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9L0-614 Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4

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9L0-614 exam Dumps Source : Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4

Test Code : 9L0-614
Test name : Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4
Vendor name : Apple
exam questions : 67 true Questions

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Apple Mac OS X Server

Apple to Deprecate Many macOS Server features | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Apple has posted a uphold subsist alert titled “prepare for adjustments to macOS Server,” and boy are they no longer kidding about massive alterations coming. In an supplant to macOS Server due in “spring 2018,” Apple will deprecate ten capabilities by artery of hiding them on recent installations. if you’ve already configured one of the most deprecated functions, you’ll subsist in a position to retain using it in that replace.

In a future release of macOS Server, Apple will evaporate additional and acquire away the deprecated functions entirely. The writing is on the wall — it’s time to rise getting to know alternate options.

The deprecated capabilities are:

  • Calendar
  • Contacts
  • DHCP
  • DNS
  • Mail
  • Messages
  • NetInstall
  • VPN
  • websites
  • Wiki
  • For every, Apple’s back note links to alternate options, besides the fact that children I’m bound the Mac admin community could believe additional assistance and options. in case you’re not already in one of those agencies, i recommend the MacEnterprise mailing record and the MacAdmins Slack team.

    If I’m diffing accurately, the functions with a purpose to continue to subsist in macOS Server comprise these three (Apple didn’t name out application supplant for elimination, nonetheless it’s already hidden, so it looks destined for the slicing block as smartly):

  • Open listing
  • Profile supervisor
  • Xsan
  • That list is in accordance with Apple’s commentary that “macOS Server is changing to focal point more on management of computers, contraptions, and storage on your community.”

    Over at Krypted, Charles partake has been holding a page that tracks the ebb and stream of capabilities in Server over time. The number peaked fairly just a few revisions ago and has been losing ever given that. in part, that’s as a result of Apple has moved a few features into macOS for full to use, peculiarly content material Caching and Time machine Server.

    on account of Apple’s glaring want of hobby in macOS Server in fresh years, few individuals are surprised with the aid of Apple’s announcement. although, many are distressed with the aid of it since it sends a troubling message to wee corporations which believe long relied on OS X Server and macOS Server. Consultants and IT admins who suggested, installed, and maintained these macOS Server setups are concerned about having to research, install, and sustain up with the great diversity of apps essential to substitute the entire capabilities that macOS Server offered in a solitary coherent package. and of course, even though the options are better technically, relocating to them would require non-trivial investments of time and money.

    Are you the usage of OS X Server or macOS Server now? What’s your design for coping with dropping these features? let us know within the feedback.

    understand the system to recuperate Cox Mail settings in your Mac OS | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Are you dealing with situation in sending and receiving Cox e-mail out of your Mac OS X EI Capitan? If sure, then comply with the steps mentioned during this publish to update your server settings because your issue could subsist going on because of server supplant issue.

    Updating a server will most likely fix your problem and you may subsist able to route and acquire the messages in your Cox com login.

    follow the under-outlined steps to edit the incoming and outgoing e-mail server settings of your Mac 10.11 OS.

    Server settings to acquire mail on account:

    The steps to edit the settings are explained beneath. You exigency to pay sort consideration to each and every and each step.

    · Open the utility folder to your Mac gadget and tap on mail. click on on the dock obtainable at the backside of the monitor to open the mail.

    · evaporate to ‘preferences’ from the cox aid drop down menu.

    · Now, click on on ‘bills’ and evaporate to Cox e mail login to select the specific account for enhancing.

    · Now comprehensive the below-outlined tasks:

    Ø evaporate to ‘advanced tab’.

    Ø Uncheck the box, which says ‘instantly become alert of the account and alter settings’.

    Ø you're going to ascertain the purple circle on the exact left of window display. click on it.

    Ø at last, click on ‘shop’ to retailer the adjustments.

    · once more click on ‘preferences’ from the drop down menu of your Cox account. if you ascertain any vicissitude in locating the things for your equipment, then which you could acquire Cox email assist from the provider officers as smartly.

    · evaporate to the ‘account’ section.

    · Enter the username, identify of the server, and password within the principal container. that you would subsist able to acquire further sheperd from the Cox assist link.

    · once more click on on the crimson circle to retailer the adjustments, you made these days together with your account server.

    · Now exit the window and check out sending the mail to your cox account from your Gmail or from other mail provider company.

    Server settings to ship emails out of your account:

    The settings to route e-mail out of your account are being discussed perquisite here as under:

    · evaporate to app folder once more from your home array and click on ‘mail’ icon from the backside of the display.

    · click ‘preferences’ to change the settings. If the updating process is not executing effectively, then you can examine your web connection or name at cox web assist quantity.

    · Now comply with the selfsame procedure as adopted for the previous settings i: e, open the bills area and click on on the specific account you want to edit.

    · below SMTP container, check the identify being displayed by clicking on the arrows purchasable subsequent to the Outgoing mail server container.

    · complete the following mission now:

    Ø opt for the preempt SMTP server from the server checklist.

    Ø evaporate to the ‘advanced’ tab.

    Ø Uncheck the box with option ‘immediately notice and change the account settings’

    be aware: if you locate that the settings are once more changed to immediately realize mode after re-opening the mail app from your apple device, then full you should upshot is trade the authentication classification in your mail outgoing server. change it to password authentication sort from the MD5 response authentication.

    · examine the server settings before finally submitting it. which you could evaporate to Cox tv uphold link for greater particulars.

    · click on ‘good enough’ adopted through ‘keep’ to redeem the modified settings of your outgoing server.

    · examine the container which says ‘Use this server handiest’. And the outgoing server may silent subsist accurately chosen.

    · once again click on the crimson circular button at the exact of the account settings reveal.

    · token out from full debts of the mailbox container.

    · Now open the mailbox again and token onto full money owed.

    · Exit and re-open the mail app on Mac.

    inner Mac OS X 10.7 Lion Server: Apple replaces Samba for home windows networking capabilities | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The upcoming free up of Mac OS X 10.7 Lion Server will eradicate the formerly bundled open source Samba utility and exchange it with Apple's personal tools for windows file sharing and community directory services.Apple started bundling Samba with Mac OS X 10.2, enabling Mac clients to connect to Microsoft's windows file and network directory capabilities in accordance with SMB (Server Message Block, a protocol furthermore called windows File Sharing).

    In both Mac OS X Server and customer variations, Samba enables Macs to partake files with windows shoppers on the community and entry home windows file servers. It has additionally later allowed Mac OS X Server to travail as an NT domain Controller to maneuver community debts and invent roaming profiles and residential directories accessible to home windows computer users.

    besides the fact that children, the Samba group has moved energetic development of the assignment to the more strict GPLv3 license, which prevents Apple from realistically using the utility commercially.

    builders file that Apple has internally formally announced that it is going to drag Samba from Mac OS X Lion and Lion Server, and exchange it with windows networking application developed through Apple. the brand recent substitute for Samba is said to subsist named SMBX, and helps Microsoft's newer SMB2 version of its proprietary but overtly published protocol, which changed into originally released in home windows Vista.

    while Mac OS X's outdated Samba handiest supported the customary SMB1, Microsoft's recent SBM2 is each faster and greater effective, reducing the variety of instructions and subcommands from over a hundred to just 19, while adding pipelining of commands (to greater efficaciously transact over sluggish links), sheperd for symbolic links, caching of file properties, and greater storage fields helping more desirable performance of significant file transfers over speedy networks.

    Apple's windows file sharing software in Lion will proceed to enable Macs to each supply and access windows-style file shares, however reportedly will not aid the NT area Controller elements of Samba, which relate to Microsoft's 1990's, NT-period listing service supported just before energetic directory, which turned into released alongside home windows 2000.

    despite its age, some networks silent utilize NT area Controller configurations on account of its relative simplicity in comparison to Microsoft's more up to date energetic directory. Apple is now referred to to subsist recommending energetic directory to clients who are nevertheless stylish upon the older NT domain Controller community directory functions.

    having said that, the version of Samba Apple had been the usage of averted Macs from seamlessly working with modern PCs operating windows 7, which encompass safety adjustments in how encryptions protocols work. Apple's own software might not subsist constrained via the design hassle of Samba.

    end users might conceivably gleam Samba on their own and integrate it into their Mac OS X ambiance themselves, however Samba does not at the flash supply ready to utilize binaries for Mac OS X, and a simple port of Samba would want Apple's effortless to utilize consumer interface and tense integration with other Apple software, together with Open listing, the business's own directory functions answer.

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    Mac OS X Server Command and Line Install and Configuration v10.4

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    Run OpenVPN on Windows, Mac and Linux/Unix | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    OpenVPN is famously difficult to score up and running, but the truth is that it needn’t be. In this second and concluding OpenVPN article I am going to evaporate through what it takes to score an OpenVPN Ethernet tunnel set up between a laptop computer and an office or home machine acting as an OpenVPN server.

    Downloading and Installing OpenVPN

    Before you can score OpenVPN running on any computer you exigency to download and install it:

    Creating a Public Key Infrastructure

    Once you’ve got OpenVPN successfully installed, it’s time to build the public key infrastructure needed for certificate-based authentication. If you don’t know what this means, don’t worry: just succeed the instructions. A fuller explanation can subsist found at

    To score started, you’ll exigency to utilize the Easy-RSA PKI suite.

    On Windows machines you’ll find it at: C:Program FilesOpenVPNeasy-rsa

    On Linux machines this will probably subsist installed in an easy-rsa directory machines at /usr/share/doc/packages/opevpn or /usr/share/doc/openvpn-2.0, but it’s a Good understanding to sail this to /etc/openvpn to avert it getting overwritten by future updates.

    Generating the Master Certificate Authority (CA) Certificate & Key

    Windows: From the Start button select cmd, and in the command window type:

    cd "C:Program FilesOpenVPNeasy-rsa

    Linux/BSD/UNIX: Open a terminal window and type

    cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa

    (assuming you believe moved the easy-rsa directory to this location)

    Then sort the following commands, followed by return:


    init-config vars clean-all build-ca


    ./init-config ./vars ./clean-all ./build-ca

    Figure 1The terminal command will invoke a window which will inquireof for a succession of values. You can press the recrudesce key to enter the default values for full of these except the value for Common Name. For this, type: TestVPN

    Generating the Server and Client Certificates and Keys

    Then next step is to generate a server certificate and key, again using the Easy-RSA suite. The command for this is:

  • Windows: build-key-server server
  • Linux/BSD/UNIX: ./build-key-server server
  • In the interactive session that follows, simply press Enter to provide the default value each time, until you are asked for a Common Name. For Common name enter “server” , then continue entering the default values until prompted to token the certificate. reply “y” to this question and to the following one to finish.

    Then generate the certificate and key for your client machine. The process is similar to the one for pile the server certificate and key, but this time enter client1 as the common name.

    If you believe you may want to access the OpenVPN server from more than one laptop, reiterate the process, replacing client2 or client3 for client1 each time.

  • Windows: build-key client1
  • Linux/BSD/UNIX: ./build-key client1
  • Generating Diffie-Hellman Parameters

    The final step is to generate Diffie-Hellman parameters for key exchange:

  • Windows: build-dh
  • Linux/BSD/UNIX: ./build-dh
  • Figure 2You’ll find the results of full this travail in a subfolder called keys in the easy-rsa folder, and the final job is to sail the client key and certificate to your client device. The files in question are client1.key and client1.crt. (If you believe created more than one client certificate key and certificate, sail the client2.key and client2.crt files to the second machine, and so on.)

  • Windows: location the files in C:WindowsProgram FilesOpenVPNeasy-rsakeys
  • Linux/BSD/Unix: location the files in /etc/openvpn/
  • Your public key infrastructure is now set up.

    Creating the OpenVPN Configuration Files

    When OpenVPN runs it reads a configuration file at c:Program FilesOpenVPNconfig (Windows) or in /etc/openvpn (Linux/BSD/Unix). This text file contains full the information OpenVPN needs to know to invent or receive a connection, so it’s crucial that these files are correct.

    The easiest artery to score OpenVPN working in the artery they want is to edit the highlighted lines in the following config files to match your network setup, redeem them as a text file and copy them to the preempt location.

    Server configuration file:

    #server config file start

    local # Change this address to the IP address of the network card attached to your router. To ensure this does not change you exigency either to believe a static local IP address, or to configure your router to always assign this local IP address to your server.

    port 1194 # This is the port OpenVPN will sprint on. Change it to a different port if you prefer

    proto udp

    mssfix 1400

    push "dhcp-option DNS XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX" # supplant the Xs with the IP address of the DNS server for your network

    push "dhcp-option DNS YYY.YYY.YYY.YYY" # supplant the Xs with the IP address of the secondary DNS server for your network

    dev tap

    ca "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\ca.crt" #change this location to /etc/openvpn (without quotation marks) for Linux/BSD/Unix systems

    cert "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\server.crt" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems

    key "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\server.key" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems

    dh "C:\Program Files\OpenVPN\easy-rsa\keys\dh1024.pem" #change this location to /etc/openvpn for Linux/BSD/Unix systems

    server # This will subsist the virtual IP address and subnet of the server’s OpenVPN connection. Change it to something similar relish if this subnet is already in use

    ifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt push "redirect-gateway def1" keepalive 10 120

    cipher BF-CBC # Blowfish (default)If you prefer, you can utilize one of the two ciphers listed below (which must subsist the selfsame as the client)

    #cipher AES-128-CBC # AES #cipher DES-EDE3-CBC # Triple-DES comp-lzo max-clients 3 # Change the 3 to the number of client keys you believe created persist-key persist-tun status openvpn-status.log # user nobody # remove the # at the start of the line for Linux/BSD/Unix systems # group nobody # remove the first # at the start of the line for Linux/BSD/Unix systems verb 1 #config file ends

    Save this file as server.ovpn, and sail it to c:Program FilesOpenVPNconfig (Windows) or /etc/openvpn (Linux/BSD/Unix)

    What to upshot If You Don’t believe a Static Public IP Address

    OpenVPN clients connect to the OpenVPN server using a public IP address or host name that needs to subsist entered into the client config file. If your ISP provides your traffic or home network with a dynamic IP address that changes each time an Internet connection is reset then your client config will no longer travail after a reconnection. To score round this you can score a free hostname from DynDNS which automatically points to your dynamic IP address, even when it changes. To score a dynamic host name (such as visit

    A review of the Mac mini with Snow Leopard Server | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

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  • Pity the wee office when it comes to technology. With anywhere from several to several dozen employees, there's often no budget for an IT director to manage full the network services required for a modern company of any size. Offices may exigency to ply email, file-sharing, calendar and contacts hosting, collaboration tools, and other matters. Especially in this economy, how can an office of that size—perhaps your office?—afford the technician needed to install and sustain a Microsoft Server 2008 installation on the rails, plus the initial cost in per-seat licenses. Unix and Linux distributions may subsist free or believe relatively inexpensive purchase and service contracts, but you pay for that in requiring more expertise in house or on demand.

    That may lead firms to Google's door, turning to Web hosted services via Google Apps. But the $50 per-user, per-year fee can add up, and Google Apps doesn't offer everything a wee traffic needs. Some companies may not want to evaporate this route, or may subsist matter to regulatory issues that avert proprietary or confidential data from being located offsite with Google—or anyone. That seems to leave a great niche in which companies want an affordable product that runs on commodity hardware and doesn't exigency the constant ministrations of an IT expert, even if one's required to set it up.

    Apple has such a product, Mac OS X Server, but has been fragile at exploiting this niche despite the server's long history. Apple has focused instead on uphold for great corporations' enterprise networks, data headquarters and cluster use, and academic deployments. Releases before version 10.6 (Snow Leopard) had numerous difficulties for those who couldn't quickly fire up a command line and start entering commands from memory. Further, OS X Server was often too focused on providing services for networks mostly comprised of Macs; a lot of lip service was paid to Windows support, but it's only seemingly fully matured in 10.6.

    But what makes OS X Server 10.6 a perfectly reasonable selection for small-to-medium-sized businesses is recent pricing coupled with a custom Mac mini configuration. For $999, you can buy a perfectly speedy office server with a full, unlimited-seat license.

    In this review, I spy at a few specific aspects of the Mac mini server model and OS X Server as they relate to sub-enterprise-scale networks, especially where IT staff back isn't assumed. I furthermore offer you two key tips for fixing problems in OS X Server that tripped me up during testing.

    (This is not a full review of OS X Server, which would acquire many tens of thousands of words and months of testing, much relish John Siracusa's in-depth OS X client reviews.)

    Hardware, OS, and Pricing

    The Mac mini server—its full name is the Mac mini with Snow Leopard Server—brings together two part developments: a substantial expense Cut for OS X Server and increasingly powerful Mac mini models that believe the gumption to travail as servers.

    Before 10.6, Apple charged $999 for its unlimited user license, and $499 for a 10-user version. The 10-user limit, however, applied only to simultaneous logins for confident kinds of services, including AFP (Apple Filing Protocol), Apple's aboriginal file-sharing service. The 10.6 release threw that pricing out the window. There's one version of OS X Server 10.6: $499 for an unlimited user version. OS X Server can subsist installed on nearly any system capable of running the regular version of Snow Leopard (which itself costs $29 for a 10.5 Leopard upgrade version that could subsist used for a full installation). OS X Server since 10.5 can furthermore subsist virtualized with one paid license per virtualization; the $499 expense makes virtualization cheaper, too.

    By comparison, Windows wee traffic Server 2008 comes in two editions (naturally) for either $1,089 (standard) or $1,899 (premium) with five client licenses, and charges $77 or $189 respectively for each additional client license. The premium version includes Microsoft SQL Server 2008 for wee businesses, and, because MySQL is included with OS X Server, one could squabble the premium version is most comparable.

    The Mac mini Server ($999) is the other development. Before this particular model, Apple shipped only one gauge server system in multiple configurations with a full software license included: its rack-mounted Xserve (starting at $2,999), designed for server rooms and data centers. Until an update in March 2009, the Mac mini was too underpowered to ply multiple server tasks, although the mini was often found in data centers.

    If you're weren't racking your server, then an iMac or Mac Pro could serve, but both models can subsist overkill. The Mac Pro can subsist purchased in a build-to-order configuration starting at $2,999 with OS X Server installed, but the Mac Pro has a stalwart graphics orientation, designed to subsist best used by 2D, 3D, and video professionals. An iMac can ply OS X Server, too, but you're paying for a built-in monitor you likely don't need.

    The March 2009 Mac mini update gave the tiny desktop true performance, bringing it reasonably immediate to iMac system specs. The October 2009 Mac mini update bumped specs and made the server pricing travail with Mac mini server.

    For $999, you score a 2.53 GHz Intel Core Duo, 4GB of 1066 MHz DDR3 RAM, two 500GB drives, one FireWire 800 port and five USB 2.0 ports, gigabit Ethernet, Bluetooth 2.1+EDR, and Wi-Fi (802.11n).

    The server flavor omits an internal CD/DVD drive, which Apple sells as a USB attachment for $99; the second 500GB difficult drive fills the optical drive's space. Instead of the external optical drive, you can utilize the networked CD/DVD feature—Remote Disc—that was added for the MacBook Air. Mount a disc on computer elsewhere on the network with CD/DVD sharing enabled—separate software for Windows or via the Sharing system preference pane in Mac OS X—and the mini can mount it and even install a recent operating system from it.

    Two mistakes

    Apple made only two missteps on system specs. First, a server nearly always does better with more memory, and while 4GB isn't unreasonable, an 8GB top limit would believe been better if it were possible. Several Mac tech sites believe tested putting in 8GB without any trouble, but Apple doesn't uphold such a configuration, which means future versions of Snow Leopard could unintentionally occasions trouble. (The worst vicissitude I believe had in 9 years of running OS X has been with system updates and incompatible third-party RAM.)

    The second stumble is by limiting the Mac mini to 5400 rpm drives, the selfsame as are used on the low immediate in laptops, instead of widely available 7200 rpm drives. Servers profit from faster drives because disk i/o runs continuously with many different sizes and types of file operations.

    It may believe been a heat issue, because the retail inequity in expense can subsist as exiguous as $20 to $30 per drive, and Apple would pay some fraction of that. However, it likely would believe boosted the mini's street expense by $50 to $100, and that may believe been seen as unacceptable.

    The issue of RAM and drive hasten are interrelated. More RAM would augment caching and reduce disk accesses; a faster drive would invent a system with less RAM travail more efficiently.

    Apple should regard offering a higher-end mini for what would likely subsist $1,299 to $1,399 with two 7200 rpm drives and 8GB.

    When I spoke to Apple about drive performance, product managers renowned that the unit includes a FireWire 800 port. Several of my colleagues who believe tested similar configurations disclose that external FireWire 800 drives could outperform an internal drive. Apple is offering the pledge SmartStor DS4600 RAID system alongside the mini for $799 with four 7200-rpm 1 TB drives, and two FireWire 800 ports. The device can subsist hardware-configured for mirroring, performance, or redundancy.

    For networked Time Machine backups across an office network, this add-on might decipher two problems reasonably affordably. Four 1TB drives purchased separately can cost as much as $350 to $450 with no cases and without hardware RAID support.

    Booting up for the first time

    I believe the advantage in this review of testing two part Mac mini servers. One I purchased days after the release of the model when it appeared as if a Mac mini I utilize for handling backups of Linux servers via Retrospect—don't ask—had given up the ghost. I had wanted to consolidate mail service, DNS, and a handful of other services onto a newer system, moving the functions from a Linux server, so I took the plunge. (My older Mac mini wasn't dead, only resting.)

    How Apple Tries to invent It Easy

  • Simplified server settings via Server Preferences
  • Automatic generation of self-signed SSL/TLS certificate
  • Automatic configuration of a variety of networked software for 10.6 (Snow Leopard) client systems
  • Creates a custom PDF on the Desktop with details on next steps, such as MX records for DNS to score outside mail delivery
  • The other system was a short-term loan from Apple, which let me compare and contrast a machine I'd configured to sprint with a pristine installation. In both cases, I didn't migrate any files from other systems, just test functions.

    The Mac mini server is precisely relish its non-server brethren. It's a squat square. You unpack it, plug in a power supply and an included mini-DVI to DVI adapter, hook up a monitor, keyboard, and mouse, and you're ready to go.

    Set-up for a preinstalled copy of OS X Server is very much relish the first boot for a client OS X system. You walk through a very wee number of settings, enter registration information, and create an account that can subsist used to administer the system. OS X Server, relish full of Apple's traffic and professional products, has a serial number that must subsist entered; it's then confirmed with Apple over the Internet. As partake of setup, you reply a very few questions about what services you want to use, but you can change those choices later.

    It's most likely that a server won't believe a permanent "head" or monitor, so after the initial start up, I activate my MobileMe account in system preferences and spin on Back to My Mac, as well as Screen Sharing in the Sharing preference pane. (Back to My Mac only works with a solitary MobileMe account, so it's not exemplar for situations in which you believe multiple people who exigency remote access. Screen Sharing otherwise requires a publicly reachable IP address or port mapping that connects a public IP on a router to your server's screen-sharing port.)

    Server Preferences

    Mac OS X Server has always been a bit of a stand to manage. Apple uses largely open-source and free software packages which the difficult overlays with what can sometimes subsist a thin layer of graphical interface. OS X Server splits management between Server Admin, which handles software services, log files, and the like, and Workgroup Manager, which controls users and groups, and the policies that relate to them.

    In the 10.5 server release, Apple tried to invent simple server setup even more straightforward by offering a control panel interface for full the basics, called Server Preferences. You could start with Server Preferences, and graduate to Server Admin if simple wasn't enough. But there was a catch: once you started using the more sophisticated management interface, you could never utilize Server Preferences again.

    This cousin of System Preferences provides simple options for configuring powerful services. But it may not subsist enough.

    In 10.6, Apple remedied this. You can utilize either configuration utensil interchangeably. The bigger inequity between the two is that Server Preferences works only locally on the computer on which it's running; Server Admin and Workgroup Manager connect via an IP address or hostname regardless of the machine on which they operate.

    To utilize Server Preferences, just click the icon in the dock. Server Admin is in the Server folder furthermore located on the dock to the right. You can download server tools separately for any computer from Apple, or install from a disk included with the server. Launch Server Admin, enter the server's IP or domain name, and an administrative username and password to connect, while optionally storing the data for later use.

    Server Preferences requires that you reliance Apple on its default settings, especially regarding security, although that may not subsist a imperfect wager to make. For local network iChat, Address Book, iCal, and other settings, that's not a terrible idea. For Mail, it can subsist a problem, and firewall settings of any true scope can't subsist set within Server Preferences.

    I do, however, recommend setting up accounts and groups via the Users and Groups preferences in Server Preferences. The alternative is to utilize Workgroup Manager, which I silent find difficult to utilize and which generates unpredictable results years after I've been wrestling with it. Workgroup Manager provides access to more varied and profound settings that most humans never exigency see, but it furthermore works erratically.

    OS X Server requires you to utilize Open Directory, a artery of confederating accounts across systems and offering LDAP-based directory information to Address engage and other applications. You can furthermore set up the system to travail on a standalone basis, where account information is stored in a local directory. After my experiences, I'd suggest going with the Apple flow, even though it may appear overkill.

    Here's my first tip that will redeem you heartache should it happen to you. I had switched to utilize standalone local Open Directory authentication on my co-lo Mac mini server. After a restart when installing updates to Java and Safari, accounts other than the one set up at startup no longer accepted password authentication.

    Fast forward four hours after consulting as many experts and sources as I could, and using Workgroup Manager to change passwords and check authentication settings. I had my hair pulled out when I decided to try the lowly System Preferences, because local account information is shown there as well. confident enough, changing the password there reset authentication systemwide.

    Setting up clients

    When first setting up client Macs, OS X Server 10.6 has a desirable trick. You can match identical account names that you add on the server to those of clients on the network. With the server active, a Mac OS X 10.6 client on startup or login with the selfsame name as any server account will subsist prompted to accept an invitation.

    OS X 10.6 automatically recognizes a server invite for same-named accounts, and can offer to set up several services.

    If the client does accept, 10.6 configures itself with information from the server for full local services, relish Address Book, iCal, Mail, iChat, and others. This can furthermore subsist done manually by sending an invitation to a user from the Users pane in Server Preferences. Older Macs and Windows systems will exigency to enter values manually in many cases; Apple's Mail software can often configure itself, however.

    (Another tip: This auto-configure option will fail if you haven't given a true domain name—one that resolves via DNS from your local DNS servers or global DNS servers—to your Mac mini when you first set it up. Either set up a true name and enter it while configuring the Mac mini, or utilize the OS X Server as the DNS server for client computers to avoid this problem.)


    I'm not a paranoid guy, but I believe grown to believe that every service available for remote connection should subsist secured by SSL/TLS. That's nearly always feasible these days, and—with the exception of FTP—OS X Server lets you quite simply utilize a solitary server certificate to protect everything it offers over a local network and the Internet.

    This starts with OS X Server generating a self-signed certificate as partake of the setup process after you give the server a local or fully qualified domain name. (A local name would subsist attach into the local side of a DNS server for local resolution; a fully qualified name can subsist found in public DNS, and looked up from anywhere. As renowned above, I recommend you device this out before the initial OS X Server setup.)

    A self-signed cert has a lot of limitations, of course, because it requires that every client connection from every program that uses SSL/TLS has to accept that the certificate is valid. Third-party certificate authority (CA) signed certificates are automatically validated because the CA authority certificate signatures are built into the operating system or client software.

    A self-signed certificate has to subsist trusted since there's no third party that's validating whether it's what it claims to be.

    However, for local networks, that may not subsist that sizable of a bar. Apple has long offered system-wide reliance of self-signed certificates. Once a cert is trusted, it can subsist used throughout Mac OS X. You can furthermore score a free valid certificate from StartSSL, if you don't want to pay a recurring yearly fee for a LAN server's certificate.

    You can add as many certificates as you want to OS X Server, installing and managing them in a limited mode in Server Preferences, and with much greater ease in Server Admin. It's safe to disclose that if you want to utilize two or more certificates, you exigency to utilize Server Admin to configure the secure portions of services relish Mail.

    Apple made it vastly easier to import certificates in OS X Server 10.6 with improvements on the back-end and the graphical presentation in Server Admin and Server Preferences. In 10.5, you had to navigate file paths. I've never cursed as much as when trying to score OS X Server 10.5 to accept certificates. Here's an actual log entry I made in progress report for a publication site I back manage: "GAAAAAAAA! Server Admin!!! GAAAAH."

    Apple tweaked this process to invent it travail as a drag-and-drop operation in 10.6, where it furthermore conveniently doesn't fail. An SSL/TLS certificate comprises your private key (which must subsist unencrypted for import), the server certificate provided by the CA, and sometimes a chain certificate for CAs that believe authority provided from another organization.

    With those three files on hand, you simply drag the items in. In Server Preferences, click Information, click the Edit button to the perquisite of SSL Certificate, and select the pop-up menu particular Certificate Import > Import Certificate. In Server Admin, click the server's name, click the Certificates icon at top, click the + token below the certificate list, and elect Import a Certificate Identity. Drag the preempt items into the box. The elements light up as you add them. Click Import. Voila.

    OS X Server 10.6's simplified certificate import is a huge improvement over the previous version, and easy for those without certificate learning to use.

    All your SSL/TLS certificates are available for selection from full the services which allow certificate-based tunneling for security. This includes Address Book, Web, and Mail, among others.

    FTP and firewalls

    One omission is FTP. Apple supports plain FTP and Secure FTP (SFTP). plain FTP servers accept a user name and password in the pellucid along with full data, but a server administrator can limit access to specific directories by user login, much as with AFP (Apple Filing Protocol) and Samba file sharing. SFTP is related to SSH (Secure Shell), and it allows secure file access, but to any file to which a user logging in over SSH would believe access. This can subsist quite insecure on some systems. (I recommend limiting SSH access, too, only to those who exigency it. Per-service account restrictions are set by clicking the server's name in Server Admin, then selecting Access.)

    Apple should uphold FTP over SSL/TLS, which wraps customary FTP within a secure tunnel, and is well supported by FTP client software on every platform. It's an odd omission, and I confirmed with Apple's server team that the company doesn't comprise it. FTP can appear relish a fussy brokendown great-aunt of a protocol, but it's silent commonly used.

    In addition to using certificate-based security, I believe that every server should believe an active firewall to avert accidental access to resources that weren't intentionally made widely available. One could convene this the Google index problem, after full the documents that Google has snarfed for its index through carelessly exposed Web servers.

    Unfortunately, Apple's firewall service is difficult to utilize except for advanced users who may exigency to refer to the command line for more information or configuration.

    From Server Preferences, you can enable a quite simple version of the Firewall via the Security pane. Apple lets you acquire control of one of its models of Wi-Fi ground station on the network if you're using that as your path to the Internet, setting up port-based restrictions there with exiguous fuss. Or you can utilize its firewall security where the servers locally set firewall parameters.

    The simplified firewall probably isn't enough for robust protection, while Server Admin's controls are too confusing for those without profound expertise.

    Switching to Server Admin is more satisfying, but furthermore more complicated. If you've never had any low-level firewall experience, figuring out which services to allow open access to using ports and interface numbers, the interface doesn't provide enough cues to set things up correctly.

    After turning on the firewall for my co-lo mini server, I found that Retrospect 8 backups from clients at the co-lo failed. An ancient entry in the simplified Services tab—which shows a long list of services with descriptions and checkboxes to spin on and off—was labeled Dantz Retrospect (the Dantz name is years out of date as owners believe changed). It seemed to open the redress port—497—but clients silent couldn't connect.

    I enabled logging for denied packets, and saw that the server was rejecting inbound packets on the perquisite port. That meant I had to evaporate to the Advanced tab and utilize a special dialog to configure inbound access. This dialog has long been a problem because it features popup menus which, after you set full values and click OK, expose different values or no values at all when edited, even though the entry is apparently redress and functioning. (This can subsist confirmed via the command line.)

    Apple has quite a bit of margin for improvement here to lock down a server well, allow better entry and editing, and invent it clearer precisely what's happening—perhaps with a artery to test a rule live or automatically troubleshoot failing operations without resorting to a log file.

    With a bit of extra knowledge, you can utilize DHCP, NAT, and the Firewall service to set up the Mac mini as a true firewall, too. While the mini server only includes a solitary gigabit Ethernet port, Apple sells a $29 USB 10/100Mbps Ethernet adapter, which works nicely in one of the five USB ports on the back.

    The 10/100Mbps port could subsist connected to the broadband connection, and believe restrictive firewall policies on that interface, while routing data through to the gigabit built-in port connected to your office network.

    This would require a firewall savant, however, with perhaps a few hours of consulting time to set up, and some circumstantial instructions on making changes without breaking your network later.

    Mail Handling Common traffic Hosted Services in Mac OS X Server
  • Email server directly accepting email
  • File sharing for Mac and Windows systems
  • Shared contacts and calendars
  • Internal Web site with blogs and wikis
  • VPN for remote secure access
  • Networked backup
  • WPA/WPA2 Enterprise for secure office Wi-Fi access
  • DNS to provide internal hostname resolution
  • DHCP + NAT for private network addressing
  • Network margin firewall between broadband and office
  • Here's what I and every company want out of an email server. They want it to block spam and viruses, even when Macs are clients. They want secure connections without much fuss. They want it to travail every time. Apple has achieved some of these goals, and I've worked out a solution for some others.

    The cumbersome lifting on a server for any moderately sized traffic is going to subsist incoming and outgoing email. Snow Leopard Server definitely improves on its predecessors for GUI-based email configuration, although you must utilize Server Admin for the full benefits.

    Apple packages together ClamAV for anti-virus, Spamassassin for spam filtering, Spamhaus for real-time blacklisting, Postfix as a mail delivery agent, Dovecot for IMAP and POP3, and, as a hidden option, Squirrelmail for Webmail.

    For the most part, this combination is fine, and works well. Apple's client Mail application, along with most modern email software, has no vicissitude talking to the Mail service through any means. I recommend bypassing Server Preferences and going straight to Server Admin for configuration even if you never utilize Server Admin for any other purpose.

    What's nice about the Mail service's setup is that you don't exigency to enter or change values for the most part; you can pick and elect a few critical changes. Your ISP or a consultant can provide specific settings for such things as the values for the Relay tab. (Apple automatically includes in the "junk mail rejection servers" list; that exquisite service lets your mail server not receive email from constantly changing lists of IPs that spew gunk.)

    Where I would focus particularly is in the Filters tab and the Advanced tabs' Security pane. Filters control the spam-filtering and virus-checking behavior; Security sets encryption and authentication options for connections.

    In Filters, you check Enable Junk Mail Filtering to spin on spamassassin, an open-source trouble to score attributes of email for spamminess, which OS X Server then uses to block or accept email. You set a threshold score using a slider from Cautious (where exiguous mail is bounced) to aggressive. Apple lets you delete, archive, or label messages over the threshold.

    In my years of using spamassassin on a Linux box, I find that the gray area are scores from 5 to 7; mail with a score of 7 is extraordinarily unlikely to subsist "ham" instead of "spam."

    You can focus spamassassin by specifying which languages and countries are most typical that you receive email from. This scores messages outside of those values as much more likely to subsist spam. I never receive email in, say, Russian or Mandarin, and thus it's nearly 100-percent likely for me that such messages are spam.

    After setting up filtering, as well as enabling the simpler checkbox for virus filtering, I turned the firehose that is my personal mailstream at the mini server. I receive tens of thousands of messages daily, largely spam, because some of my addresses believe been in utilize for more than 10 years. That means every spammer tries to route me email. Some of my domains receive dictionary spam, where endless combinations of potential accounts names are emailed.

    I immediately discovered that I was receiving 20 times more spam through spamassassin in OS X Server than on my Linux box. This was unacceptable, of course. I found one problem and one bug with Apple's approach in making it full work.

    Spamassassin does best when it's trained, which you upshot by feeding the program Good email (ham) along with unsolicited mail. Apple offers two approaches, neither ideal. You can create accounts called junkmail and notjunkmail, and the server software will nightly scan the contents of each for training purposes. However, forwarding individual emails is an evil approach, and I found that OS X Server wouldn't accept confident email because of imperfect formatting in the spam message. Further, you must manually delete messages each night, or they accumulate (although they aren't used again for scoring).

    The other approach, clearly described by Apple in the manual, is to train the filter by hand, as it were, using the command line. Given that so much of OS X Server lets non-administrators avoid the command line, this is a shame. Apple clearly needs to add a GUI training method, possibly tying in the Junk Mail feature used in training its client Mail program to talk directly to the server. This is a critical partake of modern mail serving, and Apple has shirked simplicity here.

    I utilize Mailsmith as my mail client, and it lets me redeem sets of email in the gauge Unix mbox format, which spamassassin can read. I used AFP to redeem these mailboxes to a directory on the server in order to train the spam filter. The command to utilize with mbox files is:

    sa-learn —spam —mbox _filename_

    Substitute -ham for -spam to train Good messages. I trained thousands of spams and thousands of hams, and silent had artery too much spam coming through. SpamSieve, the Mac OS X program that works with many client email programs, was catching well over 99 percent of the spam slipping through, so it wasn't a problem with training. (I've been training SpamSieve for years, too, of course.)

    The bug was in a misconfigured spamassassin setup file, actual silent in OS X Server 10.6.2, and to which I've alerted Apple through its bug-reporting system.

    In /etc/mail/spamassassin/, where the system's configuration files live, the configuration file for version 3.2.0 of spamassassin had disabled the TextCat plug-in which activates scoring rules by language, particularly the UNWANTED_LANGUAGE_BODY rule.

    In the v320.pre file, I removed the # (hash sign) from in front of the line containing:

    loadplugin Mail::SpamAssassin::Plugin::TextCat

    This fixed the problem. I furthermore tweaked my own rules from years of using spamassassin on the file in the selfsame directory, to score mail that was rejected by Spamcop and various spam-tracking indexes higher than the default values:

    score RCVD_IN_BL_SPAMCOP_NET 3.000 score RCVD_IN_SORBS_WEB 3.000 score URIBL_SBL 1.500

    I furthermore boosted the scores on three rules affecting how well Russian spam was being filtered, which I was seeing in vast quantities:

    score MIME_CHARSET_FARAWAY 1.500 score UNWANTED_LANGUAGE_BODY 3.000 score BAYES_00 -1.000

    After changing these rules and restarting the Mail service—in Server Admin, elect Server > Restart Service, and click OK—my spam dropped down to just a exiguous bit higher than I was used to. This may appear involved, but it's the explanation that's complicated; the configuration files changes exigency subsist applied once, and are worth the effort.

    It's a relief, by contrast, to switch to the Advanced tab's Security pane. I prefer to disable full non-secure methods of login, and thus check the top two entries for SMTP and the top three for IMAP/POP. I invent confident Login and plain are unchecked. In the SSL section, I elect utilize for SMTP and IMAP/POP certificates, and pick the certificate I created with StartSSL and installed earlier.

    Apple did a lovely job making security settings for email connections a snap in Server Admin.

    The selection of utilize instead of Require for SSL/TLS certificates can redeem you some grief with confident mail clients. Some mail clients utilize a negotiation process in which it's asked whether a secure connection can subsist made. If you set the certificate option to Require, this negotiation is bypassed, and the client will fail. With Login and plain unchecked, and only secure connection available, the utilize option allows clients of varying kinds to connect without failure.

    Apple furthermore includes Webmail, but has hidden away the option, and didn't configure its default to travail correctly. First, you believe to spin on the Web service, of course. Without getting too bogged down in details here, I set up a secure website from the Web service's Sites view in Server Admin using the default setup which points the index to /Library/WebServer/Documents.

    Using a secure site is critical for access because otherwise the password is entered in the pellucid over a Web connection—which you or a colleague might utilize at a public location, relish a coffeeshop.

    Next, back to the command line. The Webmail software, Squirrelmail, needs to subsist set up to utilize secure IMAP to attain your messages when you log in. Type:

    cd /usr/share/squirrelmail/config

    Then type:

    sudo perl

    Enter your password when requested. You'll remark an uncommon thing these days as a result: a terminal screen based user interface. Enter 2, hit return, enter A, hit return, then:

  • Hit 5, return, and 993 for the port value, and hit return
  • Hit 6, return, and select cram-md5 for authentication, then hit return
  • Hit 7, return, and sort y to enable TLS, then hit return
  • Type S, return, to redeem the data, then enter to proceed
  • Type Q, recrudesce to exit
  • You can now log in via Squirrelmail by using the URL https://_your_servername_/webmail.

    You're welcome!

    Other services

    We've covered full the major points, but there are a pile of other services that might subsist of interest, and certainly enhance the utility and cost of OS X Server in an office.

    Contacts and calendars. Clearly, one of the nicest things about a networked server is a central location to manage contacts and calendars. The Address engage and iCal programs in OS X talk directly to the server, although Apple uses LDAP (a well-established standard) and CalDAV (new and not well supported) to talk to other platforms. For sedate enterprises, Apple's contact and calendar uphold may not meet needs; for the office size I've been talking about this article, there shouldn't subsist any trouble. (For a differing conviction on iCal service, however, read my colleague affluent Mogull's sustain with OS X Server 10.6 for iPhone, Mac, and Web-based shared and local calendars over at TidBITS: Banging My Head against iCal Server's Limitations.)

    File service. Using a central file server for storage and file interchange is furthermore a key office task. Apple's uphold for AFP and SMB are just fine, with a variety of options for user-based sharepoint setup. SMB service includes the capacity to set up a WINS Server for Windows systems, and, in conjunction with Open Directory, act as a Primary Domain Controller for logins.

    Networked backups. Time Machine in Leopard and Snow Leopard can back up Macs to OS X Server drives, automatically handling full the details. I'd recommend using an external drive, both to swap backups offsite occasionally and avert using an internal drive so heavily that it's constantly being written.

    WPA/WPA2 Enterprise. Wi-Fi logins are one of my bugbears. While you can utilize a solitary password (WPA/WPA2 Personal) to allow access to an office's networked, this is a fragile method. Each computer has to believe the password stored on it, and you can't selectively let others join. With WPA/WPA2 Enterprise, you can let users log into a Wi-Fi network using their server credentials, and each user is assigned a unique encryption key. Accounts can subsist disabled, or not allowed to log in over Wi-Fi, too. It furthermore increases network accountability along with security. Windows XP and later and OS X 10.3 and later believe the necessary Wi-Fi login software or options; there are free Linux downloads, too. (Apple manages this via the RADIUS service, which can automatically reconfigure Apple ground stations; or, you can configure non-Apple routers manually.)

    Remote VPN access. If you, colleagues, or employees exigency remote secure access either to your office network, or simply to create security when using non-trusted networks, relish Wi-Fi hotspots, the two forms of built-in VPN in OS X Server upshot the trick. A VPN server sets up encrypted tunnels that pass full data from a remote client to the server. Compatible VPN clients are found in Windows XP and later and Mac OS X 10.2 and later.

    A Mac mini Home in a qualify Office

    Unbelievably, this article just skims across the many aspects of OS X Server and avoids much more—like the MySQL database server, configuring NAT and DHCP, and using iChat over a local network, some of which may furthermore subsist useful for smaller-scale traffic networks.

    Is the Mac mini server and OS X Server the perquisite match for your office? It certainly depends. In my weeks with the combo, I found much to praise, and many elements improved significantly over the 10.5 release. For a straightforward start-to-finish setup, this combination seems relish a filch at the price, despite the problems I found—and especially if you acquire my recommendation for tweaking spam-filter settings.

    As with many Apple products, I would prefer if the sustain were less frustrating at points at which the company should believe tested and anticipated problems. But overall, Apple has kept most of the scabrous edges and hidden much of the configuration madness from the potential smaller-office audience.

    You can't evaporate into using a Mac mini server and OS X Server expecting to upshot it full yourself unless everything in this article made sense at first read. First find and meet with OS X Server consultants, and budget some time for setup and for regular maintenance (and emergency help).

    Because Apple has packaged this offering so inexpensively, combining so many typically part features into one offering, you can afford a exiguous outside help. The cost will silent wind up being far less than using any of the alternatives for what you score in one hardware and software package.

    Setting up for infrastructure development | true questions and Pass4sure dumps


    In this tutorial you’ll remark how to set up the local environment with KitchenCI using Vagrant as a driver, Chef-Solo as a provider andServerspec for integration tests under Mac OS X.

    The understanding behind this is that KitchenCI is springy enough to add any types of tests (bash, rspec, etc) and Chef-Solo allows to try local changes without submitting to the source code repository or to the Chef Server.

    KitchenCI furthermore allows to pick other drivers relish AWS. By testing the infrastructure under both Vagrant and AWS they can weed out configuration issues between the two types of instances instead of leaving the debugging for when CloudFormation is being developed.

    Having a artery to sprint recent configurations and tests locally allows us to score feedback faster without having to shove Chef changes to the CI environment (which might atomize the shared environments).

    It furthermore merges local configurations with full over environments making it visible to propagate changes and allowing the laptops to become just another test environment which results are reproducible.

    Sometimes using this apparently more convoluted stack makes it more painful to develop locally if the configuration management is not healthy enough but this is only pushing forward full issues that would subsist plain a few environments up. It is better to deal with broken instances locally than on other environments.


    The previous stack was made up of a fuse of local installations and local vagrant configurations depending on each laptop, this was followed by an initial CI environment that would believe its own chef instances over AWS using CloudFormation.

    The recent stack is made up of:

    Local (laptop) that runs KitchenCI with Vagrant/Virtualbox — This allows to write tests, configure instances and subsist used to develop against.

    CI agent that runs KitchenCI with Vagrant/Virtualbox — This allows to ensure a recent local build will travail and subsist tested and any commits are tested.

    CI agent that runs KitchenCI with AWS- This is a copy of the previous one with EC2 instances. This allows us to find issues between Vagrant and AWS. Not used for application development.

    AWS development for CloudFormation — After ensuring the individual instances sprint they try the selfsame environment with CloudFormation. This is for Cloudformation development, not used for application development.

    AWS development Integration — Now that they are confident that both AWS instances and Cloudformation are fully tested they can utilize a ‘releasable’ copy of it to bring up the Integration environment used for development.

    AWS development UAT, QA, Pre-Production, Production — Other environments are variations of the AWS development Integration environment.

    Mac OS X as a development environment

    To set up full packages we’re currently using Homebrew — This managements installation of the most common tools and manages updates for those similar to Linux package managers Yum, Apt.

    It is advised to believe XCode command line installed and up to date to sprint Homebrew and other applications — not doing this might give you compilation errors and other problems in the future.

    Some older versions of Mac OS X might not subsist able to sprint the following command in that case you’ll exigency to score it through Apple’s development Portal.

    % xcode-select —install

    To install Homebrew just run.

    % ruby -e “$(curl -fsSL Adding the current configuration development repository

    You’ll exigency to believe git installed. If you don’t you can utilize Homebrew to install it.

    % brew install git Setting up a local Ruby environment

    KitchenCI and Chef sprint with Ruby — The following are some best practices to ensure you believe the selfsame Ruby and Gem (Ruby’s libraries) versions as your Chef Clients. This is done by using RbEnv to manage Ruby versions and Bundler to install Gems locally so any other Ruby applications or updates upshot not vitiate this setup.

    Thanks to Homebrew they can install RBenv easily. Ruby build is used to extend rbenv’s features around installing and removing Ruby versions.

    % brew install rbenv ruby-build

    You can believe a spy on the local available ruby versions with.

    % rbenv versions * system

    We can install more versions of Ruby with the install command. Bundler will believe a header for the ruby version on its Gemfile, if the local version is not redress it will not run. In this case we’ll install Ruby 2.0.0.

    % rbenv install 2.0.0-p451 Installing ruby-2.0.0-p451…Installed ruby-2.0.0-p451 to […]2.0.0-p451 % rbenv versions * system 2.0.0-p451

    Using the local command they implement that the current directory always runs the picked ruby version. Rehash updates RbEnv.

    % rbenv local 2.0.0-p451 % rbenv rehash % rbenv versions system* 2.0.0-p451 (set by […]/.ruby-version)

    After that step we’ll exigency to install Bundler. This will subsist done on the system flat Gem library but after this step we’ll subsist able to utilize it to manage Gems locally.

    % gem install bundler

    Any Ruby application will utilize the file Gemfile to let you know about dependencies. Gemfile.lock will Tell you what versions to install or if it does not exist it will subsist created when Bundler has a valid run.

    % cat Gemfileruby ‘2.0.0' source ‘' gem ‘nokogiri’, ‘~>'gem ‘json’gem ‘hashie’gem ‘chef’gem ‘test-kitchen’gem ‘kitchen-vagrant’gem ‘kitchen-ec2' gem ‘faraday’ gem ‘knife-ec2'gem ‘knife-solo’

    You can sprint Bundler with the following command. Which will install the required Gems on the vendor directory

    % bundle install —path vendor

    Due to some pains of setting this up on Mac OS X you can utilize this script instead.

    % cat bundle_install bundle config build.nokogiri —use-system-librariesARCHFLAGS=-Wno-error=unused-command-line-argument-hard-error-in-future bundle install —path vendor

    Which should immediate with the following message.

    Your bundle is complete!It was installed into ./vendor

    Please sprint RbEnv rehash again to ensure that the changes applied.

    % rbenv rehash

    A common problem seems to subsist a failure around using libxml2. This can subsist fixed by installed it with Homebrew and re-linking the files.

    % brew install libxml2 libxslt % brew link libxml2 libxslt

    Running the chosen Ruby version with the local gems is done by running the bundle exec command, for example.

    % bundle exec ruby -v ruby 2.0.0p451 (2014-02-24 revision 45167) [universal.x86_64-darwin13] % bundle exec gem environment RubyGems Environment: — RUBYGEMS VERSION: 2.0.14 — RUBY VERSION: 2.0.0 (2014-02-24 patchlevel 451) [universal.x86_64-darwin13] — INSTALLATION DIRECTORY: […]/vendor/ruby/2.0.0 — RUBY EXECUTABLE: /System/Library/Frameworks/Ruby.framework/Versions/2.0/usr/bin/ruby — EXECUTABLE DIRECTORY: […]/vendor/ruby/2.0.0/bin — RUBYGEMS PLATFORMS: — ruby — universal-darwin-13 — GEM PATHS: —  […]/vendor/ruby/2.0.0 — GEM CONFIGURATION: — :update_sources => true — :verbose => true — :backtrace => false — :bulk_threshold => 1000 — REMOTE SOURCES: — Vagrant and VirtualBox

    You’ll exigency to utilize both websites to install these applications.

    VirtualBox for Mac OS X over

    Vagrant for Mac OS X over

    Using Test Kitchen locally

    With Bundler they can convene Test Kitchen to upshot several things relish list available instances.

    % bundle exec kitchen list

    The drivers will subsist Vagrant, AWS or others. The Provisioner will subsist ChefSolo, Puppet or another. The terminal action will be.

    Not Created — Instance does not exist

    Set Up — Creation or update running or not completed.

    Converged — Last update ran.

    Verified — Tests ran.

    You can Create or update an instance with the Converge command followed by a regex which will apply to one or more instances.

    % bundle exec kitchen converge INSTANCE

    Run the integration tests for the local environment with Verify.

    % bundle exec kitchen verify INSTANCE

    You can login into an instance by using a regex that will only result in one instance.

    % bundle exec kitchen login INSTANCE

    Delete them completely with Destroy.

    % bundle exec kitchen Destroy INSTANCE

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