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C2040-410 IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 convivial Edition Application evolution B

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C2040-410 exam Dumps Source : IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 convivial Edition Application evolution B

Test Code : C2040-410
Test name : IBM Notes and Domino 9.0 convivial Edition Application evolution B
Vendor name : IBM
exam questions : 116 true Questions

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IBM IBM Notes and Domino

IBM Sells Notes, Domino and Portfolio of commercial enterprise Apps To HCL for $1.8B | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

home   →   tidings   →   IBM Sells Notes, Domino and Portfolio of enterprise Apps To HCL for $1.8B Posted December 19, 2018 via Sean Michael Kerner     remarks

IBM got Lotus application again in 1995 for $3.5 billion. it's now divesting the know-how, together with six different one-time cornerstone industry functions.

There become a time when Lotus Notes and Domino were the cornerstones of IBM's application portfolio, enabling commercial enterprise collaboration and productivity. these days are now in the past, as IBM is divesting these assets, together with a few different applications, to HCL technologies.

HCL applied sciences pays IBM $1.eight billion, with the deal expected to shut in mid-2019. apart from Notes and Domino, HCL is acquiring a few different commercial enterprise purposes, together with: Appscan for relaxed software building, BigFix for secure gadget administration, Unica (on-premises) for marketing automation, Commerce (on-premises) for omni-channel eCommerce, Portal (on-premises) for digital adventure, and Connections for workstream collaboration.

"We account the time is usurp to divest these opt for collaboration, advertising and commerce application property, which can live increasingly delivered as standalone products," John Kelly, IBM senior vice chairman, Cognitive options and research, wrote in a media advisory. " on the same time, they disagree with these items are a robust strategic felicitous for HCL, and that HCL is well positioned to force innovation and boom for his or her consumers."

IBM has more and more been entering into cloud and synthetic intelligence over the past 4 years, and has developed up different assets that it'll seat of attention on.


most of the purposes being offered to HCL had been in the rise received by using IBM from other carriers.

IBM bought Lotus software, maker of Notes and Domino, in 1995 for $3.5 billion, though the Lotus manufacturer wasn't dropped with the aid of IBM except 2012.

AppScan which is now being offered to HCL, become once the cornerstone of the IBM Rational application portfolio. IBM obtained the AppScan product portfolio as section of the acquisition of safety seller Watchfire in June 2007.

BigFix turned into obtained by course of IBM to spin into a section of its Tivoli operations division in July 2010, whereas Unica changed into got by IBM in August 2010 for $480 million.

HCL applied sciences

HCL applied sciences is based in Noida, India, and positions itself as a digital transformation company. HCL and IBM had already been partnering on lots of the acquired application belongings.

"We proceed to peer tremendous opportunities out there to expand their Mode-3 (items and structures) choices," C Vijayakumar, President & CEO, HCL technologies, wrote in a media advisory. "The items that they are buying are in gigantic starting to live market areas fondness security, advertising and Commerce, that are strategic segments for HCL. a lot of these products are well regarded by course of valued clientele and located in the remedy quadrant via trade analysts."

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at EnterpriseAppsToday and supervene him on Twitter @TechJournalist.

IBM selling Lotus Notes/Domino enterprise to HCL for $1.8B | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM introduced final nighttime that it is promoting the ultimate add-ons from its 1995 acquisition of Lotus to Indian difficult HCL for $1.eight billion.

IBM paid $three.5 billion for Lotus lower back in the day. The gigantic items here are Lotus Notes, Domino and Portal. These were a huge a section of IBM’s commercial enterprise enterprise for a long time, however closing year great Blue began to pull away, selling the evolution part to HCL, while retaining manage of earnings and advertising and marketing.

This announcement marks the conclusion of the road for IBM involvement. With the evolution of the platform out of its handle, and in need of money after spending $34 billion for pink Hat, possibly IBM conveniently determined it now not made sense to retain any a section of this in-condominium.

As for HCL, it sees an occasion to continue to construct the Notes/Domino company, and it’s seizing it with this buy. “The tremendous-scale deployments of those products supply us with a superb desultory to attain and serve thousands of international corporations throughout a wide array of industries and markets,” C Vijayakumar, president and CEO at HCL technologies, said in an announcement announcing the deal.

Alan Lepofsky, an analyst at Constellation analysis who keeps proximate watch on the industry collaboration space, says the sale could characterize a antiseptic delivery for application that IBM hasn’t in fact been paying proximate attention to for some time. “HCL is much more drawn to Notes/Domino than IBM has been for a decade. they are investing closely, trying to rejuvenate the brand,” Lepofsky advised TechCrunch.

whereas this utility may likewise believe lengthy in the enamel, Notes and Domino are nonetheless in exhaust in many corners of the business, and here is very True in EMEA (Europe, seat East and Africa) and AP (Asia Pacific), Lepofsky said.

He introduced that IBM seems to live completely exiting the collaboration space with this sale. “It appears that IBM is accomplished with collaboration, out of the game,” he said.

This flood makes undergo for IBM, which is relocating in a unique course as it develops its cloud company. The red Hat acquisition in October, in particular, suggests that the company wants to embrace inner most and hybrid cloud deployments, and older application fondness Lotus Notes and Domino don’t really play a role in that world.

The deal, which is subject to regulatory approval methods, is expected to proximate in the core of next yr.

a course to deploy an SSL certificates on IBM Domino | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM Domino, formally called Lotus Domino, is an internet-server and an advanced fabricated from the IBM server. This internet-server is commonly used for hosting several convivial enterprise functions and business-stage e mail collaboration. it's regarded to live a low-budget respond to enhance productiveness and hasten up the operations.

After finishing the investigate-out process for the SSL certificates, you are going to receive an e-mail connected with a *.zip file from your certification authority. This file includes of simple, intermediate, and root certificates. You deserve to down load and extract this *.zip file in your IBM Dominoserver listing the position you propose to preserve utter your certificates.

before installation the SSL certificate, you need to generate a CSR (certificate Signing Request). please click perquisite here to generate a CSR. when you've got already generated a CSR, then proceed with the steps below:

To deploy an SSL certificate on the IBM Domino server, you should merge utter your certificates information to the equal Key Ring that changed into used to generate CSR (certificate Signing Request).

Now, proceed by inserting your certificates into the necessary thing Ring in the following order:

1. RootCertificate.crt2. IntermediateCertificate.crt3. PrimaryCertificate.crt

SSL certificate installing on IBM Domino

(1) Open the file ‘Domino Server certificate Administrator (CERTSRV.NSF).’ that you may find this file within the tackle database in the ‘Admin Panel’ of Notes.

(2) Now, proceed by means of clicking on install depended on Root certificate into Key Ring and enter the file identify of the key Ring that you simply created whereas generating the CSR.

(3) that you may deploy the root certificates the exhaust of one among perquisite here 3 ways:

  • (a) with the aid of picking Root certificate file

  • (b) with the aid of typing the identify and location of Root certificates

  • (c) via settling on clipboard alternative, open your root certificate with any textual content editor copy content material of your root certificate (From initiate certificates _ _ _ _ _ _ to _ _ _ _ _ conclusion certificate) and paste it within the text field.

  • (four) click on the Merge certificate into Key Ring button.

    (5) For installation the ‘Intermediate certificates,’ open ‘set up depended on Root certificates’ in Key Ring. Now, commemorate the above technique once more and install it in to the necessary thing ring.

    (6) click on on ‘install certificate into Key Ring.’ Enter the file identify of your key ring after that, which changed into created while producing the CSR, and enter the direction of the certificates or you can replica and paste the content of the certificates and click on on ‘Merge certificate into Key Ring’ button.

    Install SSL Certificate into Key Ring - Lotus Domino

    figure 1: set up SSL certificates into Key Ring – Lotus Domino

    With this, you hold got efficiently achieved the procedure of SSL certificates installation on an IBM Domino (Lotus Domino) server! chuffed setting up!

    subject matters:

    ssl ,ibm ,lotus ,domino ,ibm domino ,safety ,commercial enterprise electronic mail ,social business

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    KMWorld Trend-Setting Products of 2012 | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Sep 1, 2012

    Hugh McKellar

    This marks the tenth anniversary of their Trend-Setting Products list, and as in years past, it has been assembled through consultation and collaboration with editorial colleagues, analysts, system integrators and a select group of users. They conscientiously compile the list to serve KMWorld's core constituency, their readers, and focus completely on elegant, workable, sustainable industry value. They disregard the gimmicky software that might feature a clever thought but has only ephemeral importance. And although a number of the products listed here are especially well-suited, if not specifically designed, for particular upright markets, they selected those whose benefits can live realized in their readers' widely diverse environments.

    The judging process is a collaborative pains that takes many months. This year more than 700 products/product families were whittled down to the 89 listed in these pages. Each company whose products are listed below helped to define and enhance a market critically necessary to their readership by listening to and working with customers. They utter picture a commitment to innovation and their customers.

    We hearten readers to forward your thoughts and suggestions to the judging panel at

    5280 Solutions: Dynamic Payables—Web-based invoice automation solution for SharePoint.

    A9, an Amazon company: Amazon CloudSearch—cloud service allowing customers to integrate scalable search into applications.

    Abbyy USA: FlexiCapture 10—data capture and document processing software for turning hard-copy forms and documents into business-ready data.

    Accellion, Inc.: Accellion Mobile Apps-secure, enterprise—class mobile file sharing solutions. Click here for more product details.

    Access Innovations: Data Harmony 3.8—software tools for metadata management, including automatic indexing and taxonomies. Click here for more product details.

    Accusoft: Prizm Content Connect—customizable, scalable content viewer. Click here for more product details.

    Acquia: Dev Desktop—package that installs Acquia Drupal on Windows and Mac OS X.

    Acrolinx: Acrolinx IQ—natural language processing engine enabling creation of search-ready content.

    Alfresco: Alfresco in the Cloud—allows users to collaborate and partake files both inside and outside the organization securely on any device.

    Altep: Inspicio—legal electronic document review platform with integrated concept searching, clustering and categorization. Click here for more product details.

    AnyDoc Software: CAPTUREit—standalone document capture application and section of either end-to-end OCR or AnyDoc automated document and data capture. Click here for more product details.

    Appian: Appian BPM Suite—mobile, cloud and convivial process improvement.

    ASG Software Solutions: ASG CloudFactory—comprehensive cloud management. Click here for more product details.

    Attensity: Attensity Pipeline—real-time, semantically annotated convivial media data stream for great organizations.

    Attivio: lively Intelligence Engine 3.0—accessible, standards-based unified information access platform.

    Autonomy: IDOL 10—a lone processing layer for audio, video, convivial media, e-mail, Web content and structured data.

    AvePoint: DocAve Content Shield for SharePoint—automating enforcement of information governance policies for tagging and classifying content. Click here for more product details.

    BA Insight: Longitude Enterprise Search for SharePoint and FAST—integrated SharePoint solution that provides plenary previews of search result content regardless of kind or location.

    Bamboo Solutions: Web Parts and Tools—portfolio to accelerate portal deployment and facilitate adoption and continued usage. Click here for more product details.

    Birst: Birst Enterprise Edition—self-service industry intelligence.

    BP Logix: Process Director Cloud Edition—business intelligence to befriend users anticipate and prognosticate potential problems in industry processes.

    Bridgeline Digital: iAPPS Content Manager V. 4.7—Web undergo management with internationalization capabilities for e-commerce. Click here for more product details.

    Citrix: XenDesktop—desktop virtualization for on-demand service on any device.

    Clarabridge: Clarabridge Enterprise—voice of the customer platform for data acquisition with linguistic processing and enterprise reporting.

    Colligo Networks: Colligo Desktop for SharePoint—document, e-mail and records management solution.

    Comperio Search: Comperio Front—business logic software for search solutions. Click here for more product details.

    Concept Searching: Smart Content Framework—software to identify and tag content with semantic metadata and then classify it to organizational taxonomies.

    Connotate: Agent Community—software and services provide an interface for highly accurate data collection.

    Consona, which recently merged with CDC Software to configuration Aptean: CRM Suite—knowledge management, enterprise customer relationship management, e-service and network management software.

    Content Analyst: Content Analyst Analytical Technology (CAAT) V. 3.11—deep analytics for unstructured data applications, including legal document review.

    Coveo: Insight Solutions—combining enterprise search and knowledge management with extensive industry expertise and best practices.

    Digital Reef: Digital Reef eDiscovery—enterprise-scale e-discovery platform for managing legal matters, regulatory inquiries and corporate investigations.

    Discover Technologies: DiscoverPoint—automated expertise location for enterprises with great workforces.

    eGain: eGain 10—complete suite of customer service and contact seat software to befriend organizations transform their traditional summon centers into multichannel customer interaction hubs. Click here for more product details.

    Ektron: Ektron 8.5—.NET Web content management, marketing optimization, convivial community and e-commerce platform.

    EMC: Atmos Cloud Delivery Platform—software used to deliver and manage storage-as-a-service to an Atmos storage cloud.

    EntropySoft: Content Hub Platform—content connectors providing a central point of access to utter company documents, both on-premise or in the cloud. Click here for more product details.

    EXSYS: Corvid—development software allowing non-programmers to easily build interactive Web applications.

    Exterro: Fusion Platform—workflow-driven suite including identification, legal hold and early case assessment, collection, processing, analysis, review and production.

    Findwise: Hydra—open source content processing framework for search-based applications.

    FTI Technology: Ringtail 8.2—a complete e-discovery platform with integrated visual analytics and redesigned interface. Click here for more product details.

    HiSoftware: Compliance Sheriff—enterprise compliance automation enabling repeatable and enforceable processes for utter types of content governance.

    IBM: Content Navigator—allows users to access, manage, work and collaborate with enterprise content directly from mobile devices and tablets.

    IGLOO Software: Igloo Platform—integrated suite of content management, collaboration and enterprise convivial networking tools.

    Infotrieve: Mobile Library—fully secure, cloud-based access to enterprise content.

    Integrify: Integrify 5.5—robust, spare industry process management solution available as both an on-premise solution or hosted service.

    IntelliResponse: IntelliResponse respond Suite—customer undergo across a variety of interaction channels, including corporate websites, agent desktops, convivial media platforms and mobile devices.

    IntraFind: iFinder—solutions and consultancy services for enterprise search, information access and text mining.

    IntraLinks: IntraLinks Connect—out-of-the-box solutions to partake content across the enterprise while maintaining  security, control and transparency. Click here for more product details.

    Jive Software: convivial industry Platform—comprehensive, enterprise-class tools for communication, collaboration, content creation and sharing.

    K2: K2 blackpearl—BPM software for automating enterprise industry processes and structure SharePoint applications and integrating Microsoft solutions into SAP.

    KANA: KANA Enterprise Agent Desktop—allows contact seat agents to access the information and functionalities required to perceive customer information in a single, unified desktop.

    Kapow Software: Katalyst 9.0—enables integration of applications and/or data sources without coding or APIs.

    kCura: Relativity 7—Web-based platform providing analysis, review and production stages of the electronic discovery reference model (EDRM). Click here for more product details.

    KnowledgeLake: Unify for SharePoint—permits users to stay within indigenous applications while interacting with SharePoint. Click here for more product details.

    Kofax: Kofax Web Capture—toolkit for creating Web-based applications with image viewing/scanning capabilities.

    M-Files: M-Files ECM—document management integrated with Windows applications.

    MarkLogic: MarkLogic 5—database for structure and deploying gigantic data applications with structured, semi-structured and unstructured information.

    Metalogix: Replicator for SharePoint 5.0—enables multiserver SharePoint content synchronization. Click here for more product details.

    Mindbreeze: InSite—secure, semantic software for Web search. Click here for more product details.

    Moxie Software: Spaces Platform—communication and collaboration designed to connect customers and employees.

    NewsGator: convivial Sites for SharePoint 2010—social networking for SharePoint integration.

    Noetix: NoetixViews Workbench—automates the creation and management of customizations to Noetix views through an intuitive user interface. Click here for more product details.

    OpenText: Exceed onDemand for iPad—managed application access solution designed for enterprises.

    Oracle: Oracle RightNow CX Cloud Service—combines Web, convivial and contact seat experiences for unified, cross-channel service.

    Pegasystems: Unified Marketing Solution—inbound proffer management and outbound marketing combining predictive and adaptive analytics with industry process management.

    Percussion Software: CM1 Version 2—pure WCM software that provides users with plenary functionality delivered as an easily upgradeable product.

    Proofpoint: Enterprise Governance—tracks, classifies, monitors and applies policy to unstructured information across the enterprise where stored.

    Q-Sensei: Q-Sensei Enterprise—multidimensional search and indexing designed to develop and deploy search-based applications. Click here for more product details.

    Quest Software: Spotlight on SQL Server Enterprise—in-depth physical, cloud and virtual SQL diagnostics.

    Raytion: Enterprise Search Connectors for swiftly Search Server 2010 for SharePoint—native integration with SharePoint's security trimming.

    Recommind: Decisiv Search—crawls and indexes information from any source, including document management systems, intranets, e-mail archives, contact management databases and websites.

    Reprints Desk: Article Galaxy—journal article platform for evidence-based promotions, medical information responses, as well as scientific, technical and medical research.

    RightAnswers: Unified knowledge Platform—knowledge management automation and service.

    Rivet Logic: Crafter Rivet Version 2.0—an end-to-end Web content and undergo management and delivery platform. Click here for more product details.

    RSD: RSD GLASS—platform for managing global corporate information governance programs for electronic and physical records.

    SAP: StreamWork—social software enabling information analysis to drive action through collaboration with people, data and structured industry tools.

    SAS Text Analytics: Predictive Analytics and Data Mining—suite of integrated predictive modeling processes.

    SDL: SDL Tridion—complete, global Web content management solutions. Click here for more product details.

    Search Technologies: Aspire—content processing system designed for search environments enabling content to live acquired, cleaned, restructured, enriched and normalized. Click here for more product details.

    Sherpa Software: Discovery Attender for Notes—federated search functionality across utter Domino databases.

    Smartlogic: Semaphore—combines ontology management, classification, text mining and semantic analysis in a search application framework.

    SpringCM: Mobile apps for iPad, iPhone and Android—cloud-based content and document management solutions.

    StoredIQ: lively Information Management Platform—open platform for in-place dynamic indexing and analysis of data.

    Symantec: Endpoint Protection—antivirus software virtual and physical systems that integrate into other virus protection tools with a lone console.

    Synaptica: Synaptica Enterprise—taxonomy and metadata management software.

    Traction Software: TeamPage—action tracking, Twitter-style status, threaded discussion, collaboration, convivial networking and abysmal search.

    Vivisimo, an IBM company: CXO—customer undergo optimization connecting customer-facing agents with information required for sales/support.

    Wall Street Network: WSN Insight—knowledge management for SharePoint.

    Skeletal pathology and variable anatomy in elephant feet assessed using computed tomography | true questions and Pass4sure dumps


    Elephants not only provide education and entertainment as zoological attractions, but likewise hold ecological significance as umbrella (or keystone) species, whose conservation indirectly protects others (Choudhury et al., 2008). They likewise hold economic jiffy as tourist attractions and working animals. Welfare of elephants is an lively region of discussion, both in professional fields and in common society. Although the welfare of captive elephants has been improving through husbandry initiatives and advances in knowledge of veterinary trust for these species, there remain several areas that continue to live obstacles to optimum welfare.

    Pathological foot conditions are one such problem area, thought to constitute the lone most necessary health problem of captive elephants, with up to 50% of elephants in captivity suffering from foot problems, although the actual prevalence of carious conditions remains unknown (Fowler, 2006). Accurate diagnosis is challenging, treatment is expensive and time-consuming (Lewis et al., 2010) and inveterate unresponsive conditions of the feet are a major reason for euthanasia in captivity (Csuti, Sargent & Bechert, 2008).

    Some foot problems are visible externally (e.g., solar pad or cuticle lesions), accomplish not require diagnostic imaging, and seem to live improving with the near-universal adoption of daily examination and foot trust routines in elephants (Lewis et al., 2010). However, other pathological lesions—particularly those affecting the osseous structures—are challenging to identify and monitor. Originally cursory lesions may lead to further problems through ascending infection, resulting in osteomyelitis and/or infectious arthritis. Osteoarthritis (OA, likewise called degenerative joint disease/DJD) is commonly encountered and other problems are described.

    Management conditions are thought to live the one of the most necessary factors in the evolution of distal limb osseous pathologies (Fowler, 2006; Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016). Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis are generally an extension of a soft tissue infection or penetrating solar trauma. difficult floors, want of exercise, and repeated concussive forces (potentially including stereotypic behaviour; Haspeslagh et al., 2013) hold utter been proposed to contribute to the evolution of OA (Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000) or common musculoskeletal foot health (Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016) . Additionally, the conformation of the great and relatively straight limbs of elephants may predispose them to pathology (Fowler, 2006), as might the inherent biomechanics of the feet. Pathological changes hold been speculated to occur more frequently in regions that normally undergo towering pressures (i.e., mechanical stresses) during walking; namely the distal structures of the lateral digits (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012).

    Lameness is not always an obvious feature in elephants with foot problems (Lewis et al., 2010), and radiography of the distal limb has been described to diagnose and monitor foot problems (e.g., Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000; Siegal-Willott et al., 2008; Kaulfers et al., 2010; Mumby et al., 2013). Over the recent years advanced imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hold been more commonly used in veterinary exercise for musculoskeletal and other problems, but their exhaust for elephants is precluded by body size and transport issues. As a result of the limited availability of imaging, the frequencies of these bony conditions in captive elephants are unknown and they are almost certainly under-reported based on what they know in other great animals such as cows (Nigam & Singh, 1980; Kofler, Geissbühler & Steiner, 2014) or rhinoceroses (Regnault et al., 2013; Galateanu et al., 2013).

    The aims of this study were to identify pathological bone lesions in the feet of captive African (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach 1797) and Asian (Elephas maximus Linnaeus 1758) elephants using post-mortem CT. They hypothesise that when there is pathological change, it will live present in multiple feet of the same individual and likewise that there will live multiple kinds of pathological change, which may live due to shared predisposing factors (e.g., management conditions, as above) and/or altered use. By exploring the locations of pathological changes, they further hypothesise that foot regions typically exposed to towering pressures (i.e., lateral digits) are predisposed to developing lesions. When assessing any structures for pathology it is essential that the clinician is alert of conventional anatomical variation, therefore, they likewise report other osseous features that likely picture non-pathological, variable distal limb anatomy.

    Materials and Methods

    CT scans of 52 cadaver feet (16 perquisite fore, 12 left fore, 14 perquisite hind, 10 left hind) from 21 captive elephants (seven African Loxodonta africana, and 14 Asian Elephas maximus) were evaluated for evidence of pathology. utter elephants were adult or near-adult: ranging from 17 to 61 years old. Feet or CT scans were donated to the Royal Veterinary College from various sources (zoos and safari parks) in the European Union. Data on morbidity and mortality was later compiled from an online database ( as well as from donating institutions, and details on the individual elephants are summarised in Table 1.

    Table 1:

    Details of seven African (Loxodontaafricana) and 14 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in this study.

    Asterisks argue elephants known to hold foot or locomotor problems. ‘Feet scanned’ indicates how many feet had available CT scan data, ‘Reason for death/euthanasia’ details the reason of death (from donating institutions or the online database Elephant Feet scanned Reason for death/euthanasia Sex Age (years) African1 4 ? M 19 African2 4 Euthanasia (vaginal/urogenital tract disease) F 24 African3 1 ? M 27 African4 1 Disease (infection, gastrointestinal, unspecified mechanical abnormality) M 28 African5 1 ? F 30 African6 4 Disease (suspected cardiac disease) F 32 African7 2 Disease (unspecified) M 32 Asian1 2 ? M 17 Asian2* 1 Euthanasia (forelimb lameness) M 17 Asian3* 4 Euthanasia (arthritis and aggression) F 26 Asian4 3 ? F 40 Asian5* 4 Euthanasia (foot abscess) F 35 Asian6 2 ? M 40 Asian7* 1 Euthanasia (chronic arthritis) F 40 Asian8 3 ? F 42 Asian9* 2 Disease (osteomyelitis and foot disease) F 52 Asian10 2 Euthanasia (unspecified illness) M 50 Asian11 1 Euthanasia (unspecified) F 50 Asian12 4 Euthanasia (unspecified) F 55 Asian13 2 Sudden collapse F 61 Asian 14 4 ? ? ?

    The following distal limb structures were assessed on the CT scans for utter five digits (denoted DI to DV by convention); the carpometacarpal (CMC) or tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints, metapodial (metacarpal/metatarsal) bones, paired proximal sesamoids, metacarpophalangeal (MCP) or metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints, proximal and distal interphalangeal (PIP and DIP) joints, phalangeal bones, and surrounding soft tissues. Lesions were identified and interpreted by a great animal veterinary radiologist and resident (J.D. and R.W.), and categorised in consensus using an established scheme previously used for elephants and rhinoceroses (Regnault et al., 2013). This grading scheme is provided in Table 2. Severity of each lesion was graded as slight, moderate, or severe (grades 1, 2 or 3 respectively; perceive Table 2 for grading criteria).

    Table 2:

    Grading scheme used for categorising pathological changes in this study.

    Lesion type Changes observed Severity Mineralisation Mineral opacity within soft tissues at a site far-off to other osseous structures Slight = solitary short linear foci, occasionally coalescing temper = multiple linear or irregularly shaped mineral attenuating areas severe = extensive mineralisation, frequently linear coalescing mineral structures, elongated Osteitis Disruption of conventional trabecular bone pattern, mottled appearance, multiple hypoattenuating foci, loss of parts of bone, destruction of conventional bone outline, periosteal original bone formation Slight/Moderate/Severe based on extent of changes Enthesopathy Discrete original bone formation at attachment sites of tendons and ligaments Slight/Moderate/Severe: based on size and extent of the mineral attenuation at the site of the soft tissue structures insertion onto the bone, if multiple sites affected in the same bone then interpretation based on utter affected sites for overall grade. Cyst-like lesions Well-defined radiolucencies (with hyperattenuating rim) Grade based on size (not measured), small/medium/large (observer experience-based only) Fractures Sclerotic linear areas, may live with original bone formation at bone surface (old), linear hypoattenuation (acute) Not graded (just present/absent) Osteoarthritis Discrete original bone at periarticular surface, subchondral bone sclerosis, narrowing or obliteration of joint space, subchondral lysis, widening of joint space Mild: minuscule pointed periarticular osteophytes, mild increased bone attenuation or thickening of the subchondral bone plate Moderate: Multiple medium sized periarticular osteophytes, evidence of widening or narrowing of the joint space not considered to live related to limb position only, thickening of the subchondral bone and adjacent increased mineral attenuation. Severe: Numerous and extensive periarticular osteophytes, marked narrowing of the articular space, marked subchondral bone thickening/hyperattenuation. Infectious arthritis Florid original bone formation at periarticular surface, subchondral bone lysis, widening of joint space, subchondral bone sclerosis, narrowing or obliteration of joint space Slight/Moderate/Severe based on extent of changes Remodelling Enlargement of vascular channels and synovial fossae, irregular contour to the osseous structures away from the joint surfaces and not considered entheseophyte formation, sometimes abysmal excavations in the bone, alterations in shape of a bone. Subjective scale of the overall shape of the bone, degree of periosteal change identified, alterations in the cortices. No fixed categorical variables. Subluxation Loss of articular surface contact between the bones forming a joint Not graded (just present/absent)

    The degree of ossification of “predigits” (prepollex/prehallux, or radial/tibial sesamoids; e.g., Hutchinson et al., 2008; Hutchinson et al., 2011) was likewise noted, and categorised as: non-ossified (code 0), minimally ossified (code 1), temper ossification embedded in (presumably) cartilaginous soft tissue (code 2), or extensively ossified lone structure (code 3). Anatomical variability in the proximal sesamoid bones was described.

    For analysis, each pathology category was expressed as the number of affected structures per foot e.g., if osseous cyst-like lesions were observed only in metacarpals III and IV, the foot would hold two affected structures. For the more frequently observed pathological categories (remodelling, enthesopathy, osseous cyst-like lesions and osteoarthritis), a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was used to test age, sex, foot kind (fore or hind), and species (Asian or African) as predictors on the amount of observed pathology (modelled as signify data with a negative binomial distribution). The models ran as multi-variable negative binomial regressions with backwards selection. For statistical assessment, significance was set at p = 0.05. Multiple feet from the same elephant were treated as repeated measures. Similar GEE models were elope for sesamoid fusion, and atypically-shaped and multipartite phalanges (though only with Asian elephants for the latter, as no African elephants had multipartite phalanges). A GEE (ordinal logistic) model was likewise used to test whether species was a significant predictor of degree of predigit ossification (modelled as categorical data), and then separately within each species as bi-variable models to test if age and foot kind were significant predictors. Statistical analyses were performed in IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 24.0).

    To examine whether elephants with pathological lesions in one foot were more likely to hold lesions in other feet, they compared the harmony of elephants with one vs. two or more feet diagnosed with pathology (only for the 15 elephants with scans of multiple feet, and pathology in at least one foot) for utter categories.

    Results Pathological changes

    All of the elephant feet in this study (i.e., utter adults and near-adults) were observed to hold pathology of some kind under their grading scheme. However, the majority of these lesions (63%) were grade 1, thus considered to live clinically insignificant or anatomical variants. They considered lesions of grade 2 or 3 (moderate and marked/severe) likely to picture clinically significant pathology. Based on this assessment, only grade 2 and 3 lesions were analysed further below. Forty seven of 52 feet (21/21 elephants) were institute to contain pathological changes graded temper (2) or greater. Percentages are reported for descriptive purposes.

    The most frequent change observed was remodelling, especially observed as bone surface irregularities (Figs. 1A and 1D), representing 31% of utter pathologies observed (see Table 3 for breakdown). Remodelling was present in 18 out of 21 elephants (39/52 feet). Commonly remodelled bones were the metapodials (with 31% of utter remodelling observed here), proximal phalanges (30%), sesamoid bones (16%) and middle phalanges (8%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (27% of remodelling), DIV (25%), DV (21%) and DII (17%), whilst DI appeared least affected (10%). A GEE (negative binomial model) institute that observed remodelling increased with age (p = 0.01 in the final univariate model); age remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for species (p = 0.2), sex (p = 0.8), and foot kind (fore vs. hind; p = 0.7) in the multivariable modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, remodelling was commonly observed in multiple feet (10/13 elephants with two or more affected feet, with only three elephants having a lone foot affected).

    Figure 1: Sagittal CT slices of digits in elephant feet, exhibiting pathological changes. (A) Remodelling of the metacarpal (arrow) and fracture of the middle phalanx (filled arrowhead) in DIV of the perquisite hind foot of ‘Asian8’. (B) Enthesopathy of the proximal sesamoid (filled arrowhead) and evidence of DJD (osteophytes, altered joint spacing) at the proximal and middle interphalangeal joints (arrows) in DIV of the perquisite forefoot of ‘Asian10’. (C) Focal hyperattenuating region (arrow) and misshapen, scalloped proximal phalanx (filled arrowhead) in DII of the perquisite forefoot of ‘Asian13’. (D) Remodelling of the bones (arrow), subluxation of the proximal interphalangeal joint (unfilled arrowhead) and soft tissue mineralisation (filled arrowheads) in DIII of the perquisite hind foot of ‘Asian4’. Table 3:

    Summary of Grade 2 + pathological lesions detected in this study.

    In the first column, “Af” and “As” with numbers correspond to their elephant subjects from Table 1; likewise “Path,” number of unique pathology categories observed per individual elephant, and asterisks argue elephants known to hold foot or locomotor problems. Second column: “Foot”: LH, left hind; LF, left fore; RH, perquisite hind; RF, perquisite fore. Elephant Foot Calcification Osteitis Enthesophyte Cyst Fracture OA Infectious OA Remodelling Subluxation Misc. Af1 Path: 2 LF 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 LH 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Af2 Path: 2 RH 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LF 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 LH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Af3 Path: 7 RH 6 3 7 3 0 6 2 8 0 0 Af4 Path: 1 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Af5 Path: 5 LF 4 0 6 6 0 7 0 9 0 0 Af6 Path: 5 LF 0 0 1 3 0 2 0 3 0 0 LH 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 RF 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 RH 0 1 2 6 0 1 0 3 0 0 Af7 Path: 3 RF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LF 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 As1 Path:3 RF 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 LF 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 As2* Path: 6 RH 2 0 8 1 1 1 0 8 0 0 As3* Path: 4 LF 0 0 8 2 0 0 0 9 0 0 LH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 RF 0 0 8 1 0 1 0 4 0 0 RH 0 0 3 3 0 4 0 2 0 0 As4 Path: 8 LF 0 1 4 3 0 3 0 4 0 0 RF 9 0 7 3 0 4 0 4 0 0 RH 6 5 10 11 0 9 2 12 1 0 As5* Path: 4 LF 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 LH 0 0 9 1 0 2 0 6 0 0 RF 0 0 9 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 RH 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 As6 Path: 3 LF 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 As7* Path: 6 RF 0 2 4 1 0 1 1 5 0 0 As8 Path: 7 LH 0 0 12 6 0 7 0 12 0 0 RF 3 2 7 2 0 3 1 5 0 0 RH 0 0 4 4 0 3 0 7 0 0 As9* Path: 8 LH 6 1 3 2 0 2 1 6 1 0 RH 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 4 1 0 As10 Path: 4 RF 0 0 12 3 0 10 0 20 0 0 RH 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 As11 Path: 2 RH 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 As12 Path: 6 LF 1 0 6 0 0 3 0 9 2 0 LH 4 0 5 0 0 1 0 8 1 0 RF 2 0 13 2 0 3 0 13 0 0 RH 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 As13 Path: 9 LH 3 0 5 3 1 1 0 4 0 0 RF 1 0 7 6 0 6 1 8 1 2 As14 Path: 7 LF 3 4 9 5 0 6 3 14 0 0 LH 0 0 3 3 0 1 0 5 0 0 RF 3 2 7 4 0 6 2 11 0 0 RH 0 0 1 7 0 1 0 4 0 0 Total: 55 21 204 113 2 98 13 237 9 3 755 observations (7%) (3%) (27%) (15%) (0.3%) (13%) (2%) (31%) (1%) (0.4%)

    The second most commonly identified pathology was enthesopathy (Fig. 1B), representing 27% of utter pathologies observed (Table 3). Enthesopathy was present in 18/21 elephants (43/52 feet). Commonly affected regions were the metapodial bones (32%), proximal phalanges (27%), sesamoids (21%) and CMC/TMT joints (18%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (27%), DIV (24%), DV (23%) and DII (19%), whilst DI appeared least frequently affected (6%). A GEE (negative binomial model) institute enthesopathy was more commonly observed in Asian compared to African elephants (p = 0.001 in the final univariate model); species remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for age (p = 0.3), sex (p = 0.6), and foot kind (p = 0.8) in the multivariable modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, enthesopathy was almost always observed in multiple feet (13/14 elephants with two or more affected feet versus one elephant with only a lone foot affected).

    Figure 2: Transverse CT slices of digits in elephant feet, exhibiting pathological changes. (A) Multiple osseous cyst-like lesions in metacarpal (filled arrowhead) in DV of the perquisite hind foot of ‘African2.’ (B) Solitary osseous cyst-like lesions in the proximal phalanges (filled arrowheads) of DIII and DIV of the left forefoot of ‘African6.’ (C) Soft tissue mineralisation on the palmar aspect of digits (filled arrowheads) in the perquisite forefoot of ‘Asian4’. (D) Osteitis of the proximal phalanx (arrow) and infectious osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint (filled arrowhead) in DIV of the left forefoot of ‘Asian14.’

    Osseous cyst-like lesions of bone (Figs. 2A and 2B) represented 15% of utter pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 20/21 elephants (39/52 feet). Commonly affected structures were the metapodial (56%) and proximal phalangeal bones (28%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (27%), DIII (24%), DII (21%) and DV (19%), whilst DI appeared least affected (10%). A GEE (negative binomial model) institute that osseous cyst-like lesions were more commonly observed in females compared to males (p = 0.01 in the final univariate model); sex remained significant (p = 0.03) after accounting for species (p = 0.3), age (p = 0.5) and foot kind (p = 0.2) in the multivariate modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, osseous cyst-like lesions were generally observed in multiple feet (10/15 elephants with two or more affected feet, versus five elephants with only a lone foot affected).

    Osteoarthritis (OA; Fig. 1B) represented 13% of utter pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 14/21 elephants (28/52 feet). Commonly affected joints were the carpometacarpal/tarsometatarsal joints (46%), metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joint (36%), and proximal interphalangeal joint (10%). Commonly affected digits were DIII (28%), DIV (25%), DII (24%) and DI (12%), whilst DV appeared least affected by OA (11%). A GEE (negative binomial model) institute that OA increased with age (p = 0.02 in the final univariate model); age remained significant (p = 0.05) after accounting for foot kind (p = 0.6), sex (p = 0.6), and species (p = 0.9) in the multivariate modelling. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, OA was almost always observed in multiple feet (9/10 elephants with two or more affected feet, versus one elephant with only a lone foot affected).

    Soft tissue mineralisation (Figs. 1D and 2C) represented 7% of utter pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 9/21 elephants (17/52 feet). These mineralisations were identified having similar interdigital, frequently linear structure in utter limbs. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, mineralisation was generally observed in multiple feet (4/6 elephants with two or more feet affected, versus two elephants with only a lone foot affected).

    Osteitis (Fig. 2D) represented 3% of utter pathologies observed (Table 3), present in 7/21 elephants (9/52 feet). Commonly affected regions were the proximal and middle phalanges (33% and 29% of observations, respectively), metapodials (24%), and sesamoids (14%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (48% of osteitis observed here), DIII (38%), whilst DV (10%) and DII (5%) appeared least affected. DI was not affected in any limb studied. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, osteitis was observed roughly equally affecting multiple feet versus just one foot (2/5 elephants versus three elephants, respectively).

    Infectious osteoarthritis (Fig. 2D) represented 2% of utter pathology observed (Table 3), present in 7/21 elephants (8/52 feet), or 13 joints in total. In 7/8 feet, bone(s) adjacent to the affected joints were likewise observed with osteitis. Commonly affected joints were the MCP/MTP (46%), PIP (38%) and submerge joints (15%). Commonly affected digits were DIV (54%), DIII (38%) and DV (8%). DI and DII were unaffected in any limb. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, infectious OA was generally only observed in one foot (5/6 elephants with a lone affected foot, versus only one elephant with multiple feet affected).

    Subluxation (Fig. 1D) of a joint represented 1% of utter pathology observed (Table 3), present in five out of 21 elephants (8/52 feet). The MCP/MTP, PIP and submerge joints were equally affected. Digits were likewise fairly equally affected. For the affected elephants with multiple feet scanned, subluxation was observed roughly equally affecting multiple feet versus just one foot (two elephants versus three elephants, respectively). Complete luxation was not observed in any joint in this study.

    Fractures (Fig. 1A) represented <1% of utter pathology observed (Table 3), present in only 3/21 elephants (3/52 feet). Two of the fractures were identified in the distal phalanx of DIII, and one was of the middle phalanx of DIV.

    In addition to the categories of pathology listed in Table 2, they observed focal hyperattenuating (i.e., highly dense) regions within the medullary cavities of long bones (Fig. 1C) in two out of 21 elephants (2/52 feet). Three hyperattenuating regions were observed in total: two in the metacarpals of digit III (different feet of different elephants), and one in the proximal phalanx of digit II.

    In this study, multiple types of pathology were identified in most feet: out of 52 feet, two were observed with utter nine pathological categories listed in Table 2, two feet with eight categories, three feet with seven categories, seven feet with six categories, 12 feet with five categories, six feet with four categories, three feet with three categories, and eight feet with two categories. Only three feet were observed with a lone category of pathology, and six feet (11.5% of limbs) had no evidence of pathology.

    Anatomical variations

    In the CT images evaluated, the configuration of the proximal sesamoid bones was variable: they were sometimes present as a pair, commonly fused together (appearing as a lone bone), and occasionally absent from scans altogether (i.e., not visible as either an ossified bone or as an obvious soft tissue structure; Figs. 3A and 3D).

    Figure 3: Transverse CT slices of elephants’ feet, showing the sesamoids. (A) Completely unossified prepollex (red box) in the perquisite forefoot of ‘Asian4.’ Note likewise the lone sesamoid of DI (arrow) and the paired proximal sesamoids of other digits (filled arrowheads). (B) Sparsely mineralised prepollex (red box) in perquisite forefoot of ‘African6.’ (C) Medium-sized, discrete ossification of the prepollex (red box) in perquisite forefoot of ‘African2.’ Note likewise the larger lateral sesamoid of DV (filled arrowhead) compared to the medial sesamoid. (D) great ossification bounding the outer edges of the prepollex (red box) in perquisite forefoot of ‘Asian12.’ Often, the middle of the predigit will remain partially unossified resulting in a rod-like appearance. Note likewise fusion of the paired proximal sesamoids (filled arrowheads) in DII–DIV, compared to the unfused sesamoids in (A).

    In digit I, the sesamoids often had the appearance of a lone bone (42/52 feet); very occasionally they appeared as a fused pair (3/52 feet), and in only one foot appeared as an unfused pair. The digit I sesamoids were always present in African elephants, but were sometimes missing in the hind feet of Asian elephants (absent in 6/14 Asian elephants, or 8/35 hind feet).

    In their sample of African elephants, the sesamoid bones in the other digits were almost always paired; only two feet out of 17 had fused sesamoids (in digits III and IV in one hind foot, and digit V in another elephant’s forefoot). In Asian elephants the appearance of sesamoids in the other digits varied much more. In digit II, 22 were fused, 12 were paired, and one appeared single. In digit III, 26 were fused, eight were paired, and one was lytic and difficult to assess. In digit IV, 24 were fused, 10 paired, and one absent. In digit V, 12 were fused, 22 paired, and one appeared single. In both species, the lateral sesamoid of digit V was sometimes appreciably larger than the medial sesamoid (Fig. 3C). A GEE (negative binomial model) institute that species was a statistically significant predictor (p < 0.0005 in both the multivariate and final univariate model) of amount of sesamoid fusion (i.e., number of fused pairs per foot, not distinguishing which pairs), with Asian elephants possessing more fused sesamoids than African elephants. Sex (p = 0.9), foot kind (p = 0.4), and age (p = 0.7) were not significant.

    Ossified predigits (i.e., radial/tibial sesamoids associated with digit I) were more frequently identified in Asian than African elephants. In African elephants, 9/17 feet (3/7 elephants) had evidence of ossified predigits, compared to 27/35 feet (13/14 elephants) in Asian elephants. The extent of ossification was lower in African elephants: seven predigits were minimally ossified and two had intermediate ossification, versus one minimally ossified predigit, six with intermediate ossification, and 20 extensively ossified predigits in Asian elephants. pattern 3 shows the different degrees of predigit ossification observed. A GEE (repeated measures ordinal logistic model) institute that species was a statistically significant predictor of presence and extent of predigit ossification (p = 0.009). Within each species, neither age (p < 0.9 in African elephants and p = 0.5 in Asian elephants) nor foot kind (fore versus hind; p < 0.9 for African elephants and p = 0.7 for Asian elephants) were institute to live statistically significant predictors of predigit ossification.

    We observed multipartite distal phalanges (Fig. 4) in 36 digits of 23 feet (12 elephants; utter Asian). Most were bipartite (27/36), but some were tripartite (9/36). Multipartite distal phalanges were most frequently identified in DV (16/36), DIII (9/36), DIV (6/36), and DII (5/36). DI had none. A GEE (negative binomial model) institute that, within Asian elephants, neither age, sex nor foot kind were statistically significant predictors of multipartite distal phalanges (p = 0.3, p = 0.1, p = 0.1 respectively).

    Figure 4: Three-dimensional reconstructions from CT scans. (A) Dorsal view of the left forefoot of ‘Asian5’, showing tripartite distal phalanx of DIII (arrows; likewise CT appearance inset) and misshapen middle phalanges of DII and DIV (unfilled arrowheads). The middle phalanx of DII is wedge shaped, whilst that of DIV is wedged-shaped with a scalloped distal aspect and missing distal phalanx (filled arrowhead). (B) Dorso-lateral view of the perquisite hind foot of ‘Asian9’ showing the bipartite distal phalanx (arrow) and missing middle phalanx (filled arrowhead) of DV.

    We observed 25 atypically shaped phalanges in 17 feet of 11 elephants (10 Asian and one African). Affected bones were most often middle phalanges (23/25 bones), but one proximal and one distal phalanx were likewise observed to hold atypical shapes. The shape of the bones varied, but most appeared wedge-shaped (Fig. 4A) due to relative shortening of the bone’s abaxial aspect and/or mediolateral narrowing (18/25 bones). Others appeared very rounded with loss of the typical rhomboidal shape (5/25 bones), and occasionally bones had a scalloped appearance of the articular surface (2/25 bones; perceive Figs. 1C and 4A). Atypically shaped phalanges were most often observed in DIV (11/25 bones) and DII (9/25 bones), with fewer seen in DI (3/25 bones) and DV (2/25 bones). No atypically shaped bones were observed in DIII. A GEE (negative binomial model) institute age (p = 0.002), species (p = 0.02) and foot kind (p = 0.01) to live statistically significant predictors of atypically-shaped phalanges, being more frequent in younger elephants, Asian elephants, and hind feet (20 bones in 12 hind feet vs five bones in five forefeet) in multivariate modelling. Sex was not significant (p = 0.8).

    Phalangeal number varied between digits and feet. utter African elephants had only the proximal phalanx in DI of their forefeet, and no phalangeal bones visible in DI of their hind feet. The distal phalanx of DII was occasionally absent (2/10 African forefeet and 3/7 hind feet). The distal phalanx was always absent from DV in utter African elephant feet. Subjectively, Asian elephants appeared to exhibit slightly more variability in phalangeal number. utter Asian elephants lacked at least the middle phalanx in DI of their forefeet, however some likewise lacked the distal phalanx (9/18 Asian forefeet), and one foot lacked utter phalanges in DI. In the hind feet of Asian elephants, some lacked only the distal phalanx from digit I (2/17 hind feet), some likewise lacked the middle phalanx (4/17), and most lacked utter three (11/17). In DII, 1/17 hind feet was missing a middle phalanx and 1/17 was missing a distal phalanx. In DIII, 1/18 forefeet was missing a distal phalanx. In DIV, 4/18 forefeet were missing the distal phalanx and 1/18 forefeet was missing utter three phalanges (suspected digital amputation, given the CT appearance). In DV, 3/18 forefeet and 11/17 hind feet were missing the middle phalanx (Fig. 4B), whilst 1/17 hind feet was missing both middle and distal phalanges.


    All elephants and almost utter feet in this study were institute with lesions likely to picture clinically necessary pathology. The elephants in their study are a biased population in this regard—though reason of death was not always clearly specified, it appears at least five of the 21 elephants died or were euthanised in section due to foot or joint problems. Despite this, their findings reinforce the longstanding concern that foot problems are frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in captive elephants (Steel, 1885; Fowler, 2001; Luikart & Stover, 2005; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012).

    In addition to foot problems that are widely acknowledged in the literature on elephant pathologies (OA, infectious OA, osteitis, fractures and subluxation), they hold observed remodelling of bones, enthesopathy, osseous cyst-like lesions, soft tissue mineralisation and hyperattenuating bone foci. They likewise institute atypically shaped and absent phalanges, though any pathological significance of these features is unclear. Most of the elephant feet in this study had several pathological diagnoses (Table 3), supporting the notion that the different types of pathology hold common causes, and/or that the establishment of one disease process may predispose elephants to developing others. For many types of pathology, multiple feet from the same elephant were affected, consistent with a generalised predisposition (e.g., husbandry, obesity; perceive likewise Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016) rather than singular cause. Most of their findings generally drop into three (sometimes overlapping) categories: lesions related to weight-bearing and loading of tissues, lesions related to ascending infection, and variable anatomy with unclear pathological significance.

    Loading appears to hold a significant influence on the evolution of pathology. A great harmony of the identified pathology was concentrated on the lateral three digits (remodelling, enthesopathy, osteitis, and infectious OA) or middle three digits (OA and osseous cyst fondness lesions); digits III and IV being the common denominator in both cases. The body weight of elephants is thought to live principally borne by the middle three digits (DII, DIII, and DIV) (Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012), with the lateral three digits (DIII, DIV, DV) typically experiencing the greatest pressures during walking (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012). perverse to expectations, they did not find the forelimbs to live significantly more affected by pathology than the hind limbs (Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000), despite manner a greater harmony of bodyweight (−60%; Genin et al., 2010). However, pressures on the forefeet are only higher in some instances and regions (Panagiotopoulou et al., 2012). Additionally, the digital cushions and predigits disagree between fore and hind feet (Weissengruber, 2006; Hutchinson et al., 2011), and the limbs may live used differently in different styles of locomotion or other behaviours, potentially resulting in different patterns of loading between feet.

    In OA, the link to increased or altered loading (via obesity or indigent conformation) is fairly well established, though other factors (including trauma) may live involved (Fowler, 2006; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012). For other (putative) types of pathology, such as remodelling, enthesopathy and soft tissue mineralisation, the link to great or abnormal loads is hypothesised from other species. Enthesopathy in humans can live seen in degenerative, inflammatory or metabolic diseases (Ruhoy, Schweitzer & Resnick, 1998), and with aging (Shaibani, Workman & Rothschild, 1993). But animal models argue that enthesopathy can likewise occur without tendon microtears or inflammation and may live an adaptive response to loading (Benjamin, Rufai & Ralphs, 2000). Remodelling and enthesopathy are both frequently observed in rhinos and thought to reflect tissue loading (Regnault et al., 2013; Galateanu et al., 2013; Stilson, Hopkins & Davis, 2016). The linear appearance and the location of soft tissue mineralisation in their elephants intimate that the digital flexor tendons are the affected structures. Mineralisation of the abysmal digital flexor tendon in horses has been observed as a response to inveterate injury (Dyson, 2003b), and common mineralisation has been described as a feature of tendinopathy (tendon disease arising from overuse) and following trauma in other species (O’Brien et al., 2012). The magnitude of load experienced by structures may live a factor (especially in OA and remodelling, which both expand with increasing age and therefore presumably body weight), as might the kind of loading; e.g., altered locomotion or long periods of standing. As elephants are both very great and long-lived, they may live more predisposed to loading-associated pathology and/or bone remodelling (perhaps including the variable sesamoid and phalangeal bone appearances described below) compared with other species. Indeed, as ossification of the foot and other limb bones tends to initiate relatively late in elephants (Hautier et al., 2012) and their growth plates likewise minister to proximate late in life (uncertain and variable timing but roughly at 8–20 years of age; Roth, 1984; Siegal-Willott et al., 2008), the growth patterns of elephant feet (and perhaps limbs more generally) may leave them more vulnerable to accumulation of pathologies, although much more research is required to test this speculation.

    Osteitis and infectious OA often result from spreading soft tissue infections, or penetration of a strange kick into the foot (Fowler, 2006). Their study institute the proximal bones and joints to live more affected, compared to the distal and middle phalanges more often reported in other studies (Fowler, 2006 citing Gage, 1999 and Hittmair & Vielgrader, 2000); this manifest discrepancy might live best explained by variability and sample sizes in both cases.

    We observed subluxation and fracture, which may result from trauma but may likewise sometimes live incidental findings (for example, fracture of the distal phalanx in elephants; Fowler, 2006). Post-mortem fracture or manipulation of bones out of congruency likewise cannot live ruled out. Interestingly, they frequently observed multipartite distal phalanges that appear very similar to fractured phalanges but that they inferred to live a distinct entity, based on the want of callus or bone reaction. The phalanges resembled the incompletely ossified distal phalanges observed radiographically in juvenile Asian elephants (Siegal-Willott et al., 2008). The affected elephants in their study were likewise utter Asian (no African), and the distal phalanges of the lateral digits (DV and to a lesser degree, DIV) were most frequently observed to live multipartite. fondness Siegal-Willott et al. (2008), they institute bipartite phalanges (called ‘unilateral wing lucencies’) more common that tripartite phalanges (‘bilateral wing lucencies’). They observed multipartite distal phalanges in elephants up to 55 years old, and so it seems that the ossification centres of these bones may not always fuse with age (similar to multipartite sesamoids). They confess that the distinction between fracture and a congenitally multipartite bone can live subtle (or even impossible with inveterate fractures; Morandi, 2012), and that the pathological significance of either condition appears negligible in the distal phalanx.

    It is necessary that veterinarians and radiologists are alert of such apparently conventional anatomical variations and incidental lesions when evaluating pathology in the feet. Best-known amongst these is variable phalangeal number, especially in DI and DV (Ramsay & Henry, 2001; Fowler, 2006; Hutchinson et al., 2008; Siegal-Willott, Alexander & Isaza, 2012). Their data likewise uphold this longstanding observation of elephants, and verify that digits II, III and IV generally hold three phalanges (although exceptions existed, especially amongst Asian elephants). Atypically shaped phalanges are another source of anatomical variation observed in this study.

    Sesamoid bones likewise had variable appearances—not only the proximal sesamoid bones (generally paired bones in other species but which may live fused or asymmetrical in elephants), but likewise the predigits. These unfounded ‘sixth toes’ seem to live modified sesamoids that start out as cartilaginous rods but may later ossify (Hutchinson et al., 2011). In their elephant sample (with sample overlap from those of Hutchinson et al., 2011), the predigits ranged from completely non-ossified (visible as a hollow cartilaginous rod), to minuscule and patchy regions of mineral attenuation, to great discrete pieces of bone, to long, complicated and jointed structures curving around to the back of the foot. Within the same animal, the degree of mineralisation in pairs of forefeet or hind feet was consistent, but could vary between fore and hind limbs.

    We institute that Asian elephants showed a greater current towards ossification of the predigits. Presence of sesamoid bones at joints has been linked to increased OA by some studies (e.g., Pritchett, 1984; Hagihara et al., 1993), though not others (e.g., Muehleman, Williams & Bareither, 2009). The workable link to OA in humans has prompted the hypothesis that sesamoids may predispose joints to developing disease, or that both OA and sesamoids are linked by an underlying process (i.e., current for endochondral ossification; Sarin et al., 1999). Although they did not find significantly more OA in Asian compared to African elephants, they did find more enthesopathy, more sesamoid fusion, and multipartite distal phalanges (indicating multiple unfused ossification centres). Along with their greater predigit ossification, these findings lead us to speculate that Asian elephants might hold an increased current for endochondral ossification (in their distal limbs) than African elephants. This could clarify some differences in disease prevalence and bone anatomy.

    Of their findings, only the osseous cyst-like lesions and hyperattenuating regions accomplish not clearly felicitous into the categories of lesions related to loading, infection, or incidental finding/variable anatomy. Osseous cyst-like lesions may live secondary to OA, osteochondrosis (particularly if subchondral), ischaemic necrosis, haemorrhage, or vascular malformation (Carlson & Weisbrode, 2006). fondness their elephants, sex-based biases in cyst prevalence hold been eminent in humans (O’Donnell, 2009) and some other animals (Craig, Dittmer & Thompson, 2016). The hyperattenuating regions resemble enostoses (benign foci of dense bone), which are sometimes associated with lameness in horses (Dyson, 2003a). The reason is unknown, but contributing factors may involve excess dietary calcium (Carciofi & accomplish Prado Saad, 2008).


    Though a minuscule harmony of their elephants were previously known to hold foot or joint problems, the generally towering level of pathology institute in their study highlights the need for continuing vigilance regarding elephant foot health. They should not live complacent with want of lameness or externally manifest signs. A comprehensive evaluation of foot health in elephants should therefore involve ‘baseline’ foot radiographs to establish the ‘normal’ anatomy for that individual, and annual assessment thereafter using radiographic protocols with gauge views optimal for the detection of pathological lesions (Mumby et al., 2013). In addition, weight management, regular exercise, a antiseptic and usurp environment (with minimal time spent on difficult surfaces; Miller, Hogan & Meehan, 2016), and other measures to obviate over-loading, injury and infection should not live overlooked.

    Supplemental Information Raw data (lesions graded from CT scans)

    Sheet 1 is the raw collected data, sheet 2 contains a summary of the elephants, predigits, sesamoids and grade 2 + pathology, sheet 3 contains the raw data for misshapen or missing phalanges.

    20 Stocks in 2019 | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Which stocks hold True potential for upside this year? What industries and trends should investors live watching? Which CEOs are on the tropical seat? And which stocks should investors avoid?

    Aaron Bush, Matt Argersinger, Jason Moser, and Ron shameful debate 20 potential investing opportunities in the year ahead and design some foolhardy predictions. Plus, they debate Apple's latest stumble and upcoming IPOs we're excited to see.

    A plenary transcript follows the video.

    This video was recorded on Jan. 4, 2019.

    Chris Hill: It's the Motley Fool Money radio show! I'm Chris Hill. Joining me in studio this week, senior analysts Matt Argersinger and Aaron Bush. contented original Year, gentlemen! It's their 2019 preview. We've got stocks to watch, stocks to avoid, CEOs on the tropical seat, and more. And, of course, a few foolhardy predictions, as always.

    Before they accept to the 2019 preview, though, I deem they hold to talk about Apple (NASDAQ: AAPL). Shares of Apple falling 10% on Thursday after CEO Tim Cook warned investors first quarter revenue was going to live about $5 [billion to] $8 billion lower than previously expected. Several reasons for that, Matty. The trade war in China, the economic slowdown in China, the battery replacement program that they had terminal fall. This was quiet a pretty shocking development.

    Matt Argersinger: Lots of stirring parts, but you're right. This was pretty bad. If you spy back to their guidance in early November, looking for between $89 [billion and] $93 billion in revenue. To foster in, then, at $84 billion, $5 billion below the low halt of your guided range, that's a problem. CEO Tim Cook said that really 100% of the miss was due to China and a contraction in the smartphone market there. That's a pleasant excuse. It's probably the perquisite excuse. Investors hold been questioning whether or not the iPhone, especially the latest versions of the iPhones with the towering expense tags, could really penetrate the highly competitive smartphone market in China. I deem we're starting to perceive the fact that no, that's not really the case.

    Aaron Bush: I don't deem it's that surprising, actually, that Apple has China issues. I was just thinking back, four years ago, when Matt and I were talking about China in the context of their Supernova portfolio, talking about opportunities and concerns, China was a gigantic thing they were talking about. At the time, they realized that China is a gigantic occasion simply because how many people are in that country, but they didn't necessarily await it to play out the same course as it did in the U.S. Since then, the stock is about roughly flat with the market, which is interesting. 

    I deem they started to perceive the cracks in the foundation about two years ago. About that time is when I started studying Tencent, which owns WeChat. It made me realize that iOS is far less necessary in China because WeChat is an in-app operating system that people accomplish everything in. So, the same kind of competitive advantage that Apple would hold in the U.S. with iMessage, Notes, various services, that doesn't exist in China. It showed in the data. At the time, the retention rate, people who would hold an iPhone that would buy another iPhone, outside of China it was over 80%. In China, it was 50%, which is essentially a coin flip. 

    I deem now, because of the economic turbulence that's starting to happen, trade wars, slowdown, we're starting to perceive that play out at an accelerated rate. People who would live the Apple buyers either already own them or did own them. Upgrade cycles are longer, and retention is quiet sub-optimal. Apple just has mediocre market share, and I deem that's not necessarily going to change. 

    Argersinger: I agree. As long as the iPhone is such a great section of Apple's core business, they can talk about services utter they want, but this is quiet a product that's about 70% of revenue and the majority of operating profits. 

    Now, I will condition this, because we're positive people here at the Fool. Coming into this report, Apple was already down about 40% from its high. Granted, it had a horrible day this week that took it down even further. But even at the reduced earnings estimates now, you're looking at a stock that's only trading about 11 to 12 times earnings. Certainly below the tolerable market multiple. Now, if earnings foster down further, the stock could certainly supervene suit. But it's difficult not to summon it cheap perquisite now.

    Hill: That's the thing. Tim Cook talked about how he hadn't seen the December numbers, therefore there's no course he's seen the January numbers, because they're not in yet. Their first-quarter report comes out in early February. If you're looking at this stock, and you're thinking, "Boy, it looks cheap," accomplish you buy here? Or you want to perceive what the actual numbers are before you setaside down a limited money to buy some stock?

    Bush: Oh, I don't know. It sounds fondness another coin flip to me. They don't really know. I accomplish deem that the valuation is degree compelling. You're betting that iPhone sales stabilize, and you're betting that the services segment can become much more than 15% of revenue, which it is now. I deem that most people deem that is the case. Or, at least around here, that's the bullish stance. 

    Personally, I hold some more questions. When you hold a monopoly taking 30% of every lone transaction that goes on your ecosystem, regulatory issues will one day live a concern. The same thing that we've seen with Alphabet, the same thing they perceive with Facebook (NASDAQ: FB). One day, those same headlines are going to live going on with Apple, too. And then the services narrative will slowly not seem so unbelievable anymore. 

    Hill: Alright, let's accept to their 2019 preview. Aaron, I'm going to start with you. What is one industry you're going to live watching this year?

    Bush: I'm really interested to live watching the ride sharing industry. With Uber and Lyft, and maybe even DiDi, which is in China, IPO-ing in 2019, it's really exciting that public market investors will finally hold access to this new, massive, quickly growing industry. I'm excited to perceive what the numbers spy like. They probably won't live noteworthy from a profitability perspective. But thinking about transportation as a service, and what that means beyond just ride sharing, what it means for logistics with food, and are they going to buy more bike and scooter companies? That kind of thing. I'm really interested to hear more about that longer-term game plan. We'll learn a lot about that in 2019.

    Hill: Matty, what about you?

    Argersinger: It's always interesting, but I deem especially so this year, I'm going to live watching the convivial network, convivial media space. We're already seeing for the first time ever a real, legitimate slowdown in user growth and usage rates, especially if you spy at the core Facebook platform. My questions are, how does Facebook, how does Twitter, how do these companies solve for utter the privacy risks that people seem to live inanyway alert of these days that they weren't alert of years before? How accomplish they obviate utter the vile and deceptive deportment without damaging free speech and freedom of expression on the platforms? These are gigantic challenges. Throwing money and bodies as we've seen Facebook do, I'm not sure that's going to solve it. It's going to pinch a lot of innovation. I don't doubt Facebook and Twitter can accomplish it, but I deem there's a true desultory they actually perceive a tipping point in 2019 where the powerful network result that has sucked in so many users over the years to these platforms starts to weaken, and they start to perceive meaningful declines in time spent on the platforms. I deem it'll reason a reset of the businesses.

    Hill: In terms of trends, Aaron, what's got you excited in 2019?

    Bush: Augmented reality. I deem it's been a long time since we've had a gigantic original consumer-facing technology to invest in. I hold a hunch that AR, and probably VR associated with it, is going to live one of the next gigantic waves, even though some of the hype around it seems to hold fizzled out. I might live off by one year, but 2019 could live the year in which pleasant AR products are revealed by at least one major tech company, probably Apple. For Apple, it makes sense. They've been acquiring companies with AR tech since 2013. They released their AR kit, their developer toolkit in late 2017. They hold utter the pieces in place, controlling the hardware and the software, plus the developer community to design it happen. They probably recognize that winning over the AR market might live as gigantic of a deal one day as winning the smartphone wars was. 

    I'm a bit iffy on timing, but I'm really excited to perceive the pieces start to foster together. You never know; Apple might hold a gigantic AR glasses or something announcement and late 2019.

    Argersinger: So you're aphorism Apple has a chance?

    Bush: I'm aphorism that they need to accomplish this. Technology is going to shift past smartphones. Services won't live enough. Fingers crossed.

    Hill: The cash that Apple has on the equilibrium sheet, that probably likewise helps them sleep at night.

    Argersinger: It helps a limited bit.

    Hill: In terms of trends, Matty, what about you?

    Argersinger: Big trend this year, the past year already but even bigger now this year, sports betting taking off. I've been known to position a ante or two in my time. I deem there are broader implications for the economy. The world is far more efficient, far more innovative when it becomes gamified. A competitive marketplace of ideas and dollars that are wagered, inefficiencies minister to accept streamlined out.

    It's interesting. If you depart back to this fall, you could position true money on which party was going to lead the House of Representatives after the November election. You could hold placed money on where Amazon (NASDAQ: AMZN) was going to open its second headquarters. They talked about that on the show. Imagine betting on things fondness what the weather is going to live fondness tomorrow, who's going to succeed Warren Buffett as CEO of Berkshire Hathaway (NYSE: BRK-A) (NYSE: BRK-B), what's the over and under on the minutes it's going to pinch for Domino's (NYSE: DPZ) to deliver my pizza. These might seem fondness silly things to ante on, but when you're wagering true dollars at scale, it tends to live incredibly informative to the marketplace. It makes the economy more efficient. I'm excited about utter the innovations that I deem are going to foster out of sports betting, especially when it becomes so much more of a mobile application.

    Hill: One of the ripple effects that they saw in 2018 in terms of sports betting and the legalization played out in media. In the subsequent months, pretty much every major network, both on the regional level and on the national level, started to roll out programming aimed specifically at betting.

    Argersinger: Absolutely. You perceive it utter the time now.

    Hill: Aaron Bush, what is a stock -- or an industry; you can depart broad if you want -- in terms of upside for investors? Let's puss it, it's been a volatile pair of months here. We're looking for some upside. What accomplish you have?

    Bush: I'm going to depart gigantic and then narrow down. Software-as-a-service. The past two years hold been huge for emerging software companies. But I accomplish deem this is an instance in which winners will preserve on winning, and a lot of these stocks hold been beaten down in the recent turmoil, too. Unlike the consumer-facing innovation, which is occurring mainly in start-ups and the massive tech companies, there are tons of noteworthy options to invest in minuscule and mid-cap software companies with lots of latitude to multiply. Some of these will spin into the next Oracle (NYSE: ORCL) or Salesforce (NYSE: CRM). A basket of three stocks that I hold super-high conviction in that I deem will accomplish well in 2019, definitely beyond: Twilio (NYSE: TWLO), which is a leading communications platform; Alteryx (NYSE: AYX), which is a leading data blending and analytics platform; and MongoDB (NASDAQ: MDB), which is a next-gen database services company. utter of these companies are growing super-fast, are paramount in what they do, hold very limited competition. At scale, they're going to live producing ridiculous amounts of cash flow. I'm super excited to perceive what these companies do, even though they've already been hyped in the past years. 

    Hill: Also, a fun basket of names. It's fun to condition Twilio. What about you, Matt?

    Argersinger: I'm going to jump course out and talk about an entire sector. true estate has really underperformed recently thanks to, as you'd expect, higher interest rates. Homebuilders especially hold been really hit hard. But the sector itself is what you want to hold some exposure to over the next few years. Despite what the conventional thinking might be, true estate actually does quite well in periods of higher interest rates, higher inflation. One safe, cheap course to play it is to buy the Vanguard true Estate ETF, ticker VNQ. It pays a nice 4% dividend yield, gives you a broad exposure to a bunch of publicly traded true estate companies and REITs. I deem it has a true desultory of outperforming the S&P over the next few years.

    Hill: On the other side of the spectrum, it can live a stock to avoid, or maybe just one to hold on a really short leash. In terms of that category, Aaron, where are you?

    Bush: I deem the marijuana industry is super-interesting, but it was so hyped in 2018, I deem 2019 is going to bring disaster to investors investing for the most section in that industry, but especially in the companies that were the most hyped, fondness Canopy Growth (NYSE: CGC), Tilray (NASDAQ: TLRY), Aurora Cannabis (NYSE: ACB). If you're investing in those, watch out, 2019 is almost definitely going to live a rugged year.

    Argersinger: It was funny, Aaron and I talked back in the fall. They both said watch out. As soon as cannabis gets legalized in Canada, which was mid-October, you could almost draw a straight line from that point on. That was the peak of a lot of these stocks. They're down huge since then, even more so than the market we've seen. It's funny, it was one of the easiest calls I deem you could hold made. And it quiet has more to go.

    Hill: It was appealing in section because it wasn't just individual investors who were excited about this. They saw major companies, consumer brands that everybody knows, investing hundreds of millions, and in some cases billions of dollars.

    Argersinger: Coke, Philip Morris. Amazing.

    Hill: What accomplish you hold on a short leash?

    Argersinger: You can probably guess. I'm going to condition Facebook needs to live kept on a short leash, if not avoided altogether. utter the problems I mentioned regarding the convivial networking space -- the stock expense looks cheap. You can summon it that. If you assume that they're going to continue to grow their advertising revenue at a similar pace, or even slightly slower pace, yes, the stock looks very, very compelling. I just deem there's going to live a gigantic reset in expectations across the space. I hold gigantic questions about whether Facebook can effectively monetize Instagram and WhatsApp without damaging user experience. And I'm not even getting into the leadership questions you hold to hold perquisite now around heed Zuckerberg and Sheryl Sandberg. I just deem you can accomplish better elsewhere. Don't try to snare Facebook, even though it's a snazzy name with now a cheap valuation.

    Hill: This happens at this time every year: Investors and particularly the industry media start to spy ahead in terms of private companies going public. Despite the volatility that we've seen recently, you've got executives on Wall Street saying, "Actually, that might accelerate plans for private companies to depart public." In 2019, some of the best-known names, Aaron -- Uber, Slack, Airbnb, Lyft. Is there one that you're either really hoping goes public, or you're just aliveto to accept your hands on the S-1 filing?

    Bush: I hope Stripe goes public sooner or later. It might not IPO this year. They're a payment platform that makes it super smooth for companies to sell things online. Their developer tools are known to live excellent. They continue to roll out original solutions. The founder and CEO, Patrick Collison, seems to live a super-thoughtful. It wouldn't dumbfound me if one day, because this market is so big, buying things online, that Stripe becomes a larger payments company than PayPal (NASDAQ: PYPL). I deem that's super-fascinating. perquisite now, they hold a market cap of about $20 billion, so I would carefor for them to depart public sooner than later [laughs], before they start hitting the upper tens of billions in their valuation. 

    Hill: accomplish you deem they're at the point now where they're course past the acquisition standpoint?

    Bush: It would live a gigantic acquisition. I doubt it would happen, at least from another payments company. I ante they'll depart solo public.

    Hill: Matty, what are you aliveto to accept your hands on?

    Argersinger: You mentioned it, Airbnb. My wife and I hold actually been Airbnb hosts for over a decade now. What you hold is essentially the world's largest, most expansive hotel company that really doesn't own any of its rooms. It's fascinating to me. It has somewhere on the order of 5 million listings, 150 million users in proximate to 200 countries. It has a profound network effect, maybe actually the strongest in the world. I deem we're going to realize that. I don't know what the market cap is going to live when it becomes public, but just in terms of latitude signify and customer count, it's bigger than utter the major publicly traded hotel companies combined.

    Hill: OK, I really wasn't expecting that at the end. I'm assuming the respond is yes. accomplish you hold a pleasant rating? What benevolent of rating accomplish you have.

    Argersinger: They have almost a five-star rating across their listings.

    Hill: Nice! I'm not surprised, but I'm very pleased for you. utter right, we've got just a pair of minutes left before they wrap up. They accomplish this every year -- foolhardy predictions. design them reckless. They don't hold to live about business, although they can live about business. You can depart off the board to sports, pop culture, whatever. Aaron, what accomplish you have?

    Bush: Even though the Chinese trade wars and economic slowdowns will continue to generate headlines, I prognosticate that in 2019, we'll perceive the largest technology acquisition in which a Chinese company buys a U.S. company. I don't know if that's Tencent buying one of the gigantic three video game companies, maybe Alibaba acquires eBay as a course to accept into U.S. e-commerce. Maybe DiDi, which is larger than Uber at their terminal valuation, acquires Lyft as a course to accept to the U.S. markets and accept a partnership with Waymo. I don't know. There are appealing possibilities.

    Hill: That would live fascinating! Matty, what about you?

    Argersinger: I deem Warren Buffett's going to buy an airline.

    Hill: [laughs] Really?

    Argersinger: Berkshire Hathaway already owns major stakes in utter the major U.S. airlines. The industry has changed. Consolidation has made this much more a value creator than a value destroyer. You hold a tough airline fondness Delta that's actually been assigned an investment-grade credit rating. It's buying back shares and paying a dividend, and the valuation is very cheap. This is a different industry now. Much fondness how Buffett viewed the railroads 10 or 15 years ago, I deem he views the same with airlines today.

    Hill: That would live maybe the greatest illustration of someone taking emotion out of investing, when you deem back on how much Buffett used to openly detest the airlines as an industry.

    Argersinger: Oh, absolutely!

    Hill: Alright, Matt Argersinger, Aaron Bush, guys, thanks for being here! contented original Year!

    Coming up: Their 2019 preview rolls on with Ron shameful and Jason Moser. Thanks for being here, gents!

    Ron Gross: How are you doing, Chris?

    Hill: I'm doing well! The 2019 preview rolls on. true quick, though. They talked about Apple at the top of the show. Jason, any thoughts in terms of one of the largest companies in America and where it is perquisite now?

    Jason Moser: As Aaron was saying, I'm really surprised that people are surprised by this. It's not something that I'm utter that taken back by. In November, they were talking about Apple's chip suppliers ratcheting back their guidance, which was more or less implying that there may live some weakness in iPhone performance fondness we're seeing. Granted, they seem to live holding China accountable for most of this. But it utter makes total sense. As iPhones accept better, they terminal longer, you don't hold to upgrade as much. They can only raise prices so far until consumers become a limited bit more sensitive. Everybody wants to just accept on Apple's case here and prognosticate that this may live the rise of the end. But let's live clear, it's quiet Apple. They're quiet selling millions upon millions of devices. They lost control of the conversation a limited bit because they're not going to live announcing those unit sales anymore. But there are a number of different ways they can win. It's not going to live just services. Services will hold to live section of it. But when you spy at services, other devices, the portfolio of wearables, you can't discount the potential gigantic acquisition at some point or another, either, with that equilibrium sheet. It's utter like, just pinch a step back here...

    Gross: I'm utter for the take-a-step-back approach. I deem that makes pleasant sense. I'm going to live really curious to perceive if Warren Buffett and Berkshire Hathaway are buying stock during this age of weakness. I would live one of those analysts that would recommend that investors pinch a position at these levels. Eleven to 12 times forward earnings, there's not a lot of growth built into the stock at this price, and they've got a lot of ways they can win. 

    Moser: And let's remember, too, they hold a all generation of smartphone users that haven't bought smartphones yet. There are going to live plenty of opportunities to accept original smartphones in original consumers' hands, and there's a brand loyalty there that's quite impressive.

    Hill: Ron, let's accept to the preview. When you deem about 2019, what's your biggest question as an investor?

    Gross: My biggest question is, will value investing climb from the dead? As most of us are aware, growth has nicely outperformed value over the last, let's summon it a decade. Not just a few months here and there, but quite a few years. FAANG stocks are perhaps the most obvious examples of growth stocks that hold led the way. Obviously, we've had an extended bull market. That tends to favor growth stocks. So, my gigantic question is, accomplish they perceive a resurgence of interest in stocks that are considered value? Growth often does underperform in endure markets. If, perhaps, they are entering a endure market, are they going to perceive a sustained endure market, then one would await value to foster back into vogue. But, you know what? They haven't seen it anytime in recent past. 

    Hill: What about you, Jason?

    Moser: We've talked a lot about Disney (NYSE: DIS) and their high-tail to over-the-top distribution. They own section of Hulu, which I deem they've done a pleasant job structure out, especially with that live Hulu offering. ESPN+ seems fondness it's gaining some traction. And now, Disney+ is going to live their service that launches sometime in 2019. They talked before on the shows, they really need to design sure they execute there. I accomplish deem that's a compelling product. It's going to pinch a lot of content away from other streaming partners, namely Netflix (NASDAQ: NFLX). I find it appealing to perceive that the shows on Netflix that garner the most views as a percentage are utter shows that are not Netflix shows. I deem that's telling. Netflix is quiet having to setaside up a lot of money to accept content that people want to see, and Netflix is not the one producing that content. They still, hold a limited ways to depart in succeeding on that original content front to warrant utter of that money that they're spending. I deem that Disney+ is going to reemphasize the competitive advantage that they hold there in that intellectual property. I'm excited to perceive how that product arrives. I'm sure that they will at least live testing it in their house, if not becoming full-fledged subscribers, unless they really drop the ball.

    Hill: Wasn't there a minor freak-out in the Netflix universe when they said they weren't going to renew the argue Friends?

    Moser: Yeah. 

    Gross: In my household, for sure. 

    Moser: That is something that they need to pay attention to. As a percentage of views, Friends is No. 2 on the list just behind The Office. When you spy at that list of the shows that are garnering the most views on Netflix, it takes you back, not a lot of their original content is on that list. It just tells you they quiet hold a limited ways to go.

    Hill: What's a trend you're excited about this year, Ron?

    Gross: It piggybacks off of what Jason was just discussing. 5G technology, fifth generation wireless cellular technology, is coming, and it's coming pretty quickly. It's going to live pretty exciting. It's going to design devices more capable of accessing the internet, it's going to deliver much faster hasten than 4G -- some condition 20 to 100 times faster than 4G. Lots of companies are going to benefit here. The most common names would be AT&T, Verizon, T-Mobile. But I deem Nokia, even Apple will benefit as people upgrade to 5G-enabled phones. It's going to live a really exciting trend to watch from an investment perspective, but likewise from a consumer perspective, because I deem we'll utter benefit.

    Moser: I'm lighthearted you mentioned Apple there. That's another point with 5G. I deem they're going to live a limited bit behind others in getting their devices up to speed. But once that does happen, that's going to live another catalyst there in the upgrading.

    For me, I'm excited about podcasts and where podcasts are heading.

    Gross: unblushing plug!

    Moser: I'm not going to just pat ourselves on the back here too much, but it's worth noting that you and Mac and their partners here, you had the senses to design some early bets in this market back in 2010 and 2011. And lo and behold, now, in 2019, we've got a full-fledged family of podcasts. They're doing very well. We've seen Sirius XM acquire Pandora, noting in their summon that, to their dismay, they passed on podcasts for a while. They admitted that mistake, and they're going to start putting some resources into podcasts and structure out that environment. 

    I deem we're in a day and age now where Netflix really changed the game for content for people being able to watch what they want, when they want, and where they want. Now, we're seeing the same thing play out on the audio side. We're able to give people what they want, where they want it, when they want it. It's nice to live a section of it.

    Hill: Let's talk stocks. Ron, whether it's an industry or a specific stock, what accomplish you deem is poised for upside this year?

    Gross: An industry I'm looking at, it's a sector-slash-industry. I'm not ready to summon the gigantic R-word yet, recession. I'm not freaking people out yet. 

    Hill: You are a limited bit, by aphorism that.

    Gross: I deem it's necessary to hold some allocation to some defensive stocks in the environment that they may live approaching. So, when I deem of companies in those sectors, I would condition some utilities might live a pleasant ante perquisite here. Some of the discounters, in fact, discount retailers. Costco, Dollar Tree, Walmart would live some nice stocks, defensive stocks to hold as they enter an economy that might not live as robust as it has been.

    Hill: What about you, Jason?

    Moser: I don't want to time when a recession might hit, because really, that's unpleasant for everybody, but I accomplish deem they are entering a age where banks are going to hold some opportunities to boost their earnings a limited bit as interest rates continue to nudge upward. In particular, I'm looking more at minuscule banks, and one we've talked about before, Ameris Bancorp (NASDAQ: ABCB). This stock has a tremendous risk-reward scenario playing out here. The stock is now trading around 15 times earnings. They recently announced this merger with loyalty Bank in Georgia. It's about a $750 million deal. Given that Ameris is about a $1.5 billion company, you can see, it means a lot. The market rightly sold the stock off. There's some skepticism there. That's rolling in a gigantic acquisition. But they're two very similar cultures. It gives Ameris tremendous exposure to the valuable Atlanta market. It's likewise going to befriend grow that asset and deposit base, particularly in a age where a lot of these banks are competing for getting those deposit bases. So, to me, this could play out fondness the McCormick thing. recollect when McCormick acquired RB Foods? The market thought, "Whoa, this is a gigantic one to digest here," and they held off for a pair of quarters to perceive how things worked out. Lo and behold, it worked out pretty well. The stock recovered nicely. I deem they could live looking at the same thing here with Ameris if they execute this acquisition well.

    Hill: Ron, if defensive stocks hold you interested, what's at the other halt of the spectrum? What are you avoiding this year?

    Gross: Specifically, I hold one stock in mind. I foster back to it often. It's Fitbit (NYSE: FIT). I've really never been excited and probably will never live excited about this one. They entered the smartwatch market in 2018. I give it to them, they've done pretty well. But this is a formidably competitive market, with the likes of Apple, for one, perquisite there behind them. You even hold some Chinese upstarts that could live a problem, as well. I don't perceive Fitbit being the company that is constantly able to innovate, either pinch market partake or protect market share. I'd live really heedful about this one.

    Hill: What about you, Jason? 

    Moser: Zillow (NASDAQ: Z) (NASDAQ: ZG). I've changed my tone on this company over the past year. I used to live excited about the potential there. I feel fondness they've failed to convince me of the sustainability here. They're yet to become meaningfully profitable at all. Now, in this most recent quarter, they setaside in their shareholder note that Zillow Group has entered a age of transformational innovation. To me, that's code for "We're not going to live profitable anytime soon." For a company fondness this, a company that's been around for a while in such a gigantic market occasion as their housing market, they should not live entering this period. They should live coming out of this period. I deem that's what they were trying to accomplish over these past few years. This instant offers business, it's not up their alley. Buying homes and renovating them and selling them, it's not scalable. There are a lot of people out there doing it. I don't know that they hold any true advantage there. pleasant will now represents essentially half of the total assets on the equilibrium sheet. 

    It's not a unpleasant company. I'm just disappointed in the course they've executed. They quiet hold a ways to depart before they accept to meaningful profitability. 

    Hill: One of the things that ties these two businesses together, Fitbit and Zillow, is the word "optionality" has been used in connection to both of these businesses. They were seen as, "They hold options, in terms of where they can go." Optionality is something they fondness to perceive as investors, but Ron, it almost seems fondness optionality works better if you've got one dependable cash cow in your portfolio.

    Gross: You nailed it. Optionality is noteworthy for additional upside. Maybe you can't even perceive the different options that a company might hold three to five years down the road. But if they don't hold that profitable cash flood producing segment of the company, then you're relying on utter of the value of that company being in the optionality category, and that's just too much risk for me.

    Hill: Guys, 2019 has just begun, but The Motley Fool is already looking for summer interns in investing, editorial, software development, and much more. Come, expend the summer!

    Gross: join us!

    Hill: join us here at Fool global headquarters this summer. depart to for utter the information and to apply to live a summer intern here. That's 

    Happens every year, Jason. There are a few CEOs who are on the tropical seat. We're long-term investors, but let's puss it: Over the long term, if you're not delivering, that means in the short term, you're on the tropical seat. What accomplish you have?

    Moser: In 2018, I certainly had Kevin Plank of Under Armour on the tropical seat. He's not off yet. I'm calling him out again. While they are seeing signs that he is embracing relying more on his team, particularly the CFO and COO of the company, Frisk and Bergman, when you spy at the expectations we've had for this industry over the course of the terminal several years, as it's been a recommendation in a number of their services, this has been a phenomenal disappointment. The true disappointing section there is, they were essentially self-inflicted. They just made some speechless investments for the sake of growing as opposed to making pleasant strategic decisions and letting the growth foster from making pleasant decisions. 

    I deem he's on the perquisite track. They need to design sure that team stays intact here. If they perceive that CFO or COO leave, they hold a really gigantic problem. But at this point, with the market seeming fondness it wants to recover, if they don't hold a recession, this is a company that should live performing a lot better than it is today.

    Hill: What about you, Ron?

    Gross: I think Wells Fargo's CEO, Timothy Sloan, probably should go. He was probably the wrong option from the accept go, as he's been at the company during utter of the controversies. Having taken over the CEO role in 2016, he's really not done anything to spin the tide. From an operations perspective, the company's not really doing very well. From a controversy perspective as well, things don't seem to live getting better. I deem it's time for some outside blood to foster in and perquisite the ship.

    Hill: I deem back to terminal year's show. I mentioned that John Flannery, who was CEO of common Electric at the time, I mentioned that he was certainly a CEO to watch because I thought he was laying utter his cards on the table. I thought, "Boy, this is going to live a really appealing company to watch." In hindsight, I probably should hold said he was on the tropical seat. I didn't deem he was on the tropical seat! Then he didn't design it to the halt of the year.

    Gross: That's how it goes!

    Hill: As I talked about with Matt Argersinger and Aaron Bush, it's appealing to perceive not only the companies being named in the private market as potential IPOs this year, but the possibility that the recent volatility we've seen might accelerate those IPOs in the first six months of 2019. Whether it's the S-1 that you're aliveto to spy at, or a company where you just think, "I want this thing to depart public now so I can accept a few shares," what's on your radar, Jason?

    Moser: One that probably a lot of people are thinking won't halt up by IPO-ing. I hope it does. SpaceX, Elon Musk's rocket company. They're set to raise $500 million at a $30.5 billion valuation shortly. To me, space is one of these markets, one of these trends that's going to open up a lot of fascinating investment opportunities over the course of the next decade and beyond. I deem SpaceX is going to live a section of that. 

    One thing that SpaceX is doing today is this project called Starlink. Essentially, the thought is looking to build out a constellation of satellites utter over the globe in low orbit that will basically live able to beam high-speed internet connection to every corner of the globe. It seems fondness he's getting buy-in from utter the regulators. We've seen what he's been able to accomplish here in the rocket launches that hold taken position thus far. 

    I deem this is a fascinating company. It's going to proffer a lot of opportunities. If they accomplish accept a desultory to perceive it depart public, I more than likely would want to own a few shares just to live a section of it. But, I'd really want to read that S-1.

    Hill: accomplish you think Tesla shareholders are aliveto for the prospect of Elon Musk at the helm of yet another public company? 

    Moser: Maybe they save that for another show. [laughs] 

    Hill: Ron, what about you?

    Gross: A favorite company in my household is fast-casual Mediterranean restaurant Cava. They recently acquired publicly traded Zoes Kitchen. I'll give them a limited time to digest that acquisition, determine what they want to accomplish with utter the Zoes locations. But then, let's pinch the all darn thing public. Some noteworthy capital that they can exhaust for growth to pinch the world by storm and expand the concept.

    Hill: Have they given any more color on what they contrivance to accomplish with those locations? I remember, they talked about that acquisition on this show. The only thing that surprised me was the fact that they seem like, "No, we're not necessarily going to spin these utter into Cavas." I deem their common reaction was, why not?

    Gross: I've seen more along the lines of making some menu changes, changes to the course the kitchen operates to live more efficient and hold offerings that are more appealing to the consumer.

    Hill: Alright, just a pair of minutes left. foolhardy predictions for 2019. What accomplish you have, Jason?

    Moser: I was thinking about going with the Red Sox repeating as World succession champions. Then I thought about it -- that's not that far-fetched, really. I'm calling it, they're going to repeat. That's not my foolhardy prediction. 

    I'll depart with a more business-related sage here. I was talking earlier about the potential acquisitions that Apple could live looking at here. What would discontinue them from wanting to acquire Square (NYSE: SQ). You want to spy at expanding your industry and becoming a limited bit more of an integral section of the commerce scene here, not only domestically, but globally. I deem Square and Apple hold a lot in common. They're both in the industry of developing silken hardware that people fondness to use, generating some pretty tough brand loyalty there. Then, they know, of course, the payments space is one that's growing very quickly. 

    I'm not aphorism it'll happen, but it's certainly an acquisition that Apple would live capable of executing. Maybe it will happen.

    Hill: Ron?

    Gross: I went a limited off the rails here. There's going to live more definitive signs of previous life discovered on Mars in 2019. That's going to build off of the work done by the Mars Curiosity Rover that, earlier in 2018, institute some organic molecules. We'll pattern out where those actually came from and build on that. There aren't going to live any signs of actual Martians running around -- 

    Hill: Or will there?

    Gross: -- but I deem we're going to perceive signs of some previous life.

    Moser: Alright, foolhardy prediction No. 2: Ron shameful and Jason Moser will live heading up the original Motley Fool Space Investing service to launch either late 2019 or 2020.

    Gross: [laughs] Sell that short.

    Hill: I'm just going to condition that regardless of where free agent Bryce Harper ends up, the Washington Nationals are going to the World Series.

    Moser: Wow! That is reckless!

    Gross: I'll pinch that bet.

    Hill: Ron Gross, Jason Moser, guys, thanks for being here! That's going to accomplish it for this week's edition of Motley Fool Money. Their engineer is Dan Boyd. Producer Mac Greer on a well-deserved vacation this week. I'm Chris Hill. Thanks for listening! We'll perceive you next week!

    John Mackey, CEO of all Foods Market, an Amazon subsidiary, is a member of The Motley Fool's board of directors. Suzanne Frey, an executive at Alphabet, is a member of The Motley Fool's board of directors. Aaron Bush owns shares of Alphabet (C shares), Alteryx, Amazon, Apple, Facebook, MongoDB, Netflix, PayPal Holdings, Square, Tesla, Twilio, Twitter, Under Armour (A Shares), Under Armour (C Shares), Walt Disney, Zillow Group (A shares), and Zillow Group (C shares). Chris Hill owns shares of Amazon, eBay, PayPal Holdings, Under Armour (A Shares), Under Armour (C Shares), and Walt Disney. Jason Moser owns shares of Alphabet (C shares), Amazon, Apple, McCormick, PayPal Holdings, Square, Twitter, Under Armour (A Shares), Under Armour (C Shares), and Walt Disney. Matthew Argersinger owns shares of Alphabet (C shares), Amazon, Delta Air Lines, MongoDB, Netflix, Square, Tesla, Twilio, Twitter, Under Armour (C Shares), Walt Disney, and Zillow Group (A shares) and has the following options: long January 2019 $15 calls on Twitter. Ron shameful owns shares of Alphabet (C shares), Amazon, Apple, Berkshire Hathaway (B shares), Costco Wholesale, Facebook, Square, and Walt Disney. The Motley Fool owns shares of and recommends Alphabet (A shares), Alphabet (C shares), Alteryx, Amazon, Apple, Berkshire Hathaway (B shares), Facebook, Fitbit, MongoDB, Netflix, PayPal Holdings,, Square, Tesla, Twilio, Twitter, Under Armour (A Shares), Under Armour (C Shares), Walt Disney, Zillow Group (A shares), and Zillow Group (C shares). The Motley Fool owns shares of Delta Air Lines and Oracle and has the following options: long January 2020 $150 calls on Apple, short January 2020 $155 calls on Apple, long January 2020 $30 calls on Oracle, short January 2019 $82 calls on PayPal Holdings, and short January 2019 $80 calls on Square. The Motley Fool recommends Costco Wholesale, eBay, McCormick, T-Mobile US, and Verizon Communications. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.

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