. Companies view their information as if it were everybitof residing in one place. IBM Information Server integration software platform, consisting of:- WebSphere Federation Server- WebSphere Replication Server- WebSphere DataStage- WebSphere ProfileStage- WebSphere QualityStage- WebSphere Information-Services Director- WebSphere Metadata Server- WebSphere trade Glossary- WebSphere Data Event Publisher

    1.2 The role of DB2 in the information on demand world

    IBM's direction or strategy is based on some key concepts and technologies:

    On-Demand BusinessInformation On demand (IOD)Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)Web ServicesXML

    In this section they record each of these concepts, and they define where DB2 fits in the strategy.

    1.2.1 On-Demand business

    We live in a complicated world with complicated computer systems where change is a constant. At the same time, customers are becoming more demanding and less tolerant of mistakes. In a challenging environment dote this, businesses exigency to react quickly to market changes; otherwise, they will be left behind by competitors. In order to react quickly, a trade needs to be integrated and flexible. In other words, a trade today needs to be an on-demand business.

    An on-demand business, as defined by IBM, is "an enterprise whose trade processes -- integrated halt to halt across the company and with key partners, suppliers and customers -- can respond with hasten to any customer demand, market opportunity, or external threat."

    IBM's on-demand trade model is based on this definition. To support the on-demand model, IBM uses the e-business framework shown in pattern 1.2.

    Figure 1.2 The IBM e-business framework

    In pattern 1.2 the dotted line divides the logical concepts at the top with the physical implementation at the bottom. Conceptually, the IBM e-business framework is based on the on-demand trade model operating environment, which has four essential characteristics: It is integrated, open, virtualized, and autonomic. These characteristics are explained later in this section. The area below the dotted line illustrates how this environment is implemented by the suite of IBM software products.

  • Rational is the "build" software portfolio; it is used to develop software.
  • Information Management (where DB2 belongs) and WebSphere are the "run" software portfolios; they store and exploit your data and manage your applications.
  • Tivoli is the "manage" software portfolio; it integrates, provides security, and manages your overall systems.
  • Lotus is the "collaborate" software portfolio used for integration, messaging, and collaboration across everybitof the other software portfolios.
  • The IBM DB2 software plays a faultfinding role in the on-demand operating environment. everybitof elements of the Information Management portfolio, including DB2, are developed with the four essential characteristics of the on-demand trade model in mind.

  • Integrated: DB2 software has built-in support for both Microsoft and Java development environments. It is besides integrated into WebSphere, Tivoli, Lotus, and Rational products. In addition, the DB2 family has cross-platform capabilities and can be integrated natively with Web services and message-queuing technologies. It besides provides support for heterogeneous data sources for both structured and unstructured information, including pureXML support.
  • Open: DB2 software allows for different technologies to connect and integrate by following standards. Thus, it provides sturdy support for the Linux operating system and for Java, XML, Web services, grid computing, and other major industry applications.
  • Virtualized: Grid computing technology, a ilk of distributed computing, collects and shares resources in a great network to simulate one large, virtual computer. DB2 software products support grid computing technology through federation and integration technologies. Both of these are discussed in more detail later in this chapter.
  • Autonomic: An autonomic computing system manages, repairs, and protects itself. As systems become more complex, autonomic computing systems will become essential. DB2 provides self-tuning capabilities, dynamic adjustment and tuning, simple and taciturn installation processes, and integration with Tivoli for system security and management.
  • The bottom of pattern 1.2 shows the operating systems in which the IBM software suite can operate: Linux, UNIX, Windows, i5/OS, and z/OS. Below that, the servers, storage, and network An on-demand trade depends on having information available on demand, whenever it is needed, by people, tools, or applications. Information On demand is discussed in the next section.

    1.2.2 Information On Demand

    Information On Demand, as its name implies, is making information available whenever people, tools, or applications demand or request it. This can be made viable by providing information as a service. IBM commonly uses the illustration in pattern 1.3 to define what "information as a service" means. Let's employ the following instance to define this concept in a more thoughtprovoking way. Assume you are the generic manager of a supermarket, and your main goal is to yield this trade profitable. To accomplish this, you must yield beneficial decisions, such as how to parade items on shelves so that they sell more. In order to yield beneficial decisions, you exigency to enjoy up-todate, amenable information.

    Figure 1.3 Information as a service

    As depicted at the bottom of pattern 1.3, many businesses today enjoy a great number of heterogeneous sources of information. For this particular instance let's assume your suppliers employ SAP and DB2, your sales department uses an internally developed application, your smaller supermarket clients employ Peoplesoft, and Oracle, and so on. Thus, you survey several heterogeneous applications with semi-raw data, which will only be valuable to you if you can integrate them all. In order to integrate the data, it needs to be provided as a service, and this is viable through the employ of standards such as JDBC and ODBC, and wrapping each of these applications as a Web service. Once the data are integrated, you may foster up with decisions that might not enjoy been logical otherwise, such as putting beer and diapers in the same aisle in order to sell more of both products.

    With the data integrated you can further massage it to effect some additional analysis and pickup insightful relationships. This further massaging of the data can be performed by other software, such as entity analytics, master data, and so on as shown on the right side of the figure. Finally, this integrated data can be passed to other processes, tools and applications, and people for further analysis.

    1.2.3 Service-Oriented Architecture

    Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), as its name implies, is an architecture based on services -- mainly Web services. SOA is not a product, but a methodology, a course to design systems that allow for integration, flexibility, loosely coupled components, and greater code reuse. With this architecture, trade activities are treated as services that can be accessed on demand through the network.

    Figure 1.4, which is besides used in many IBM presentations, depicts the SOA lifecycle. It consists of four iterative steps or stages—Model, Assemble, Deploy, Manage—and a fifth step that provides guidance throughout the cycle: Governance & Processes.

    Figure 1.4 The SOA Lifecycle

    A more particular explanation of each stage in the SOA lifecycle is provided in Table 1.2.

    SOA Stage Description IBM Tools That Can be Used Assemble This stage is about pile unusual services and/or reusing existing ones, and assembling them to figure composite applications. WebSphere Integration DeveloperRational Application Developer Deploy In this stage your services and applications are deployed into a secure environment that integrates people, processes, and information within your business. WebSphere Process ServerWebSphere Message BrokerWebSphere colleague GatewayWebSphere PortalWebSphere Everyplace DeploymentWorkplace Collaboration ServicesWebSphere Information IntegratorWebSphere Application Server Manage In this stage, you exigency to manage and monitor your system, find and revise inefficiencies and problems, deal with security, character of service, and generic system administration. DB2 Content ManagerWebSphere trade MonitorTivoli Composite ApplicationManager for SOATivoli Identity Manager Governance Governance underpins everybitof the lifecycle stages. It ensures that everybitof the services from inside and outside the organization arecontrolled so the system does not spin out of control. Governance provides both direction and control. N/A

    1.2.4 Web Services

    A Web service, as its name implies, is a service made available through the Web. A more formal, but still simple definition states that a Web service is a course for an application to convoke a role over the network; however, there is no exigency to know

  • The location where this role will be executed
  • The platform in which the role will avoid (for instance Linux, UNIX, Windows, the mainframe, Mac OS/X, etc.)
  • The programming language in which the role was created (for instance Java, Cobol, C, etc.)
  • Web services are powerful because they allow businesses to exchange information with minimal or no human intervention. Let's depart back to the supermarket instance to survey the power of Web services in a more realistic scenario:

    Let's sing you order 100,000 cookies from a supplier, expecting everybitof of them to be sold in one month. After the month passes only 60,000 are sold, so you are left with 40,000. Because these are cookies of a special kind, they will spoil in two weeks. You exigency to act expeditiously and sell them to other smaller supermarkets or Internet companies such as Amazon.com or eBay. You can grab the phone and expend an entire morning calling each of the smaller supermarket clients, offering them as many cookies as they would want to buy from you; or you could capture a more "technical" approach and develop a simple application that would sequel this for you automatically. Assuming each of these smaller supermarket clients provide Web services, you could develop an application (in any programming language) that allows you to SQL insert overstocked items, such as the 40,000 cookies, into a DB2 database table overstock. You could then define a trigger on this table which invokes a DB2 stored procedure (more about triggers and stored procedures in Chapter 7, Working with Database Objects) that could consume Web services provided by the Internet companies or the smaller supermarket clients. This scenario is depicted in pattern 1.5.

    Figure 1.5 Using a Web service

    As you can survey from pattern 1.5, the simple act of inserting 40,000 cookies through your application into the table overstock in the DB2 server allows the systems of many smaller supermarkets and Internet companies, through the employ of their Web services, to yield the cookies available on their systems quickly, opening unusual sales channels. In pattern 1.5, DB2 is behaving as a Web service consumer, because it is using or "consuming" the Web services, while the smaller supermarket clients and Internet companies are behaving as the Web service providers, because they are making these Web services available for others to use. For simplicity purposes, they enjoy omitted in pattern 1.5 the convoke to a stored procedure. This scenario shows the power of Web services: business-to-business exchange of information using applications. There is no exigency for human intervention. DB2 and Web services will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 10, Mastering the DB2 pureXML Support.

    1.2.5 XML

    XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. XML's popularity and employ has grown exponentially in the past few years, as it is a core component of many unusual technologies. The easiest course to understand how XML works is by comparing it to HTML, given that many people today are confidential with HTML. Let's capture a leer at the following line in an HTML document:

    RaulIn the above line, the tag indicates the course you would dote to parade the text, in this case, Raul in bold. Now Let's capture a leer at the following line in an XML document: Raul In the above line, the tag describes the text Raul. The tag is maxim that Raul is in fact a name. survey the difference? In HTML, tags are used to argue how you would dote to parade the data; in XML, tags are used to actually record the data. Table 1.3 describes the characteristics of XML. Table 1.3 Characteristics of XML XML Characteristic Description Flexible XML is a resilient language because it is light to modify or adapt. XML is based on a hierarchical model, which is most appropriate to store unstructured types of information such as pecuniary information, life sciences information (for instance Genome, DNA), and so on. Easy to extend XML is light to extend; that is, you can create your own tags. For example, in addition to the tag in the instance above, you could create unusual tags such as , , and so on. This means you can create your own language or protocol based on XML. Describes itself XML can record itself; another document called an XML Schema (which itself is an XML document) is used to provide rules and descriptions as to what each of the tags in a document import and restrict the ilk of data the tags can contain. An older method, but still widely used today, is to employ DTD documents. In the above example, an XML Schema or DTD document can argue that the tag can only be used to store characters. Can be transformed to other formats GXML can be transformed to other formats dote HTML, using Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT), a language used for the transformation of XML documents. Independent of the platform or vendor XML is independent of the platform or vendor; after all, XML documents can be stored in text files containing tags. Text documents are supported everywhere. Easy to share XML is light to partake with other applications, businesses, and processes given that it can be stored as a text document. Because it is light to share, it's appropriate as the core of Web services. XML is besides at the core of Web 2.0 development technologies. Web 2.0, as defined in Wikipedia. org "refers to a perceived second generation of web-based communities and hosted services -- such as social-networking sites, wikis, and folksonomies -- which facilitate collaboration and sharing between users". Wikis, blogs, mash-ups, RSS or atom feeds, and so on, which are allotment of Web 2.0 development technologies, are everybitof based on or related to XML. This makes DB2 9.5 the example data server platform for Web 2.0 development. Table 1.4 describes the different technologies that are allotment of Web 2.0. (To survey Table 1.4 and to read more, download the free .pdf of this chapter.)XML is discussed in more detail in Chapter 10, Mastering the DB2 pureXML Support.More informationContinue reading about IBM DB2 by downloading a free .pdf of the chapter: "Understanding IBM DB2: Product history and strategy."Read other excerpts from data management books in the Chapter Download Library.Listen to a podcast about IBM DB2 9 certifications with Roger Sanders.

    How an customary Drawbridge helped Microsoft bring SQL Server to Linux | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    How an customary Drawbridge helped Microsoft bring SQL Server to LinuxEnlarge Tom Hilton reader comments with 52 posters participating, including epic author Share this story
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  • When in March this year Microsoft announced that it was bringing SQL Server to Linux the reaction was one of surprise, with the announcement prompting two colossal questions: why and how?

    SQL Server is one of Microsoft's major Windows applications, helping to drive Windows sales and support people on the Windows platform. If you can avoid SQL Server on Linux, well, that's one less intuition to employ Windows.

    And while SQL Server does partake inheritance with Sybase SQL Server (now called SAP ASE), a Unix database server that Microsoft ported to Windows, that happened a long time ago. Since 1993, when Sybase and Microsoft went their part ways, the products enjoy diverged and, for the ultimate 23 years, Microsoft SQL Server has been strictly a Windows application. That doesn't normally yield for light porting.

    Reaching the customers where they are

    Even as a Windows-exclusive offering, SQL Server has widespread adoption, taking a substantial chunk of the paid database market. But being Windows-specific has meant that, equally, there was always a harmony of the market that SQL Server couldn't reach. It doesn't much matter what the merits of the database engine really are; it was off-limits to organizations that standardized on Linux.

    Rohan Kumar, generic manager of database systems at Microsoft, told us that there had long been some flush of demand from customers who wanted the flexibility to pick a database without being forced onto a specific operating system but that over the past two to three years these calls had become louder. Containerization and Docker, in particular, were cited as stimulating this demand; organizations want to capture advantage of these features to streamline their deployments and management, but at the same time, they want SQL Server's features and its not-as-cripplingly-expensive-as-Oracle licensing.

    (Windows Server 2016 supports Docker-compatible containers, too, but the broader point remains: companies want to be able to capture advantage of platform features as they become available without tying their hands when it comes to decisions about applications.)

    In the past, Microsoft might enjoy ignored these requests. In the past, Microsoft did ignore these requests. But the company is changing and is increasingly going after opportunities that it might once enjoy ignored. This has taken many forms over the past few years. The release of Office for iPad, for example, cedes what might otherwise enjoy been a unique advantage for Windows-based platforms, but the chance to consolidate Office's position across the industry and strengthen the Office 365 subscription value proposition has outweighed that concern.

    Reaching more customers with more features

    SQL Server is seeing two changes that they might not enjoy expected from the Microsoft of old. One of these is already available today; with Service Pack 1 for SQL Server 2016, Microsoft radically changed the course the database's different versions and charge points worked. Traditionally, the different variants of SQL Server—Express, Standard, Enterprise—have offered two kinds of variation. They enjoy different levels of scalability—Express is limited to a certain amount of RAM and certain sizes of database—and different features. Some high-end features, such as extensive encryption support, were unavailable in the cheaper versions of the database.

    With Service Pack 1, the feature differences were substantially eliminated, leaving only the scalability differences. This means that even the free Express version, for example, has the same encryption capabilities as the expensive versions; it just can't be used to host such colossal databases.

    Scott Guthrie.Scott Guthrie. Microsoft

    Scott Guthrie, executive vice president for cloud and enterprise, told us that this kind of change came with some risks, but it besides offered opportunities. He pointed to Visual Studio Community Edition, released in 2014, as a kind of precursor to this. Making a fully featured version of Visual Studio available for free was a determination that could enjoy cost revenue as paying developers moved to the free version (prior to Community Edition, the Express Edition products were free, but these had certain functional constraints not found in Community Edition), but Guthrie told us that the company had actually seen Visual Studio revenue grow. Teams and companies that otherwise might not enjoy used Visual Studio at everybitof used the product and became drawn to it.

    Guthrie expresses a similar hope for Service Pack 1. Sure, some companies may enjoy been paying for SQL Server solely to access features not found in the Express SKU, and they may now deliver that money, but the company hopes that this will be offset by developers making greater employ of SQL Server in general, making greater employ of SQL Server's complicated features (ones previously available only in expensive versions), and seeing increased sales as these unusual applications exigency the scalability that the paid SKUs provide.

    Kumar told us that expectations for SQL Server on Linux were similar. There was some nervousness and trepidation when the determination was first made to bring SQL Server to Linux—would it simply nick Windows revenue as companies switched to the cheaper server operating system?—but as the project progressed, the team grew more confident that it would open up SQL Server to a gross set of customers who previously couldn't even contemplate it because of its OS dependency.

    Moreover, he said that without offering this kind of flexibility, there were customers using SQL Server that were likely to defect to other options anyway to reduce their platform lock-in. SQL Server for Linux carries risks, but so does keeping SQL Server restricted to Windows. The chance was felt to outweigh these concerns.

    The initial response has been encouraging, with 21,000 people signing up to employ the Linux preview and 3,000 to 4,000 using it extensively.

    Lowering the Drawbridge

    The determination to depart ahead with SQL Server for Linux was made about 18 months ago. The question then became, how to sequel it?

    It was seen as essential that SQL Server on Linux enjoy identical semantics and performance to SQL Server on Windows, right down to the flush of database file compatibility. This would be very difficult to sequel if the software were forked to enjoy two part versions each with their own approach to file I/O, recollection management, threading, and so on.

    But SQL Server is a great application, and although its interactions with Windows are relatively narrow—things dote the graphical management tools are remaining Windows-only, at least for the time being, so a great allotment of the Windows API surface is avoided—it still uses about 1,500 Win32 API calls. Supporting everybitof of these on Linux would be a major undertaking.

    Drawbridge runs an almost complete operating system within a process.Drawbridge runs an almost complete operating system within a process.

    The first piece of the puzzle was a Microsoft Research Project that was completed in 2011 called Drawbridge. The Drawbridge project explored a unusual approach to process virtualization and isolation with two major elements: a picoprocess, which is a lightweight process that has access to a diminutive number of about 50 low-level kernel features, and a Library OS (LibOS), which is a modified operating system stack designed to avoid within a picoprocess.

    An application and LibOS avoid within the picoprocess together, with LibOS providing everybitof the operating system-like functionality that the application depends on, such as threading, virtual recollection management, and a replete set of file I/O features. LibOS talks to the underlying kernel using those 50 or so API calls.

    This approach offers much of the isolation and security that virtual machines offer—each picoprocess has its own LibOS, so even if the application is compromised and the kernel attacked, it's only the LibOS "kernel" running in user mode, rather than the actual kernel running below—but with lower overheads. LibOS doesn't exigency to provide an entire operating system's worth of functionality; it can be restricted to only the APIs and services that a specific application needs. This cuts the per-application recollection and processor overhead when compared to running each individual application within a virtual machine.

    Though the Drawbridge project ended in 2011, Microsoft has drawn inspiration from it already. The picoprocess concept is used for the Windows Subsystem for Linux. Linux processes on Windows are "empty" processes that omit the habitual Windows libraries. In fact, they can't even yield Windows kernel role calls. WSL doesn't employ a Library OS. Instead, it uses a kernel-mode component that offers the WSL picoprocesses the faculty to yield Linux kernel role calls; that component offers a subset of the Linux API built on top of the Windows NT kernel.

    SQL Server's operating system on top of an operating system

    The second major element to SQL Server for Linux is a piece of work that the SQL Server team did for SQL Server 2005, called SQLOS.

    Dependent as it was on Windows, SQL Server is actually something of an anomaly when it comes to Windows programs, because it avoids using Windows as much as it can. Windows, as a generic purpose OS, offers everybitof manner of functionality. It has a filesystem, with complicated data caching. It has a thread scheduler, designed for everything from lone core machines up to monstrous servers with hundreds of cores; it has a recollection manager that works with anything from a browser on a machine with 2GB RAM to a database on a machine with 1TB RAM. It spans a huge ambit of configurations and workloads, and it does so with a lone kernel that works the same course (albeit with a diminutive number of tunable options) across the board.

    SQL Server, however, is a performance-critical application that often (though not always) runs on dedicated hardware. The engineers understand its workload very well and want to optimize for that workload and that workload alone. Accordingly, they've designed SQL Server to exploit many of the tasks that the operating system would normally handle.

    For example, most Windows applications employ the Windows file cache to help disk I/O performance. SQL Server, however, uses unbuffered I/O, bypassing the Windows cache entirely, and instead implements its own internal caching system. Similarly, SQL Server handles scheduling and switching between threads, another assignment traditionally handled by the OS.

    SQLOS besides replicates much of an operating system's functionality. Enlarge / SQLOS besides replicates much of an operating system's functionality.

    Thanks to SQLOS, the core SQL Server engine doesn't actually depend on Windows very much. SQLOS uses a few low-level features from the Windows kernel and then implements its own "operating system" on top of them.

    In other words, SQLOS is doing a lot of the kind of work that LibOS does.

    Not every allotment of SQL Server uses SQLOS. The SQL Server Agent service, used for scheduling tasks within the database, relies on regular OS handling of file I/O and process scheduling and so on. So too sequel elements such as SQL Server's XML support (which uses Microsoft's MSXML XML library) and SQLCLR, the .NET runtime embedded within the database. These exigency something closer to replete Win32 to run—and again, that sounds a lot dote LibOS as it provides a version of Win32, or at least a great allotment of it.

    Taking the best of both worlds

    Accordingly, Microsoft took these ideas and merged them. The final snapshot of the LibOS code from Drawbridge was merged with SQLOS, producing what Microsoft calls SQLPAL, the SQL Platform Abstraction Layer. Whereas the Drawbridge LibOS offered Windows-style thread scheduling, I/O management, and so on, SQLPAL took the SQL Server-optimized code from SQLOS for these features, creating a kind of cut-down version of Win32 with its performance tailored to SQL Server's needs.

    SQLPAL's Win32 support is not complete—around 1 percent (81MB) of Windows libraries are used, with SQLPAL itself being another 8MB—but it's sufficient to avoid MSXML, SQL Server Agent, and many of the other essential parts of SQL Server. While these components used the regular Windows scheduler, I/O, and recollection management in older SQL Server, with SQLPAL even these parts now employ the optimized, specialized routines.

    Drawbridge's LibraryOS combined with SQLOS gives us SQLPAL.Drawbridge's LibraryOS combined with SQLOS gives us SQLPAL.

    Beneath SQLPAL is a layer called a "host extension" (the equivalent in Drawbridge was called a Platform Abstraction Layer) that provides the bridge between the underlying platform, either Linux or Windows. Everything above the host extension is common code; the host extension has Win32 and Linux versions.

    Indeed, the things running on top of the host extension are not merely common code; they're common binaries. SQL Server on Linux is not a Linux executable in Linux's ELF format. It's a Windows executable, in Windows' PE format. You could in principle capture it and avoid it on Windows.

    The design means that in broad strokes, the performance of SQL Server on Linux and SQL Server on Windows will be matched; the underlying OS is in many regards bypassed completely except for the set of calls that the host extension makes. However, a few pieces are performance critical, such as disk I/O. In these areas, Microsoft has nick back the amount of code between SQL Server and the underlying platform, enabling SQL Server to yield more or less direct calls to the underlying operating system APIs. In some cases this requires a diminutive amount of translation code—for example, SQL Server is built to employ Windows' scatter/gather I/O, which uses different recollection layouts to Linux's vectored I/O, so there must be conversion between the two—but often even this isn't needed.

    Work in progress

    In the current preview release, the merging of SQLOS and LibOS is still ongoing. Currently, SQL Server includes its own SQLOS, sitting atop the SQLPAL. Microsoft is working to remove SQLOS and yield SQL Server convoke into SQLPAL directly. When this is done, there will be a lone SQLPAL with both SQL Server and everybitof its ancillary processes and libraries running on top of it.

    There are still parts of SQL Server that won't be in the initial stable release of SQL Server for Linux. Some of these, such as a SQL Server feature called FileTables, are tricky because they depend on specific features of the NTFS filesystem. Similarly, integrated Windows authentication depends on Windows. It's not pellucid how these features will be brought to Linux, if indeed they are. Other missing features, such as replete Text Search and Reporting Services, are likely to be brought over eventually; they just require additional developer time and so won't be ready in time for the initial release. The long-term goal is to enjoy every allotment of SQL Server that makes sense to avoid on Linux running on Linux.

    Testers of the preview enjoy even expressed a desire for this to comprehend SQL Server's graphical management tools. Currently, SQL Server for Linux offers only command-line-based management. The graphical tools avoid on Windows only at the moment, though they can be used to manage the database running on both operating systems.

    To be truly credible as a Linux database, there's more work than just porting SQL Server itself. Application support is besides important. Microsoft has taken some steps toward this already—for example, the JDBC driver, used to access SQL Server from Java applications, was recently open sourced—but there's much more work to sequel to ensure that SQL Server is on the same footing as other Linux database engines when it comes to support from management front-ends and software libraries. Kumar told us that this is an area of ongoing exertion and that the weight is recognized.

    With SQL Server on Linux, the Drawbridge project has been one of Microsoft's more obviously fruitful pieces of research. Both the picoprocess concept and the LibOS concept enjoy been used and are—albeit separately from one another—or will be, allotment of shipping software. Early indications suggest sturdy interest in SQL Server for Linux, and while the company is still a runt course off, the halt goal of having just "SQL Server," rather than SQL Server for Windows and SQL Server for Linux, looks attainable.



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