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DES-1721 Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series

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DES-1721 exam Dumps Source : Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series

Test Code : DES-1721
Test denomination : Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series
Vendor denomination : EMC
exam questions : 59 true Questions

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EMC EMC Specialist - Implementation

E20–335 secrets of Passing examination with E20–335 braindumps | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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  • Carnegie and Tag Pacific to merge EMC and MPower | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    PRESS release

    Carnegie clear energy (ASX: CCE) (“Carnegie”) and Tag Pacific restrained (ASX: TAG) (“Tag”) these days proclaim the signing of an Implementation Deed which sets out the phrases and key steps for the acquisition by Tag of Carnegie’s power Made clear (EMC) to create one of the crucial location’s largest, expert Engineering, Procurement, pile (EPC) and build, personal, function (BOO) consultants within the abruptly growing off-grid and fringe-of-grid photo voltaic, battery and microgrid markets.

    Upon completion of the transaction, the mixed ASX-listed business could breathe renamed MPower and should believe improved countrywide attain, with over 130 personnel on each coasts of the nation.

    It might breathe a number one renewables, battery storage and microgrid developer, clothier and constructor within the vicinity with lively tasks across Australia, novel Zealand and the Pacific.

    As consideration for EMC, Carnegie will deserve hold of fifty eight,507,377 completely paid unprejudiced shares in Tag which should breathe distributed in-specie by using Carnegie to its shareholders.

    This corresponds to approximately 32% of the entirely paid unprejudiced shares on challenge in Tag achieve up completion of the transaction however pre-capital raise by means of Tag (see transaction summary below). Carnegie shareholders will continue to hold their latest utterly paid generic shares in Carnegie.

    The proposed, mixed entity would believe had mixed seasoned forma income in FY2018 in excess of $50 million. in keeping with market boom expectations, earnings of the enlarged group is anticipated to raise in FY2019 and beyond.

    The mixed entity would birth FY2019 with a mixed dedicated order book of approximately $20 million and as soon as the EMC company and the MPower company are entirely integrated, the mixed company is anticipated to believe enough scale to allow profitability to breathe achieved.

    Upon completion of the transaction, Carnegie will continue as a renewable energy company specializing in commercialising its CETO wave energy expertise.

    it is going to additionally preserve one hundred% possession of the backyard Island Microgrid, and its present 50% ownership of the Northam photo voltaic Farm. as a result of the transaction, Carnegie will additionally retain its eligibility for the R&D tax money returned incentive.

    CEO and Managing Director of Carnegie, Dr Michael Ottaviano talked about:

    “this is a compelling opening to liberate the colossal odds from the microgrid market in Australia, novel Zealand and the Pacific, bringing together two of the main entities in Australia to create a countrywide champion.

    “A scrip based mostly merger of EMC with MPower gives Carnegie shareholders with direct ownership of a expert microgrid market leader and a powerful financial platform for the 2019 financial 12 months and beyond. The Carnegie board believes here is a extra compelling option for shareholders than an biological growth approach with EMC which would require additional working capital over a longer time frame.”

    Tag Chief government Officer, Nathan sensible, stated:

    “we are excited through the opening to assemble two main renewable and battery storage agencies and to welcome Carnegie’s shareholders into their group.”

    “The microgrid market is starting to breathe abruptly and consolidation within the sector is inevitable. The enlarged MPower company will breathe neatly positioned to capture a management region and dominate this market. we've plans to develop the mixed community impulsively throughout their EPC, construct own function (BOO) and items divisions.

    We also plot to set up a dedicated automobile to apartment their BOO solar and battery power storage belongings as they're developed.”

    The mixed enterprise will combine the engineering, procurement and pile actions of each latest companies, retaining their effective presence in WA and NSW to carry a countrywide and regional ability.

    it'll additionally combine EMC’s solar undertaking evolution pipeline with a purpose to create a stand-alone construct, personal and operate solar and microgrid asset portfolio.

    The microgrid market in Australia has been forecast to portray in excess of $1.6 billion over the decade from 2016 to 20261 and globally the market is forecast to develop over 10-fold via to 2020 from 20132.

    The ASX-listed MPower can breathe led by means of present Tag Pacific CEO, Nathan smart, with a Board and management crew combined from each enterprise. because the first step in a board renewal method, Tag would invite CCE to nominate two administrators to associate the MPower board from completion of the proposed transaction.

    The proposed transaction is district to a number of situations precedent together with the execution of binding criminal documents, a brace of key contract novations and third party agrees, and approval of both TAG and CCE shareholders.

    Shareholder conferences are anticipated to breathe held in August and more tips can breathe supplied to shareholders ahead of this.

    Upon completion of the transaction, MPower intends to undertake a capital raising to fund the increase of the enlarged group and the evolution and financing of build, personal, function initiatives.

    consistent with the Carnegie’s Board’s outdated brought up goal round Board renewal, John Davidson and Kieran O’Brien believe resigned from the Board of Carnegie. Mr Davidson’s function as MD of EMC has additionally been made redundant and he'll obtain a statutory termination saturate of $378,000.

    one by one he has entered into a intentional escrow settlement for twelve months with Carnegie for the currently tradeable shares in CCE and his closing shares will reside discipline to the existing escrow arrangements.

    The Tag shares Mr Davidson receives because of the in specie distribution under the proposed transaction may believe the equal escrow intervals as his Carnegie shares.

    Key transaction phrases abstract (area to the completion of binding, felony documentation):

  • Scrip primarily based transaction to create ASX-listed MPower
  • Enlarged MPower to breathe owned (undiluted) sixty eight% TAG shareholders, 32% CCE


  • CCE shareholders (as at the date of the EGM, expected late August) to receive a

    direct funding in MPower via an in-specie distribution to breathe accredited by way of CCE


  • CCE shareholders to retain their current shares in CCE which will proceed with CETO

    commercialisation and as the proprietor of its Northam and garden Island solar belongings

  • Completion of the transaction is territory to various circumstances precedent, together with but now not constrained to:
  • the execution of binding criminal documents;
  • CCE and TAG shareholder approvals;
  • third birthday party concurs;
  • Tag raising or receiving binding commitments to carry A$4m; and
  • no grownup acquiring a valuable activity in additional than 15% of the vote casting power in CCE.
  • Transaction focused on CCE and TAG shareholder approval and completion of the

    transaction in August

  • Two CCE directors to breathe invited to associate the MPower Board

  • large alterations for Dell EMC Certification program | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Written by means of Ed Tittel published: 11 may additionally 2018

    a brace of years after the acquisition of EMC with the aid of Dell, the now-hybrid Dell EMC certification application has accomplished a makeover. these prevalent with the historical EMC certification schema will consider preempt at domestic.

    Couple discussing business on steps with laptopif you fancy Pixar films, then you likely already understand it’s worth looking at the credits consummate of the fashion via on most of them. The animators consummate the time encompass a brace of wee surprises as the lengthy progression of names, roles, and grateful acknowledgements parades across the reveal.

    considered one of my favourite credit crawl Easter eggs rolls previous on the halt of finding Nemo, when a tiny microscopic fish engulfs and gulps down a bigger piscine passerby. I mention this as a result of however EMC isn't the biggest piece of Dell, its lengthy-time and relatively successful certification software looks to believe won out in defining Dell applied sciences' future outlook on, and constitution for, IT certification.

    (EMC changed into acquired by way of Dell applied sciences on Sept. 7, 2016, when the two corporations formally culminated their merger eleven months after asserting a listing-surroundings $sixty seven billion money-and-stock deal.)

    if you would fancy proof for your self, then consult with the Dell EMC “Certification Overview” page — or enhanced yet, down load the Dell EMC confirmed expert Certification Framework (PDF doc), which lays out the total set of the enterprise’s offerings across 6 pages of content material:

    there's an overview web page, one page for every of four tracks — manipulate, plot and Design, set up, and sheperd — and a remaining page that indicates certification degrees and tracks. That final page is what furnished the image that accompanies this story, really. Behold:

    Ed T figure 1 05 11 2018

    supply: Dell EMC Certification Roadmap, web page 6 (PDF document)

    Digging into DellEMC Certification

    If certification is a game of numbers, then the Dell EMC portfolio has a lot of them to offer:

    ● four stages: affiliate (“fundamentals practising and competencies of a technology”), expert (“position specific working towards, baseline expertise in a given expertise”), professional (“advanced talents and event in one or greater applied sciences”), and master (“discipline breathe counted learning with adventure in distinctive technologies and complicated solutions”)● eight certification tracks: technology Architect (TA), Cloud Architect (CA), commercial enterprise Architect (EA), Implementation Engineer (IE), methods Administrator (SA), Platform Engineer (PE), Technical sheperd Engineer (TSE), and records Scientist (DS)● 7 applied sciences: (page 1 indicates how they tie into this matrix of tracks and levels) Cloud, Storage, facts coverage, Server, Networking, Converged Infrastructure, and statistics Science● The control roadmap (web page 2) suggests 4 distinctive affiliate exams, 13 professional checks, 5 knowledgeable tests, and a separate grasp examination. It also makes point out of CompTIA Server+, two product/technology checks, and Dell associate and knowledgeable assessments in networking and servers. It even mentions VCP VMware credentials as neatly. (VMware became bought via EMC in 2004, and now they believe already mentioned how EMC got here to breathe where it now could be.)● The plot and Design roadmap (page three) indicates four divide associate checks, 7 expert checks, three professional checks, and the equal, separate grasp exam.● The set up roadmap (web page 4) shows four distinctive affiliate assessments, 13 professional assessments, 4 knowledgeable assessments, but no master exam. It additionally includes 2 product/technology assessments, and Dell affiliate and skilled tests in networking, VxRail equipment, and PowerEdge. It also mentions the CompTIA Server+ examination as neatly.● The uphold roadmap (web page 5) shows a separate associate examination, 7 expert tests, 1 expert exam, however no grasp exam, both. It additionally contains Dell associate and skilled tests in networking and PowerEdge. The CompTIA Server+ exam also puts in an look.

    The context for the gawk here by using CompTIA Server+ appears to breathe as a prerequisite for checks involving the Dell PowerEdge server family unit.

    The EMC offerings supply the touchstone framework for how certs are labeled and categorised, and EMC's former certification regime also appears to outline the progression across ranges from affiliate to master.

    There’s a lot to capture in privilege here, however it appears fancy a substantial and reasonably neatly-orchestrated try and deliver the a variety of threads of training and certification collectively below the Dell EMC umbrella. breathe inevitable to try it out!

    about the writer

    ed-tittel120Ed Tittel is a 30-plus-12 months computing device trade veteran who's worked as a utility developer, technical marketer, advisor, author, and researcher. writer of many books and articles, Ed blogs on certification themes for Tom’s IT pro, and on windows desktop OS themes for TechTarget. check out his website at

    DES-1721 Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series

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    DES-1721 exam Dumps Source : Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series

    Test Code : DES-1721
    Test denomination : Specialist - Implementation Engineer, SC Series
    Vendor denomination : EMC
    exam questions : 59 true Questions

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    Here she conducts her research, and sometimes achieve her job as a Pangolin Conservation Officer, educating and raising awareness about pangolins in Sabah.

    After finishing her study, Elisa hopes to expend her learning and experiences to collaboratively better the implementation of biodiversity conservation in her country.

    Pangolins are completely covered with scales made of keratin, also institute in human nails, which start off as soft and acclimatize as the creatures deserve older. The armour-like scales near into play when pangolins are under attack, when they curl up into a spiky ball.

    Its scales are sometimes made into rings as charms against rheumatic fever or powdered as traditional medicine.

    Its meat is eaten by those who believe it to breathe powerful for health or as a cure for arthritis, asthma and back pains.

    None of these hypothetical uses are backed by scientific evidence, Elisa painfully points out.

    “The claim is mostly driven by the Chinese, and indigenous people who hunt for wildlife. As conservationists, they are battling to reclaim the pangolin, the most illegally traded animal in the world, before it is ‘eaten to extinction’, she states as a matter of fact.

    The Sunda pangolin, the only species institute in Sabah, is protected under Schedule 2 of the Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1997, significance any hunting or possession requires a licence. Unlicensed hunting is punishable with a maximum penalty of five years’ jail, a fine of up to RM50,000 or both.

    “I grew up in a village in Sandakan, surrounded by forest and I first saw a pangolin when I was 10 years old. I was playing outside and saw one walking towards the trees from around my house. I contemplate I fell in fancy with pangolins that day because of its unearthly look, with its scales, the way it moved and so on.

    “I ran to my mom to expose her the animal. She told me the creature was called ‘tenggiling’ (pangolin in Malay) – which also sounded unearthly to me at that time. Before this, I had never even heard of  ‘tenggiling’ let solitary pangolins, but then they became one of my favourite animals.

    “I chose to study pangolins because they are so mysterious, understudied and sadly, endangered. I contemplate there are many things about them that they don’t know and I am interested to uncover these mysteries as well as breathe the voice for the species.

    “I started my study on pangolins in 2011 so it’s almost seven years now. Working with poachers is not novel to me. I am also a Sabah Wildlife Department Honorary Wildlife warden so I sometimes patrol known hotspots where poachers wander.”

    To treasure what Elisa is doing is indeed powerful news? She turns out to breathe the only Sabahan and Malaysian ever to attain a PhD on pangolin with Cardiff University, thanks to the opening provided by DGFC Kinabatangan.

    One must deserve at least a glimpse on the extent of the rotten news.

    The rotten tidings is at a staggering US$7,000 (approximately RM30,000) per head, wild pangolins are being rapidly hunted to depletion as it has become the most trafficked wild mammal in the world, for both its scales and meat.

    The spectre of doom is not far-fetched, given spectacular tidings fancy Vietnamese Customs seizing 6.2 tons of frozen pangolin meat from Indonesia not too long ago. Sabah contributed to 22,000 Sunda pangolins killed in 2009.

    In December 2011, a newly-formed Special Marine squad seized 178 containers holding 1,068 frozen pangolins worth US$1.26 million, Sabah’s largest seizure of pangolin meat in history, after a wild goose boat chase in the East Coast, making it piece of the 23,400 pangolins confiscated worldwide between 2011 and 2013 alone.

    Elisa said she’s not surprised by it.

    “Sabah is considered one of the hotspots for smuggling, fancy a point for their pangolins and also other pangolins from

    the Philippines forward to Vietnam and China and so for me, enforcement, education and research is what they requisite to attain to deserve more information, and this is very important,” she said.

    The IUCN estimated over one million pangolins were killed for meat and scales over the eventual decade.

    “I am a member of the IUCN Specialist Group on pangolins so I know this is true. It’s really rotten and then in Sabah, despite it being protected, the authorities soundless find people capturing them, at road blocks,” Elisa said.

    But consummate these known reports are probably just the tip of the iceberg on this mushrooming illegal trade.

    “For me, they requisite to attain something about the illegal trade. Without tough measures to crop down or shut down claim and effective measures to create pangolin strongholds in their home ranges in Africa and Asia, the survival of this uncharismatic armour-plated termite and ant-eating creature will breathe lost to a gruesome trade for its meat, foetus included, and scales.

    “The problem is captive breeding had proven very difficult and breeding in the wild is just one offspring per year, never really enough to supersede the population lost at the current rate. Once a species is gone, it’s extinct forever.”

    To add to the problem, even conservationists minister not to give focus to this solitary, nocturnal creature as they are pre-occupied with bigger, more eminent species fancy the elephants which are being killed at 35,000 per year for ivory and the rhinos being slaughtered at 810 heads per year.

    Elisa lamented: “It is really destitute because privilege now pangolins are unpopular, not many people know about it, people don’t understand them and then they are losing them rapidly while the world soundless doesn’t know about them.”

    Under its novel exciting string – Borneo Jungle Diaries – SZtv presents environmental photojournalist, Aaron ‘Bertie’ Gekoski, who follows Elisa to tag a Sunda pangolin for the first time ever in the jungles of Borneo.

    All episodes will believe Bahasa Malaysia subtitles and breathe released on SZtv and DGFC Facebook page, as well as

    and Youtube @ScubazooTV. The episodes will also breathe featured on The Daily Express, Malay Mail Online and BorneoToday.

    What’s more, viewers are encouraged to capture piece in the competition that is being held; consummate you believe to attain is respond five questions from the episode correctly each week to win a 4 day / 3 night abide at the Danau Girang territory Centre.

    There will also breathe a august prize at the halt of the 10-series Borneo Jungle Diaries for those who got consummate questions privilege across consummate quizzes.

    For more information, check out

    What attain you contemplate of this story?

  • Photovoltaic materials: Present efficiencies and future challenges | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Photovoltaics (PV), which directly convert solar energy into electricity, present a practical and sustainable solution to the challenge of meeting the increasing global energy demand. In recent years, the decreasing cost of PV systems has levelized the cost of PV-produced electricity to the point that it can now compete with the variable portion of consumer electricity prices in many countries worldwide: The point of “socket parity” has been reached (1). Substantial further cost reduction is needed, however, to allow PV to compete in more electricity markets and to enter the multi-terawatt regime. Aside from the solar cell and module fabrication costs, a major and increasing fraction of the cost of PV generation (typically 50%) is related to component and installation requirements such as inverters, cabling, mounting structures, and labor (1). As a result, solar cell efficiency is a key lever for PV cost reduction: For a given output power, a higher cell efficiency directly translates into a smaller and therefore less expensive PV system, reducing the levelized cost of electricity. A higher power generation rate per unit district is also valuable in urban environments where space is limited. The evolution of PV materials is experiencing an vast growth, and efficiency records are continually broken. Below, they systematically compare the status of the knack of the 16 most studied geometries of PV materials, with accent on the limitations of each material and its potential for further improvement and large-scale application.

    Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials; given the broad solar spectrum, their fundamental efficiency circumscribe is determined by several factors (Fig. 1). Photons with energies below the troop gap are not absorbed, whereas photons with energies above the troop gap are not fully converted to electrical energy because of thermalization of saturate carriers (Fig. 1A, inset). Taking these two factors into account, ∼45% of the incident spectrum-integrated solar power remains for semiconductors with a troop gap of 1.1 to 1.4 eV. This is the maximum power that would breathe generated if the cell were operated at a voltage corresponding to the troop gap energy and a current corresponding to complete capture of consummate photons with energy above the troop gap, followed by complete collection of consummate generated carriers.

    (A) AM1.5 solar spectrum with divide dips due to molecular absorption in Earth’s atmosphere. Photons with energies below the troop gap (Eg, dashed black line corresponds to the troop gap of Si) are not absorbed, whereas photons with energies above the troop gap are not fully converted to electrical energy because of thermalization of saturate carriers. The maximum power generated by the cell is limited by voltage loss relative to the troop gap voltage. Inset: Electronic troop structure with the separation of the quasi-Fermi levels determining the open-circuit voltage Voc. (B) speculative Shockley-Queisser detailed-balance efficiency circumscribe as a function of troop gap (black line) and 75% and 50% of the circumscribe (gray lines). The record efficiencies for different materials are plotted for the corresponding troop gaps.

    Even in an pattern case, however, the open-circuit voltage Voc is always lower than the troop gap energy because thermodynamic particular equilibrium requires the cell to breathe in equilibrium with its environment, which implies that there is automatic light emission from the cell. The corresponding radiative carrier recombination represents a black current that causes Voc to breathe well below the troop gap voltage Vg (Fig. 1A, inset). Furthermore, under maximum-power operation (at maximum J × V), the voltage Vmp is lower than Voc and the current density Jmp is lower than the maximum (short-circuit) current density Jsc (Fig. 2A, inset). The efficiency circumscribe that takes consummate these factors into account was first derived by Shockley and Queisser (S-Q) in 1961 (2). figure 1B shows this limiting efficiency for a single-junction solar cell under “one-sun” illumination with the touchstone AM1.5 solar spectrum as a function of troop gap; the maximum efficiency occurs for a semiconductor with a troop gap of 1.34 eV and is 33.7%.

    Single-junction solar cell parameters are shown as a function of troop gap energy according to the Shockley-Queisser circumscribe (solid lines) and experimental values for record-efficiency cells. (A) Short-circuit current Jsc. Inset: A typical current-voltage J(V) curve, with Voc, Jsc, Vmp, and Jmp indicated. The product of current and voltage is highest at the maximum power point (JmpVmp). (B) Open-circuit voltage Voc. The voltage corresponding to the troop gap is shown for reference, with the voltage gap Vg-VSQ indicated by the gray shaded region. (C) Fill factor FF = (JmpVmp)/(VocJsc). consummate data are for touchstone AM1.5 illumination at 1000 W/m2.

    In practical solar cells, not consummate incident light is absorbed in the dynamic layer(s) and not consummate generated carriers are collected; hence, Jsc is below the maximum value that can breathe achieved for a given troop gap, Eg. The achievable Voc is also reduced below the S-Q value by such phenomena as Auger recombination, troop tail recombination, and recombination at bulk, interface, and surface defects (3–5). Furthermore, resistance and contact losses and other nonidealities reduce the fill factor FF = (JmpVmp)/(VocJsc). Combined, these factors lead to practical efficiencies that are often substantially lower than the S-Q circumscribe for a given troop gap.

    Ideal and record-efficiency solar cells compared

    We distinguish three classes of PV materials: (i) ultrahigh-efficiency monocrystalline materials with efficiencies of >75% of the S-Q circumscribe for the corresponding troop gap: Si (homojunction and heterojunction), GaAs, and GaInP; (ii) high-efficiency multi- and polycrystalline materials (50 to 75% of the S-Q limit): Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (“CIGS”), CdTe, methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite [CH3NH3Pd(I,Cl,Br)3], and InP; and (iii) low-efficiency materials (<50% of the S-Q limit): micro- or nanocrystalline and amorphous Si, Cu(Zn,Sn)(Se,S)2 (“CZTS”), dye-sensitized TiO2, organic and polymer materials, and quantum dot materials.

    The record efficiency for each of these materials is plotted in Fig. 1B (see also table S1). The experimental values for Jsc, Voc, and FF for the record-efficiency cell reported for each individual material are shown in Fig. 2, A to C, together with the limiting values calculated using the S-Q model (2). The experimental values for Jsc generally result the trend given by the S-Q limit, with some materials closely approaching this limit. Values for Voc and FF are much more scattered, with only a few materials approaching the S-Q limit. To resolve these trends, they evaluated two characteristic parameters for each material: (i) the current ratio j = Jsc/JSQ, which indicates the degree of light coupling, absorption, and trapping in the dynamic layer(s) of the cell, and also depends on the carrier collection efficiency; and (ii) the voltage ratio v = Voc/VSQ, which is primarily related to the degree of recombination of carriers in the bulk, surfaces, and interfaces. Together, the voltage ratio v and fill factor ratio f = FF/FFSQ attest the total electrical limitations of a cell (6). A plot of j versus v × f for consummate evaluated materials (Fig. 3) directly indicates to what degree the cell efficiency is limited by light management or saturate carrier management. Next, they picture these data for consummate materials.

    Fig. 3 Fraction of Shockley-Queisser detailed-balance circumscribe for voltage and current achieved by record cells.

    The current ratio j = Jsc/JSQ is plotted versus the product of the voltage and fill factor fractions (v × f = FF Voc/FFSQVSQ) for the record-efficiency cells of consummate evaluated materials. The lines around some data points correspond to a purview of troop gaps taken in the S-Q calculations according to doubt in the troop gap of the record cell. Arrows on top and privilege axes attest how improved light management and saturate carrier collection better the cell efficiency. ηSQ denotes maximum achievable efficiency according to the SQ model.

    Silicon (efficiency 25.0 to 25.6%)

    Silicon has a nearly pattern troop gap (Eg = 1.12 eV) for reaching elevated efficiency (Fig. 1). Si homojunction cells are based on a p-n junction made into either p-type or n-type Si(100) substrates. Several advanced device architectures and contacting schemes believe been developed for Si solar cells. Contact recombination represents a major source of loss, so the most successful approaches minimize contact district (e.g., by localized ponderous doping or metal deposition), implement passivated contacts, or expend a combination of these approaches. In parallel, surface passivation of Si using Si3N4, Al2O3, SiO2, or combinations of these materials has been developed to powerful perfection. The record efficiency for a monocrystalline Si homojunction cell was recently set at 25.1% (7) for a cell with a full-area tunnel oxide passivated rear contact and high-quality top surface passivation (the TOPCon design; Fig. 4A), slightly higher than the value of 25.0% (8, 9) reported in 1998 for a cell that used local contacts and high-quality surface passivation [the passivated emitter rear localized diffused (PERL) design].

    Fig. 4 Layer and contact geometry for solar cells with record efficiencies above 20%.

    (A) TOPCon crystalline Si (Fraunhofer). (B) IBC crystalline Si (SunPower). (C) Heterojunction IBC crystalline Si (Panasonic). (D) Multicrystalline Si (Trina Solar). (E) GaAs thin film (Alta Devices). (F) CIGS thin film (ZSW Stuttgart). (G) CdTe thin film (First Solar). (H) Perovskite thin film (KRICT). For industrial cells, the exact geometry is not publicly available.

    The TOPCon cell has excellent current generation and collection (j = 0.96), similar to the value achieved for two other record-efficiency Si solar cell designs (table S1). This results from a combination of very low surface reflection [achieved by a pyramidal (111)-faceted surface texture combined with an anti-reflection coating (ARC)] and very low recombination losses in the Si wafer and at the surfaces and contact interfaces. Low recombination is also reflected in the relatively elevated voltage of the TOPCon cell (v = 0.82).

    In a radically different design, both the p-n junction and the contacts are placed at the rear of the cell. This interdigitated back-contact (IBC) design features alternating p-type and n-type contact regions (Fig. 4B). The IBC design eliminates front contact shading losses and reduces string resistance by allowing more metal to breathe used for current collection and transport. This comes at the cost of more challenging carrier transport in the device (carriers generated near the surface must breathe collected at the back) and requires the expend of very high-quality material. Overall current generation and collection in the IBC cell is slightly lower than in the TOPCon cell (j = 0.95 versus 0.96), as is the record efficiency (25.0% versus 25.1%) (9–11). Note that the IBC cell has an district of 120 cm2, whereas the TOPCon cell measures 4 cm2. The IBC cell uses a doped surface layer, which creates a front surface territory that repels carriers from the surface, and has a Si3N4 top layer that serves as both an ARC and a high-quality passivation layer for the Si surface. The lower surface and bulk recombination rates lead to a slightly higher voltage (v = 0.83) for the IBC cell relative to the TOPCon cell.

    An efficiency record of 25.6% was recently reported for an IBC Si solar cell that uses silicon heterojunctions (SHJs) rather than homojunctions for carrier collection (9, 12). In this approach, a thin stack of doped and intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) layers is deposited onto a crystalline Si surface to shape a junction, replacing the process of junction formation by high-temperature dopant diffusion (Fig. 4C). The SHJ design avoids carrier recombination in highly doped p-type and n-type regions and is made using a low-temperature process, which better preserves the minority carrier lifetime of the Si wafer. The surface of the record SHJ cell is passivated with a-Si:H. This design led to the highest voltage observed for a Si solar cell (v = 0.84). The overall result of carrier generation and collection is similar to that of the TOPCon cell (j = 0.96). The origins of the wee remaining losses in these high-efficiency Si cells are quite different because of their different design and mode of operation.

    As a result of the indirect troop gap of Si, the absorption coefficient is relatively low and varies only gradually around the troop gap energy, so that a relatively thick wafer is required to absorb consummate light with photon energies above the troop gap. This, however, leads to higher bulk (Auger) recombination and thus reduces Voc. Moreover, it increases the material costs. The present tradeoff among cost, manufacturability, and performance leads to an optimum Si wafer thickness of 100 to 200 μm for commercial cells. These wafers are made by diamond wire sawing from monocrystalline Si rods produced by Czochralski crystal growth.

    Multicrystalline Si wafers are crop from cast ingots produced using directional (unseeded or seeded) crystallization, and their fabrication cost is lower than that of monocrystalline wafers. The typical grain size depends on the growth fashion and can breathe as great as several centimeters. Multicrystalline Si has a lower electronic quality, due to crystal grain boundaries and intragrain defects, as well as a higher concentration of impurities. As a result, the record-efficiency multicrystalline Si cell has great voltage loss (v = 0.76). Light trapping in these cells is less efficient because the pattern pyramidal surface texture normally formed by alkaline-etching Si(100) to the (111) surface facets cannot breathe realized on a multicrystalline surface. This, together with incomplete carrier collection due to recombination, leads to a reduced current (j = 0.91). Together, these voltage and current losses defer a lower efficiency (20.8%) (9, 13) than for monocrystalline Si cells. The record-efficiency multicrystalline Si cell has a passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) p-n junction design (Fig. 4D).

    According to the S-Q model, the efficiency circumscribe for Si solar cells is 33.3%, far above the experimental record of 25.6%. A key limiting factor that is not accounted for in the S-Q model is Auger recombination of free carriers that occurs under illumination. Taking this into account for Si, the efficiency circumscribe for an undoped (monocrystalline) Si cell with optimized thickness (110 μm) was calculated to breathe 29.4% (14), leaving leeway for further evolution of existing technologies in the coming years.

    Today the global PV market is dominated by wafer-based crystalline Si solar modules, with a total market partake of >90%. Multicrystalline Si represents ∼65% and monocrystalline Si ∼35% of this market segment (15). PV systems based on Si solar cells installed in the territory believe been shown to present elevated reliability and very limited efficiency degradation over a age longer than 25 years.

    GaAs (efficiency 28.8%)

    The record efficiency for a single-junction solar cell under one-sun illumination has been achieved using GaAs (28.8%) (9, 16). This material has a direct troop gap nearby to the optimum (1.42 eV; Fig. 1). Because of the elevated optical absorption coefficient of GaAs, the cell thickness can breathe kept relatively wee (∼2 μm) to harvest the solar spectrum up to the troop gap. The record-efficiency cell design has a n-GaAs/p-Al0.3Ga0.7As junction geometry with high–band gap window layers that serve to retain minority carriers in the GaAs dynamic layer (Fig. 4E). The GaAs heterostructure is epitaxially grown using chemical vapor deposition, which is a relatively energy-intensive process. Interestingly, the record efficiency was achieved using a lift-off process, in which a GaAs foil ∼2 μm thick was exfoliated from the substrate (by chemical etching of an AlAs buffer layer) and laminated onto a Cu substrate. The voltage of the record-efficiency cell is very elevated (v = 0.97). Light reflection, top-finger shadowing, incomplete light trapping, and absorption in the metal back contact result in some current loss (j = 0.92), leaving leeway for improvement. Application of an IBC geometry, for example, could potentially further increase j. An intermediate dielectric back-reflecting geometry can reduce parasitic absorption in the metal back contact. The fill factor in these cells is very elevated (f = 0.97). Taking into account Auger recombination, the maximum efficiency that can breathe achieved for a practical single-junction GaAs cell is ∼32% (17), substantially greater than the current record value.

    Whereas III-V solar cells believe traditionally been used in niche markets requiring elevated efficiency on a wee area, such as space technology, the newly developed layer-transfer technology enables fabrication of large-area supple (single-junction) GaAs technology at reduced cost for a much broader purview of applications. Encapsulation and recycling of commercial GaAs modules is valuable because of the expend of the toxic component As.

    InP (efficiency 22.1%) and GaInP (efficiency 20.8%)

    Two other III-V compound semiconductors that believe achieved elevated efficiencies are InP and GaInP. InP (Eg = 1.35 eV) has a troop gap similar to that of GaAs, but the maximum reported efficiency of 22.1% (9, 18) is much lower than for GaAs; this contrast is due to both lower voltage and lower current (v = 0.81, j = 0.85). Because of the existing high-efficiency GaAs alternative and the scarcity and associated elevated cost of In, developments on InP cells believe been minimal in the past decade. GaInP has a relatively elevated troop gap (1.81 eV), for which the S-Q circumscribe efficiency is 25.2%. The record efficiency achieved for a GaInP cell is 20.8% (9, 19). The voltage loss on the record cell is extremely wee (v = 0.96), but current collection (j = 0.82) in these cells leaves much leeway for improvement. The record-efficiency GaInP cell has the highest fill factor achieved for any material (FF = 0.89; f = 0.98), which is partly related to the elevated troop gap (Fig. 2C). Because of its great troop gap, GaInP is used in III-V multijunction solar cell geometries. Recently, a mechanically stacked tandem composed of a GaInP top cell and a Si heterojunction foundation cell was reported with an efficiency of 29.8% (11).

    CIGS (efficiency 21.7%)

    The record efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells has steadily increased over the past 20 years, with the present record value at 21.7% (9, 20), making it the highest-efficiency thin-film solar cell material to date, very closely followed by CdTe at 21.5% (9, 21). CIGS has a chalcopyrite crystal structure and its troop gap can breathe continuously tuned between ~1.0 and 2.4 eV by varying the In/Ga and Se/S ratios, with the low–band gap compositions so far always giving the best performance. Polycrystalline films of CIGS are made using sputtering or evaporation from the constituent elements and are typically deposited onto a Mo film that is sputtered on a soda-lime glass substrate. The typical dynamic layer thickness is ∼2 to 3 μm. Sodium diffusing from the glass substrate into the CIGS layer has been institute to play a key role in passivating defects in the CIGS layer; the record cell also incorporated traces of K. The CIGS composition is typically graded to shape an electric territory that repels minority carriers from the Mo back contact, which is a stalwart recombination sink. The cell is finalized by the chemical-bath deposition of CdS to shape a heterojunction followed by an intrinsic ZnO buffer layer, a transparent ZnO:Al conducting layer (TCL), and a MgF2 ARC (Fig. 4F). In some recent high-efficiency devices, the CdS layer is replaced by the more transparent ZnOxS1–x. Indium is a key component in CIGS, and its scarcity is a concern for scaling up CIGS module production to the terawatt level.

    The voltage for the record-efficiency CIGS cells (Eg = 1.13 eV) is very high, with v = 0.84, equal to the best monocrystalline Si cells. Given the polycrystalline nature of the material, this implies that grain boundaries in this material attain not act as stalwart carrier recombination sites. There is substantial current loss (j = 0.84) due to light reflection, incomplete light trapping, absorption in the Mo back contact, and parasitic absorption in the CdS and ZnO:Al layers. The absorption spectrum of CIGS shows a rather gradual variation with energy around the troop gap, which leads to unavoidable current loss in the near–band gap spectral range. As with consummate polycrystalline materials, improving material character is a complex process that requires optimization of many different parameters such as deposition conditions, (post-)annealing procedures, and ambients. Because of the complex stoichiometry of CIGS, many secondary phases are possible, and much of the progress in efficiency has been achieved by optimizing the deposition and annealing process to avoid such detrimental by-products. Creating a powerful ohmic electrical contact between Mo and CIGS (via a MoSe2 interfacial layer) is another valuable factor. Replacing the CdS buffer layer with a nontoxic and more transparent material is also a key research area.

    The possibility of troop gap tuning makes CIGS an consuming material in tandem solar cells, either by combining CIGS layers with different troop gaps or by using a high–band gap CIGS top cell on top of a Si foundation cell. So far, however, high–band gap (Ga-rich) CIGS cells believe not yielded adequate efficiencies for a CIGS/Si tandem to beat the record-efficiency Si cell.

    CdTe (efficiency 21.5%)

    CdTe is a binary semiconductor with a cubic zincblende crystal structure and a near-ideal troop gap of 1.43 eV. It can breathe deposited at relatively low temperature using evaporation from CdTe powder. Cells are typically grown in a superstrate configuration starting from a glass substrate coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). The subsequent layer stack usually consists of CdS (generally deposited by chemical bath deposition), followed by evaporated CdTe (thickness typically 2 to 3 μm) and a metal back contact such as Al or Ti, in some cases with a CuZnTe interfacial layer between the metal and the CdTe (Fig. 4G).

    The highest reported certified efficiency for CdTe is 21.5% (9, 21), although for the purpose of this review they resolve cells with the previous record of 21.0% (22) because particular data for the novel record-efficiency cell are not yet available. The steep absorption coefficient versus energy for CdTe enables very powerful current collection in CdTe cells (j = 0.96), far superior to any other thin-film technology and equal to that of the record-efficiency monocrystalline Si cells. The elevated voltage loss in CdTe cells (v = 0.75) is attributed to recombination losses in the crystal grains and at interfaces in the polycrystalline material; the exact nature of this recombination is soundless unclear.

    CdTe solar modules are commercially produced by several companies and believe the largest market partake among present thin-film technologies, which are dominated by CdTe, CIGS, and thin-film Si. Recycling systems believe been set up for commercial CdTe modules, which is particularly valuable because of the expend of the toxic component Cd; the scarcity of Te is also a concern.

    Methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite (efficiency 21.0%)

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells believe recently taken the PV research world by storm, with efficiencies above 20% achieved after only 5 years of substantial work. These materials believe the generic formula ABX3, where A is an organic cation (most often methylammonium, CH3NH3), B is an inorganic cation (usually Pb), and X is a halide [typically I, often with a wee fraction of Cl or Br: CH3NH3Pb(I,Cl,Br)3]. Depending on the halide used, the troop gap can breathe continuously tuned from ~1.6 eV (pure I) to 3.2 eV (pure Cl), with the smaller–band gap materials providing better solar cell efficiencies (23). Even smaller troop gaps can breathe achieved using a different organic cation (e.g., formamidinium, H2NCHNH2) or inorganic cation (e.g., Sn), and such compounds are desirable as they believe a higher efficiency circumscribe (Fig. 1B).

    The perovskite salts shape polycrystalline films with a perovskite structure at or near leeway temperature by precipitation from a variety of polar solvents (commonly dimethyl formamide or dimethyl sulfoxide). The device geometry is usually very similar to, and inspired by, those used for solid-state dye-sensitized or polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. Typically, an FTO-coated glass substrate is coated with an electron-selective contact (usually TiO2). Subsequently, the perovskite is deposited either by spin-coating the soluble precursors (methyl ammonium iodide and lead iodide, bromide, or chloride) or evaporating the constituent powders. A low-temperature annealing process (<150°C) often helps to better crystallinity, film morphology, and device performance. Finally, the hole-selective top contact (usually Spiro-OMeTAD, C81H68N4O8) is spin-coated on top, and the back contact (usually gold) is evaporated to finish the device (Fig. 4H).

    The record perovskite solar cell efficiency is 21.0% (9, 24), although for the purpose of this review they resolve cells with the previous record of 20.1% (9, 24) because particular data for the novel record cell are not yet available. This cell has a very wee district and exhibits a relatively wee voltage loss (v = 0.83), even better than the record-efficiency monocrystalline Si homojunction cells, which is remarkable for a solution-processed semiconductor. Even though the absorption spectrum of perovskites shows a very acute onset, comparable to that of the best semiconductor absorbers (CdTe and GaAs), the photocurrent loss is soundless substantial (j = 0.88). This loss comes primarily from parasitic absorption in the hole-conducting layer and the back reflector. The fill factor in these cells (FF = 0.73; f = 0.81) is the lowest of consummate cells with efficiencies greater than 20%, most likely because of a combination of nonuniformity in the absorber (e.g., pinholes) and carrier-selective contacts that lead to carrier shunting, along with resistive losses associated with nonideal carrier-selective contacts. The fill factor (and thus the efficiency) is expected to continue to increase as these factors are optimized further.

    Despite their excellent initial performance, hybrid perovskite solar cells are known to demean within a few hours to days under touchstone operating conditions; at present this is the greatest barrier to commercial implementation. The origins of perovskite cell instability are currently a topic of dynamic research, although photoreduction by ultraviolet light and reactions with water believe already been identified as likely candidates. Also, measurements of the current-voltage characteristics can suffer from hysteresis, making efficiency analysis complex. The root of this hysteresis is soundless unclear, but the leading hypothesis involves ion (or vacancy) migration under operating conditions. The perovskite salts are partially soluble in water, so the cells are sensitive to humidity. Because of Pb toxicity, encapsulation and recycling are valuable for this technology to become viable for large-scale application. The toxicity challenge is greater for this material than for CdTe and GaAs because the much higher water solubility and lower vaporization temperature deserve environmental exposure during module encapsulation failure (breakage, fire) more dangerous. Large–band gap perovskites may serve as a top cell in Si/perovskite tandem solar cells that believe a potential efficiency above 30%; such an application provides a possible entry point to the market for the perovskite technology and is currently under vehement research.

    CZTS (efficiency 12.6%)

    Cu(Zn,Sn)(S,Se)2 (CZTS) is a solar cell material similar to CIGS, but with the scarce component In replaced by Zn and Ga replaced by Sn. CZTS can crystallize to shape either a kesterite or stannite crystal structure, with kesterite being preferable for PV applications. As in CIGS, the troop gap of CZTS can breathe tuned over a substantial purview (1.0 to 1.6 eV); the best results believe been achieved for a Cu-poor, Zn-rich stoichiometry with the troop gap controlled by the S/Se ratio (25). The cell structure is nearly identical to what is used for CIGS. Cell fabrication can also result a similar process, although the record-efficiency CZTS cells believe been made using solution deposition of chalcogenides dissolved in hydrazine followed by annealing in selenium vapor. The record CZTS cell has an efficiency of 12.6% (9, 26) and suffers from great voltage loss (v = 0.58) due to recombination at defects in the bulk material and at the saturate extraction interfaces. As with CIGS, the complex nature of the material requires study of many different types of defects and mindful engineering of the fabrication and device processing to minimize the most detrimental defects. Controlling interfacial reactions at the Mo metal contact is crucial for reducing interfacial recombination and minimizing string resistance. Current loss in CZTS cells is comparable to that of CIGS (j = 0.81). Finding an alternative back contact with lower optical loss (higher reflectivity) that can withstand the complete device processing and maintain low string resistance would breathe a major breakthrough in the evolution of CZTS solar cells, although the biggest factor limiting efficiency is the low Voc, a consequence of the relatively destitute material quality.

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (efficiency 11.9%)

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are a special class of devices, as they involve an electrochemical power generation process. In these cells, the absorber is not an extended solid semiconductor but a molecular dye (typically a ruthenium organometallic complex, although zinc porphyrin and even purely organic dyes believe also given very elevated efficiencies) that is coated onto a highly porous nanostructured electrode (typically TiO2). The photoexcited dye injects electrons into the conduction troop of the TiO2 and accepts electrons from a redox brace (typically I–/I3–, although higher voltages believe been reached with Co-based redox couples) in a nonaqueous electrolyte. The redox dynamic species must then diffuse to the counter electrode (usually Pt or graphite) to breathe regenerated and complete the current circuit. Dye-sensitized solar cells are made by depositing a very thin compact TiO2 layer typically on FTO, followed by formation of mesoporous TiO2 by printing a TiO2 nanoparticle paste, annealing, TiCl4 treatment to passivate surface traps, and finally dye adsorption by immersion in solution. A glass plate covered with the counter electrode is brought very nearby to the substrate using spacers, and the cell is filled with electrolyte and sealed. Here, they resolve these cells according to the S-Q model, which assumes a semiconductor absorber with an absorption troop edge; although this is not the case for dye-sensitized cells, the numbers for v and j then provide a reference relative to a conventional semiconductor with a troop gap equal to the peak of the dye absorption spectrum (1.50 eV).

    The record dye-sensitized cell has an efficiency of 11.9% (9, 27) with a great voltage loss (v = 0.60) due to the relatively low potential of the touchstone I–/I3– redox couple, which introduces a great energy loss when transferring electrons to the dye. No better dye-based alternatives believe been institute despite vehement research over the past several years: Redox couples with higher potentials either react too quickly with electrons injected into the TiO2 (leading to recombination) or are too bulky for rapid ionic diffusion through the electrolyte (leading to stalwart losses in the fill factor at elevated light levels).

    An additional challenge for dye-sensitized solar cells is the relatively elevated energy and narrow bandwidth associated with molecular absorption, which makes it difficult to harvest a wide purview of the solar spectrum (j = 0.78). Using multiple dyes introduces complications with the redox chemistry, whereas using dyes with broader spectra reduces oscillator force and requires porous electrodes to become too thick for efficient saturate extraction. Despite these difficulties, dye-sensitized solar cells believe already been commercialized because of their relatively simple fabrication, low-cost materials, and availability in a variety of colors and opacities that are useful when aesthetics are important. Moreover, dye-sensitized solar cells believe served as a model system or inspiration for the evolution of a novel class of nanostructured device architectures for PV solar energy conversion and solar fuel generation.

    Organic solar cells (efficiency 11.5%)

    Organic solar cells present inexpensive roll-to-roll fabrication on supple substrates and a wide altenative of materials for applications where flexibility and color are important. Organic solar cells near in two varieties: sublimed small-molecule solar cells and solution-processed polymer/fullerene solar cells. The highest reported certified efficiency for a single-junction organic solar cell is 11.5% (28, 29), although for the purpose of this review they resolve cells with the previous record of 11.0% (9, 30) because particular data for the novel record-efficiency cell are not yet available. The previous record was achieved using a polymer with a 1.66-eV troop gap.

    Polymer solar cells are typically prepared on ITO-coated glass or foil with the dynamic polymer donor–fullerene acceptor blend sandwiched between a hole-selective layer [typically poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) or MoO3] and an electron-selective layer such as ZnO, TiO2, or a low–work function material such as Ca. The typical dynamic layer thickness is ~100 nm.

    Because of the low dielectric constant of organic materials, photogenerated electron-hole pairs remain tightly bound, necessitating the expend of dedicated architectures such as bulk heterojunctions to achieve efficient saturate separation and extraction. The energy offsets needed for the heterojunction to ensure efficient exciton dissociation lead to a voltage loss of ~0.3 eV in practice, which lowers the efficiency by about 2% absolute (31). Currently, the limiting problems for organic solar cells are the elevated rate of nonradiative recombination (via trap states or triplet excited states) and the great degree of static and dynamic disorder, together yielding very great voltage loss (v = 0.57). To a great extent, this voltage loss could breathe overcome by direct optical excitation of the charge-transfer status between electron donor and electron acceptor. So far, common material combinations expose a very low oscillator force of these charge-transfer states, rendering direct optical excitation nearly absent. Substantial current loss (j = 0.82) is due to parasitic absorption by the selective contacts, incomplete absorption by the polymer, and incomplete carrier collection resulting from nonradiative recombination (low mobility and diffusion length).

    As with thin-film Si solar cells, organic PV technology is suffering from the fact that efficiency is becoming an increasingly valuable driver to reduce the cost of large-area PV systems. Also, organic cells often expose degradation under illumination. At the same time, a variety of attributes—relative ease of processing, nontoxicity, low weight, potential for low cost, and possibility of forming supple modules of many different shapes, colors, and transparencies—enables applications that may not breathe achievable with thin-film supple CIGS, CdTe, or perovskite cells that believe much higher efficiency.

    Thin-film silicon (efficiency 10.1 to 11.4%)

    Thin-film microcrystalline or nanocrystalline Si solar cells can breathe made on a wide purview of (flexible) substrates by means of chemical vapor deposition. Typically, a p-i-n geometry is grown on a ZnO:Al-coated textured glass substrate, followed by a ZnO:Al buffer layer and Ag back contact. The record efficiency is 11.4% (9, 32). The relatively leisurely deposition rate of crystalline Si limits the cell thicknesses that can breathe practically achieved to 2 to 5 μm, and the textured substrate often leads to defected growth of the microcrystalline film. As a result of this thickness limitation, light with energies near the troop gap is not fully absorbed, leading to a very stalwart current penalty with j = 0.67, the lowest value of consummate cells reviewed here. Crystal grain boundaries and other defects in deposited micro- or nanocrystalline Si cells are stalwart sinks for minority carriers, leading to a great voltage loss as well (v = 0.61).

    Amorphous Si (a-Si:H) is a semiconductor with much stronger optical absorption than crystalline Si, but with a troop gap well above the optimum (1.7 to 1.8 eV). It is made using vacuum deposition techniques, typically at a much higher rate than micro- or nanocrystalline films. Despite the incorporation of hydrogen in these films to passivate bulk defects, the electronic character of this material is rather low, with a correspondingly great voltage loss (v = 0.61) for the record-efficiency single-junction cell (10.2%) (9, 33). In a-Si:H cells, the optimum efficiency is strongly determined by the trade-off between cell thickness and carrier collection efficiency: A great thickness is required to optimize the capture of incident light, but this reduces the carrier collection efficiency if the cell is thicker than the carrier drift/diffusion length, which is typically a few hundred nanometers; for the record-efficiency cell, j = 0.78. Amorphous Si cells are most often fabricated in a superstrate configuration using a textured glass substrate coated with ITO as a transparent conductor. This then forms the starting point for the subsequent growth of a-Si:H, ZnO:Al buffer layer, and Ag back contact.

    As cell efficiency becomes an increasingly valuable factor in PV cost reduction, the progress of thin-film Si technology has slowed in recent years. Yet the possibility of fabricating supple modules using a roll-to-roll process provides unique application potential—for example, in pile architecture. Thin-film Si triple-junction cells in which amorphous and microcrystalline Si cells are stacked together believe shown a record efficiency of 13.4% (34).

    Quantum dot solar cells (efficiency 9.9%)

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells capture odds of the fact that semiconductor quantum dots can breathe synthesized using (low-temperature) solution processing, with their troop gap tunable by composition and size. The best QD solar cells so far are made using PbS or PbSe QDs as the dynamic layer. The QDs are deposited by spin coating or duck coating and then passivated and functionalized using organic molecules or halide salts. A p-n junction is made in the QD layer using a combination of surface ligands. QD cells are typically made on ITO- or FTO-coated glass, using a metal oxide (typically ZnO or TiO2) as an electron-selective contact. Molybdenum oxide and Au or Ag are typically used as the back contact.

    The record published efficiency for QD solar cells is 9.9% using PbS QDs with a troop gap of 1.4 eV, with an architecture similar to previous drudgery (35). The 9.9% cells believe very great voltage loss (v = 0.56), the largest loss of consummate cells reviewed here, which is attributed to the fact that the QDs believe a distribution of sizes that results in a distribution of troop gap energies. In addition, a elevated density of radiative sub–band gap states and stalwart nonradiative surface recombination due to the great surface-to-volume ratio in the quantum dots (diameter ∼5 nm) leads to recombination. Inefficient transport of carriers by hopping through the QD film limits the QD film thickness that can breathe practically used. Together, incomplete absorption and stalwart recombination contribute to a elevated current loss (j = 0.66). (Note that in the analysis they expend the first excitonic peak in the absorption spectrum as the troop gap of the quantum dots; taking a smaller electronic troop gap correspondingly increases v and decreases j.)

    Historical efficiency trends

    There are great differences in the rate of efficiency improvement for the different materials discussed above. For example, after more than 60 years of research, single-crystalline Si is a age technology, and the efficiency improvements that believe been achieved in recent years believe been relatively wee and gradual. In contrast, the record efficiency for the novel perovskite materials has climbed rapidly since the first cells were demonstrated, although cells with these record efficiencies are not yet stable in efficiency.

    To illustrate recent trends in cell development, Fig. 5 compares present efficiencies with the unprejudiced annual increase in absolute efficiency over recent years. Crystalline and multicrystalline Si believe recently shown only gradual absolute efficiency improvements in the purview of 0.04 to 0.09% per year; the increase in crystalline Si efficiencies results from progress in Si heterojunction cells. The high-efficiency thin-film materials perovskite (2.7% per year), CdTe (0.9% per year), and CIGS (0.2% per year) believe made valuable steps forward over the past few years.

    Fig. 5 Rates of improvement in solar cell efficiency over recent years.

    Average improvements were calculated over a age ending 1 January 2016 and starting with the date of the eventual record preceding 2010 [with two exceptions: perovskites (starting 2013, when the first certified efficiency was reported) and CdTe (starting 2011, as no recent record before 2010 was available and much progress occurred after 2010)]. Progress in efficiency from the pre-2010 record to the current values is indicated by the vertical lines. Colors correspond to cells achieving <50% of their S-Q efficiency circumscribe (red), 50 to 75% (green), or >75% (blue). This analysis is based on data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory efficiency chart, Green’s tables, and publications (11, 19, 29).

    Although these recently demonstrated efficiency increases are no guarantee of improvements in the future, the realization of great yearly increases in materials with remaining leeway for growth in v, j, and f hints that research efforts believe not yet become constrained by fundamental limits. Additional research will declare whether the record efficiency of CIGS, CdTe, or perovskite cells (now 4 to 5% below that of Si IBC cells) can exceed that of Si cells. The efficiency record for thin-film GaAs cells has not been broken since 2012; a more recent record is for thin-film III-V dual-junction cells (31.6%) (29). In the low-efficiency (10 to 12%) category, quantum dot solar cells (1.3% per year) and organic solar cells (0.6% per year) continue to deserve stalwart progress. Dye-sensitized cells and CZTS believe not reported efficiency improvements since 2012 and 2013, respectively. They note that historically, when materials are developed to the flush of commercialization, further efficiency increases are often observed beyond the records first achieved in a research laboratory. For example, the present efficiency records for Si IBC, GaAs, and CdTe cells are realized in manufacturing laboratories.

    Solar module efficiencies

    Two valuable factors create a gap between the record efficiency of laboratory solar cells and the record efficiency of laboratory modules or unprejudiced efficiency of commercial modules, respectively. First, record-efficiency cells are often small-area devices made using specialized laboratory techniques that may breathe too expensive for large-scale production. For example, thin-film vacuum deposition of metal contacts may breathe used in the lab, while screen printing of contacts, leading to much lower metal conductivity, is used in industrial fabrication facilities. Second, modules are made of a number of larger-area cells connected in string and encapsulated. In the case of wafer-based technologies, incorporation of cells in a module inevitably leads to current loss (due to incomplete filling of the module area) and fill factor loss (due to additional resistance in cell interconnects and the expend of larger cells). Optical effects upon encapsulation may reduce or increase efficiency, depending on the specifics of module design. Efficiencies of typical thin-film modules are lower than those of corresponding record cells because of the “dead area” associated with monolithic interconnection of strip-like cells, inhomogeneities or imperfections in the larger areas of the cells, and string resistance because of larger current transport distances.

    Furthermore, in practice, solar modules never operate under conditions equal to the touchstone test conditions (STC). The solar spectrum and intensity change during the day and vary with the time of year. The dependence of efficiency on incident power is generally lowest for cells with elevated FF. Here the high-efficiency (mono)crystalline materials as well as thin-film CIGS and CdTe (all with FF > 0.79) believe an odds over perovskites and the lower-efficiency thin-film materials (FF < 0.73). Also, solar modules heat up under solar irradiation, sometimes reducing the efficiency by 1 to 2% (absolute) relative to their STC value defined at 25°C. The temperature coefficient of efficiency depends strongly on material and is lower for Si heterojunction cells, CdTe, and CIGS than for other materials (38, 39). Another contrast between practical, unprejudiced module efficiency and STC efficiency is related to the fact that in exercise modules receive light from a wide purview of angles rather than perpendicularly incident light only. This leads to additional reflection losses. Finally, they note that nearly consummate cell/module combinations expose reduction in efficiency over time. This is attributable to factors including degradation of the cells, oxidation of metallic cell interconnects, and photodegradation of polymer encapsulating layers; the magnitude of these effects depends on the cell/module combination (40). Understanding these degradation mechanisms in different climates is a complex but very valuable research challenge.

    On the basis of their partake in the market for PV systems, which had an estimated value of $96 billion in 2013 (1), it can breathe said that monocrystalline Si, multicrystalline Si, CdTe, and CIGS believe evolved into age high-efficiency technologies, with Si technology having >90% of the market share. Record efficiencies for large-area (>800 cm2) modules are 22.4% for monocrystalline Si (9, 41), 18.5% for multicrystalline Si (9), 18.6% for CdTe, and 17.5% for CIGS (9, 42). These materials consummate belong to the >75% S-Q circumscribe (for monocrystalline Si) or 50 to 75% S-Q circumscribe (for multicrystalline Si, CIGS, CdTe) classes in Fig. 1B, directly demonstrating the import of efficiency as a lever for large-scale application.

    A recent evolution is the demonstration of single-junction GaAs solar modules with a record efficiency of 24.1% that are fabricated on an industrial scale and are now on their way to commercial exploitation (43). It will breathe consuming to see how the manufacturing costs for each of the >20% module technologies will reduce in the coming years. Thin-film solar cells deposited on thin foils are also expected to find novel applications in areas where low weight-specific power (in terms of watts per gram) is desired, and in novel forms of building-integrated PV where supple shape factors or partial transparency for visible light are desired.

    Thin-film amorphous and crystalline Si modules and supple foils believe also been developed to a commercial flush but are applied on a much smaller scale because of their lower efficiency (12.2% for a module based on a tandem geometry) and higher manufacturing costs (44). Furthermore, small-area modules of dye-sensitized solar cells (efficiency 10.0%) (45, 46) and organic solar cells (9.5%) (30) are commercially available but thus far portray a wee market. Thin-film perovskite, CZTS, and quantum dot solar cells believe been demonstrated in the lab, but modules believe not yet been demonstrated on an industrial scale. For perovskites, long-term stability and manufacturability believe not yet been demonstrated; for CZTS and quantum dot solar cells, the low efficiency limits commercial development. Table 1 summarizes technological strengths and selected research technology opportunities for consummate reviewed materials.

    Table 1 Technology strengths and key research opportunities for photovoltaic materials.

    Materials are grouped by degree of technological development. Record cell and module efficiencies are indicated, based on certified measurements. GaInP and InP are not included as no significant evolution toward commercial technology exists; n.a., not available.

    New Vanderbilt Faculty 2017 | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    A complete list of novel Vanderbilt University faculty for the 2017-18 academic year Blair School of Music

    Zach Ebin, senior artist teacher of Suzuki violin and director of the Suzuki program

    B.A., Brandeis University, 2004M.M., Berklee College of Music, 2006M.A., Brandeis University, 2007Ph.D., York University, 2015

    Ebin served as the artistic director of the Belfountain Music Festival and Arco Violini. He is currently the artistic director of the uncommunicative Voices Project. In elevated claim as a music educator, Ebin has taught and lectured across North America.

    Leslie Fagan, associate professor of flute

    B.M., Indiana University, 1993M.M., Northwestern University, 1995D.Mus., Northwestern University, 2005

    Fagan is aide principal flute of the Omaha Symphony and is currently playing her second one-year contract with the Nashville Symphony on third flute/piccolo. She is also principal flute for the Britt Festival Orchestra in Jacksonville, Oregon. For many years she was an dynamic freelancer and teacher in the Chicago district and has been a regular substitute for the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, participating in their 2009 Asia tour.

    Mitchell Korn, senior lecturer of music and educational outreach

    B.A., Bard College, 1974M.A., Columbia University, 1984

    The Wall Street Journal has described Korn as a “one-man arts education industry.” Symphony Magazine has called him a “music education guru.” He is credited with designing and implementing some of the nation’s most sustainable cultural strategic plans, including San Francisco Symphony’s Adventures in Music, novel York’s Annenberg Initiative, Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education, The Cleveland Orchestra’s Learning Through Music, and many more.

    College of Arts and Science

    Valeriano Aiello, aide professor of mathematics

    A.B., University of Rome, 2010A.M., University of Rome, 2013Ph.D., University of Rome, 2017

    Aiello’s main research interest is in Operator Algebras and some of its applications. In particular, he is interested in studying unitary representations of the Thompson groups introduced by Vaughan Jones, some of which are related to notions of low-dimensional topology. Other topics are Noncommutative Geometry and Noncommutative Topology.

    Maria Magdalena Campos-Pons, Cornelius Vanderbilt Chair and professor of art

    National School of knack (Havana, Cuba), 1980Higher Institute of knack (Havana, Cuba), 1985M.F.A., Massachusetts College of Art, 1988

    Campos-Pons’ drudgery of the eventual 30 years covers an extended purview of visual language investigations. She has focused on painting and the discussion of sexuality at the crossroads of Cuban mixed cultural heritage and insertion of the black body in simultaneous narratives. Sculpture, painting, installation art, performative photography and performance define the core of her exercise of the eventual two decades. She has had solo exhibitions at the Museum of Modern Art, the Venice Biennale 2001, Johannesburg Biennial, the First Liverpool Biennial, the Dak’ART Biennial in Senegal, and the Guangzhou Triennial.

    Anna Castillo, Mellon aide Professor of Spanish

    B.A., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2009Ph.D., Stanford University, 2017

    Castillo’s expertise is in 20th- and 21st-century Spanish American studies. She has extensive learning of simultaneous philosophy and in post-humanism in particular. Her interdisciplinary drudgery argues that focusing on the plasticity of three post-human figures—the android, the patient and the avatar—requires a reconsideration of human companionship and of what it means to breathe intimate. Her drudgery shows that human sexuality has become progressively less human.

    Daniela D’Eugenio, senior lecturer in Italian

    B.A., Italian Literature and Language University (Chieti, Italy), 2007M.A., Italian Philology and Linguistics University (Florence, Italy), 2009M.A., University of Padua (Italy), 2012M.Phil., The Graduate Center–CUNY, 2015Ph.D., The Graduate Center–CUNY, 2017

    D’Eugenio investigates proverbs as literary elements able to strike the structure of a literary work, as linguistic tools featuring rhetorical and stylistic elements, and as repositories of a community’s culture. She shows how Vincenzo Brusantini, John Florio and Pompeo Sarnelli translated their proverbs in ways that are directly related to the literary context, the structure and purpose of their works, and sociocultural environment, thus manipulating them and the message they convey. The original perspective of the project allows the study of proverbial material across centuries, across space (from Ferrara to Naples to England), across genres (from a chivalric poem to a language manual to a collection of fables), and across languages (from touchstone Italian to patois to second-generation Italian).

    Polina Dimova, lecturer of German, Russian and East European studies

    B.A., Smith College, 2001Ph.D., University of California–Berkeley, 2010

    Dimova holds a doctorate in comparative literature from the University of California–Berkeley and is a scholar of Russian and European literature, music and visual art. Nearing completion, her book The Synaesthetic Metaphor studies how Modernist multimedia experiments stemmed from a fascination with synaesthesia, the figurative or neurological mixing of the senses. She has published on synaesthesia in Russian Symbolism; on Evgenii Zamiatin’s literary appropriation of Alexander Scriabin’s music; on the Scythian elements in Prokofiev’s early ballets and songs; and on Oscar Wilde’s and Richard Strauss’ adaptations of the Salome legend.

    Christy Erving,
 aide professor of sociology

    B.A., Rice University, 2007M.A. Indiana University, 2009Ph.D., Indiana University, 2014

    Erving comes to Vanderbilt following a Robert Wood Johnson Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and a year as aide professor of sociology at the University of North Carolina–Charlotte. Her research examines the convivial factors that bear and maintain disparities in health. Her dissertation research investigates racial, ethnic and nativity distinctions in physical-psychiatric comorbidity, or the co-occurrence of physical and mental health problems. More specifically, she addresses the extent to which socioeconomic status, stress and convivial uphold forecast racial, ethnic and nativity patterns in comorbidity, and whether these patterns are aligned with sociological theories pertaining to racial inequality.

    Megan Gallagher
, aide professor of political science

    B.A., Vassar College, 2005M.A., University of California–Los Angeles, 2008Ph.D., University of California–Los Angeles, 2014

    Gallagher’s research combines the history of political thought and political theory, with an accent on 18th-century political thought, emotions and politics, and feminist theory. She has three primary areas of research: republicanism; politics and emotion, particularly as manifested in the discourses and practices of imperialism, nationalism and patriotism; and feminist political theory and the history of women in political thought. She also has a stalwart interest in politics and literature and related subjects, including rhetoric, tragedy, and law and literature.

    Emily Greble, associate professor of German and history

    B.A., College of William and Mary, 1999M.A., Stanford University, 2004Ph.D., Stanford University, 2007

    A specialist in Southeastern Europe, Greble’s first book, Sarajevo (1941-1945): Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Hitler’s Europe, analyzed the persistence of multiculturalism in World War II. She is currently researching how Ottoman Muslim communities transformed in the 19th and 20th centuries. As novel states took shape in Ottoman lands, Balkan Muslims became Europe’s first Muslim citizens. By mapping the Story of post-Ottoman Muslims onto the Story of pile modern European states, Greble seeks to shed light on how Islamic institutions shaped the structures of the European state; how Muslims negotiated a position for themselves in European legal, administrative and convivial structures; and how and why Muslims came to breathe understood in European discourse and policy as a fundamentally different kindly of citizen.

    Karen Hammer, senior lecturer in women’s and gender studies

    B.F.A., Tufts University, 1998M.A., University of Wyoming, 2012Ph.D., The Graduate Center–CUNY, 2017

    Hammer works across the fields of queer, disability, transgender, captious race, and feminist theory. Her dissertation, “Butch Between the Wars: A Pre-History of Butch Style in the Twentieth-Century,” seeks a historical understanding of convivial masculinity that accounts for the textures of gender and sexuality across class, race and region in the United States. Additional research interests comprehend film and media studies, postcolonial theory, postwar women writers, trans-Atlantic modernism(s), and Chicana/o literature.

    T.S. Harvey, associate professor of anthropology

    M.A., stale Dominion University, 1999Ph.D., University of Virginia, 2003

    Harvey is a linguist and medical anthropologist whose scholarship focuses
 on language expend in health keeping and environmental health risk communications. He has conducted long-term territory research in Guatemala with K’iche Maya, and comparative studies on environmental pollution in the U.S. powerful Lakes region. His scholarship ranges from micro analyses of cross-cultural doctor-patient interactions, to macro analyses of media and public health campaigns, to studies on a global scale of language expend and the role of media in international disaster relief and crisis management efforts. His current drudgery investigates the uses of geographic information systems (GIS), global position systems (GPS), information-communication technology (ICT) and cell phones in the areas of public health risk assessment and reduction as well disaster prevention and environmental protection.

    Matt Haulmark, aide professor of mathematics

    B.S., University of Texas–Brownsville, 2007M.S., University of Texas–Brownsville, 2010Ph.D., University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, 2017

    Haulmark studies boundaries of groups, relatively hyperbolic and CAT(0) groups, JSJ decompositions, growth in groups, and homological Z-sets.

    Stephanie Higgs, lecturer in English

    B.A., Washington University in St. Louis, 2006M.A., Vanderbilt University, 2010Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2016

    Invisible Threads: Fictions of Cotton in the Atlantic Triangle, 1833-1863

    Kari Hoffman, associate professor of psychology

    B.S., Rice University, 1997Ph.D., University of Arizona, 2003

    Hoffman’s research uses state-of-the-art technology to study the neural mechanisms underlying perception and recollection formation in human and nonhuman primates. The goal of her research is to understand neural-circuit phenomena—in particular the emergence and control of oscillatory brain activity—and to determine the role these phenomena play in adaptive behaviors, such as memory-guided exploration of the environment, and in physiognomy and kick recognition.

    David Ikard, professor of African American and diaspora studies

    B.A., North Carolina status University, 1994M.A., North Carolina status University, 1997Ph.D., University of Wisconsin–Madison, 2002

    Ikard’s research interests comprehend black feminism, gender studies, black common cultural studies, and whiteness studies. He has authored four books and a wide purview of essays and chapters in national and international journals.

    Oliver Knabe, lecturer in German

    B.A., Free University of Berlin, 2008M.A., Free University of Berlin, 2011Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Knabe’s dissertation is titled ”Geist und Macht in den 1960er Jahren:
 Drei Wege zu einer ‘kurzen Ehe’ oder wie die westdeutschen Schriftsteller politisch wurden.” He has published on Georg Büchner and has given talks on Günter Grass, Volker Schlöndorff and Bettina von Arnim. His current research interests comprehend 20th- and 21st- century German literature and film, the role of public intellectuals in the political sphere, digital humanities in the context of second language acquisition, and the intersections of sports and politics.

    Woden Kusner
, aide professor of mathematics

    B.S., Haverford College, 2007M.A., University of Pittsburgh, 2010Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 2014

    Kusner is interested in problems of discrete geometry and geometric optimization that are approachable by synthetic or analytic means and those where animal force computation is becoming tractable.

    Allison Leich-Hilbun
, senior lecturer in biological sciences

    B.S., College of William and Mary, 2009M.S., University of Northern Colorado, 2012Ph.D., East Tennessee status University, 2016

    Chenyun Luo, aide professor of mathematics

    B.A., University of Rochester, 2011M.A., Johns Hopkins University, 2012Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 2017

    The goal of Luo’s research is to understand the motion of a fluid modeled by the compressible Euler equations with free surface boundary. His main results concern the conduct of the solutions of the compressible Euler equations when the “compressibility” tends to zero.

    Torben Lutjen, visiting associate professor of European studies and political science

    M.A., University of Göttingen (Germany), 2001Ph.D., University of Göttingen, 2006

    Lütjen is the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) visiting associate professor for European studies and political science. His research interests comprehend comparative politics, American politics, political parties, sociology of knowledge, and methods of political ethnography. From 2009 to 2015, he headed a research group at the University of Düsseldorf that explored the mechanisms behind different levels of ideological polarization in the United States and Europe.

    Michelle M. Marcus, aide professor of economics

    B.A., Miami University, 2010B.S., Miami University, 2010M.A., Miami University, 2011Ph.D., Brown University, 2017

    Marcus’ research interests equivocate at the intersection of health and environmental economics. Her research quantifies the health impacts of exposure to environmental toxins and explores the roles that governmental policy and increased information can play in mitigating these health effects. In a paper recently published in the Journal of Health Economics, she shows that California’s cleaner-burning gasoline requirements reduced childhood asthma hospitalizations by about 8 percent in high-exposure areas near highways. Marcus’ most recent research estimates the health impacts of petroleum pollution from leaking underground storage tanks, investigates the talent of preventative technology to mitigate negative health impacts, and shows how individuals respond to information about nearby petroleum leaks.

    Tatiana McInnis, lecturer in American studies

    B.A., Florida International University, 2012M.A., Vanderbilt University, 2013Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    McInnis’ research interests comprehend representations of diversity, the relationship between diversity and anti-Blackness, common culture, immigration and migrant studies, captious race theory, global South studies, and urban studies. Her courses prioritize the intersections of these fields in dynamic classes that comprehend rigorous interdisciplinary scholarship, film, literature and various other cultural artifacts. Her manuscript, Missing Miami: Anti-Blackness and the Making of the South Florida Myth, argues that celebrations of Miami’s diversity obfuscate prevalent anti-Blackness, a phenomenon McInnis examines in literature, film and other media set in Miami ranging from the 1950s to the present day.

    Andrew Moorhead, aide professor of mathematics

    B.S./B.M., University of Texas–Austin, 2006Ph.D., University of Colorado, 2017

    Moorhead’s research interests are in algebra and logic. In particular, his research is in the district of presentations of noncommutative k-algebras, specifically, to forward the understanding of word patterns related to the Koethe Conjecture. He recently began an investigation into so-called higher commutator theory.

    Elyse Petit, senior lecturer in French

    Licence of Lettres Modernes, Université of Perpignan (France), 1995Maitrise FLE (Français Langue Etrangère), Université of Perpignan (France), 1999M.A., University of Louisiana–Lafayette, 2010M.A., University of Arizona, 2013Ph.D., University of Arizona, 2017

    Petit collaborated with colleagues to develop innovative pedagogical frameworks grounded in literacy-based approaches that incorporate a wide purview of technological tools. She also developed research studies around these pedagogical pilots, in which she examines student learning outcomes and the evolution of voice in a second language. She had developed carefully structured digital storytelling activities to aid students’ comprehension of how language is socially and culturally constructed within communities, and how they can express themselves and construct their own meanings through media creation. Recently, she started another research project in collaboration with a colleague on the expend of Digital convivial Reading (DSR) through the tool Live Margin.

    Lars Plate, aide professor of chemistry

    B.S., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007Ph.D., University of California–Berkeley, 2013

    The focus of Plate’s research group is to define the dynamics and the temporal coordination of protein interaction networks in diverse biological processes. Altered protein-protein interactions are intricately linked to disease states ranging from cancer due to disparate signal transduction, to protein folding diseases as a result of aberrant assignation with protein folding pathways, to pathogenic infection through host-pathogen protein interactions co-opting cellular pathways. Understanding the pathological consequences of mis-timed and uncoordinated protein interactions on disease states will sheperd the identification of novel therapeutic strategies. The research in his group leverages multidisciplinary approaches at the interface of chemistry and biology, including protein biochemistry, enzymology, microbiology, cell biology, and proteomics and drug discovery.

    Raisa Rexer, aide professor of French

    B.A., Yale University, 2004M.St., Oxford University, 2005M.A., University of Pennsylvania, 2007M.Phil., Yale University, 2010Ph.D., Yale University, 2014

    Rexer’s research and teaching interests encompass a variety of topics, including narrative fiction and poetry, early photographic history, and the connection between the visual arts (particularly the photograph) and the written text. Her current book project, The knack of Exposure: Literature and the Photographic Nude in Nineteenth-Century France, examines the literary and cultural influence of the pornographic photograph in 19th-century France. Her next book project, on the fin-de-siècle French photo-illustrated novel, will continue to explore these questions as she examines the genre’s expend of text and image in relation to Orientalist cultural fantasies, female authorship, representations of history, and the future of the novel after the invention of cinema. Additionally, she has published an article on the Orient, pornography and Romanticism in Flaubert’s travel letters and L’Éducation sentimentale; an article on Aimé Césaire, Marxism and Negritude; and a catalog essay on Degas’ monotypes and the iconography of early pornographic photography for the 2016 expose on Edgar Degas at the Museum of Modern knack in novel York. In addition, she is a regular contributing critic for the British knack magazine Apollo.

    Christine Richter-Nilsson, lecturer in German

    M.A., Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen (Germany), 2000Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Richter-Nilsson received her M. A. in rhetorics and cultural studies from the Universität Tübingen. Her dissertation, “Dramatic Palimpsests: Remaking the Classics in simultaneous German and American Theater,” examines novel theater adaptations of classics by German and American minority writers. Her research focuses on migration, flight and travel and examines how transcultural and transnational identities are represented in simultaneous German literature and visual cultures. Her next project will explore transcultural and multilingual authorship and the act of translation as a writing mode.

    Tasha Rijke-Epstein, aide professor of history

    B.A., Loyola College, 1997M.Phil., University of Cape Town (South Africa), 2006Ph.D., University of Michigan, 2017

    Rijke-Epstein’s research interests equivocate in the creative, spatial strategies employed by urban inhabitants over time as they believe navigated tensions of belonging and believe institute ways to imagine novel possibilities for their lives amidst shifting political-economic, convivial and infrastructural constraints. Her dissertation, “Architectures of Belonging: Urban Materiality, Historical Imagination, and Shifting righteous Registers in Mahajanga, Madagascar, 1890s to present,” examines the history and practices of urban place-making, planning and inhabitance, and focuses on the intersecting drudgery of Malagasy and Comorian city dwellers, laborers, and planning experts in the production of a mid-size African city.

    Renã A.S. Robinson, associate professor of chemistry

    B.S., University of Louisville, 2000Ph.D., Indiana University, 2007

    Robinson’s RASR Laboratory uses state-of-the knack proteomics and mass spectrometry technology to further their understanding of aging and age-related diseases. She is particularly interested in Alzheimer’s disease and sepsis and how the periphery is involved in these disorders. Recently, she has focused on using the lab’s technology to understand the molecular basis of health disparities in Alzheimer’s disease and sepsis. These questions require high-throughput analytical methodology, and the lab specializes in developing novel proteomics approaches involving mass spectrometry that are useful for analyzing complex biological tissues, increasing sample multiplexing capability, and studying oxidative post-translational modifications.

    Yuya Sasaki, associate professor of economics

    B.S., Utah status University, 2002M.S, Utah status University, 2007M.A., Brown University, 2008Ph.D., Brown University, 2012

    Sasaki studies econometrics and has worked on micro-econometric topics such as dynamic discrete altenative models, income dynamics, measurement error models, panel data analysis, production functions, program evaluation methods, and quantile regressions. Many of his current projects are concerned with robust and uniform nonparametric inference as well as nonparametric identification in the above topics. His research is often motivated by issues encountered by empirical practitioners, and he is also interested in conducting empirical research by applying the learning and techniques in his expertise.

    Peter Schram, aide professor of political science

    A.B., Princeton University, 2009Ph.D., Stanford University, 2017

    Schram’s research uses empirical and microeconomic methods to study counterinsurgency, economic development, and grey zone conflict. His research is structured around three central questions: Why attain individuals uphold militant groups? How attain insurgent groups organize and operate? And how attain features of the global community and technology influence the characteristics of conflict? Before starting at Vanderbilt, Peter is working as a research specialist for UCSD’s Cross Domain Deterrence project, where he is adapting existing and developing novel game theory models of deterrence and grey zone conflict.

    Heeryoon Shin, Mellon aide Professor of History of Art

    B.A. Seoul National University, 2004M.A., Yale University, 2011Ph.D., Yale University, 2015

    Shin’s drudgery focuses on Buddhist knack and architecture of the 19th century, with a particular accent on Banaras, India. Her research addresses the processes by which temples and other buildings were commissioned, designed and constructed. In addition, she considers the relationship between indigenous Indian forms and Western influences in sacred and secular architecture of the period. Her scholarship represents a global perspective on Asian visual culture.

    Bradley C. Smith, aide professor of political science

    B.A., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2012Ph.D., University of Rochester, 2017

    Smith’s research focuses on questions at the intersection of international fight and international cooperation. He utilizes both formal theory and statistical methods to resolve military cooperation in the international system. He is interested in both the conditions that lead to military cooperation, as well as the influence of realized military cooperation on international fight outcomes.

    Ann Tate, aide professor of biological sciences

    B.S., Rice University, 2009Ph.D., Princeton University, 2014

    Tate’s research focuses on the evolutionary ecology of immune systems and host-microbe interactions, using a combination of speculative and empirical approaches. She is particularly interested in connecting within-host and between-host dynamics to understand reciprocal feedbacks driving disease transmission, parasite virulence evolution, and the genetic architecture of host resistance and tolerance to infection.

    Caglar Uyanik, aide professor of mathematics

    B.S., Middle East Technical University (Turkey), 2008M.S., Middle East Technical University, 2010Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, May 2017

    Uyanik studies geometric group theory, geometric topology and dynamics—specifically, mapping class groups, outer automorphism groups of free groups and translation surfaces.

    Georgina White, lecturer in classical and Mediterranean studies

    B.A./M.A., Brasenose College, University of Oxford, 2008M.A., University of Pennsylvania, 2009M.A., Princeton University, 2013Ph.D., Princeton University, 2015

    White is an expert in Latin and Greek literature who specializes in the intellectual history of the Roman Republic, ancient political thought and its reception, and the theory and exercise of translation. Her major research program explores the philosophy of Cicero, in which she has explored the themes of natural structure, time and medicine.

    Rhonda Williams, professor of history and John L. Seigenthaler Chair in American History

    B.S., University of Maryland, 1989Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1998

    Williams’ research interests comprehend the manifestations of race and gender inequality on urban space and policy, convivial movements, and illicit narcotics economies in the post-1940s United States. She is the author of Concrete Demands: The Search for Black Power in the 20th Century (2015) and the award-winning The Politics of Public Housing: Black Women’s Struggles against Urban Inequality (2004). Williams is also the co-editor of the book string Justice, Power, and Politics published by the University of North Carolina Press and is co-editor of Teaching the American Civil Rights Movement. Her current research is focused on illicit narcotics economies in the post-1930s United States, and she continues to examine the history of black power politics in the United States.

    Thilo Womelsdorf, associate professor of psychology

    Diploma Psychology, Ruhr University Bochum (Germany), 2001Ph.D., Georg-August University (Göttingen, Germany), 2004

    Womelsdorf’s research strives to realize a far-reaching vision that combines the expend of advanced neurotechnology and dynamical systems neuroscience approaches to develop a neuropsychiatric framework of brain network functioning, particularly in esteem to attention and memory. The goal of this framework is to forecast functional and dysfunctional attention and learning processes in primate brains (human and monkey) across several scales of neurobiological analyses.

    Mary Zaborskis, senior lecturer in women’s and gender studies

    A.B., Bryn Mawr College, 2012M.A., University of Pennsylvania, 2013Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 2017

    Research and teaching interests comprehend queer theory, childhood studies, captious race theory, native American literature, disability studies, and 20th-century and simultaneous American literature and culture. Her drudgery has appeared in GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, WSQ and Journal of Homosexuality, and she is a contributing editor at Public Books.

    Matthew D. Zaragoza-Watkins, aide professor of economics

    B.S., Cornell University, 2008M.S., University of California–Berkeley, 2011Ph.D., University of California–Berkeley, 2014

    Zaragoza-Watkins studies the intersection of industrial organization, energy and the environment. His research explores the design and performance of economy-wide and sector-specific environmental policies. Applying econometric techniques from labor economics to test theory from industrial organization and consumer behavior, his drudgery provides novel evidence on the nature of firms’ and households’ responses to regulation, often shedding light on the unanticipated consequences of existing policy.

    Law School

    Karla McKanders, clinical professor of law

    B.A., Spellman College, 2000J.D., Duke University School of Law, 2003

    McKanders’ scholarship interests are primarily in immigration and refugee law. Her scholarship grapples with the intricacies of national and international migration systems as well as the profound impacts of such systems on individuals and nations. Her articles believe been published in the Harvard Journal on Racial and Ethnic Justice, the University of Iowa’s Gender Race and convivial Justice Law Journal, Catholic Law Review and other law journals. She also has been cited as an authority on immigration and refugee law by Reuters, ABC tidings and Al-Jazeera, as well as many status and local tidings outlets.

    Lauren Rogal, aide clinical professor of law

    B.A., University of Pennsylvania, 2004M.A., Johns Hopkins University, 2012J.D., University of Michigan Law School, 2011L.L.M., Georgetown University Law Center, 2017

    Rogal’s research focuses on tax and investment law as it pertains to community economic evolution and the charitable sector. The past two decades believe seen rising interest in mission-based financing structures, innovative charity and convivial entrepreneurship. However, the regulatory landscape has not kept pace either with innovations in the territory or with applicable economics scholarship. Rogal’s scholarship explores ways to more closely align tax and investment policies with legislative intent by incorporating simultaneous economics research and evidence from practice.

    Owen Graduate School of Management

    Kelly Goldsmith, associate professor of management

    B.A., Duke University, 2001M.A., Yale University, 2006M.Phil., Yale University, 2007Ph.D., Yale University, 2009

    Goldsmith’s research interests comprehend consumer response to risk and uncertainty, goals and consumer behavior, behavioral theory, and construal flush theory. Her scholarship draws on and extends aspects of conduct theory, in showing that consumers can behave in ways counter to normative predictions and in demonstrating when and why consumers attain so.

    Rita Nevada Gunn, aide professor of accounting

    B.A./B.S., North Carolina status University, 2012Ph.D., Northwestern University, 2017

    Gunn’s research focuses on business acquisitions. She examines situations such as those where additional contingent payments are made if inevitable target levels are met (earn-outs) and those where privately held target firms possess great amounts of intangible assets. Paradoxically, she shows that when managers overstate the expected value of the earn-out to manage future earnings, these smoother earnings better forecast future cash flows. She also compares the variance of synergies in private versus public targets.

    Peter H. Haslag, aide professor of management (finance)

    B.S., Arizona status University, 2010M.S.F., Vanderbilt University, 2011Ph.D., Washington University in St. Louis, 2017

    Haslag is pursuing a broad research agenda that spans corporate finance and market microstructure. He examines how the organization of capital markets can repercussion decisions at the corporate level, and also in the context of liquidity provision as a function of the degree of fragmentation of order tide across trading venues.

    Kejia Hu, aide professor of operations

    B.S., Fudan University (China), 2011M.S., University of California–Davis, 2013M.A., Northwestern University, 2017Ph.D., Northwestern University, 2017

    Hu’s research interests comprehend empirical operations management, structural modeling and causal inference, service operations, sustainability management, and statistics and stochastic modeling. Her scholarship investigates consumer retrial by connecting customers’ decisions with their preferences on service aspects: the quicken in service access and the character in service delivered. She also studies product life cycle curves from historical claim data for expend in forecasting claim of ready-to-launch novel products.

    Berk A. Sensoy, Hans Stoll Professor of Finance

    B.S., Duke University, 1999M.B.A., University of Chicago, 2006Ph.D., University of Chicago, 2006

    Sensoy is an internationally recognized scholar in the research fields of private equity. He studies the capital formation process in the context of both venture capitalists (for firms before they trade publically) and leveraged buyouts (taking firms private after being held publically). These two research streams address issues in the fields of entrepreneurship and mergers and acquisitions.

    Melissa C. Thomas-Hunt, vice provost for inclusive excellence and professor of organization studies

    B.S., Princeton University, 1989M.S., Northwestern University, 1995Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1997

    Thomas-Hunt has several streams of scholarship. One stream of research, which she calls “Status and Group Members’ Influence,” studies how different people within a team can influence group decisions. A second stream of work, “Status and Managerial Assessment,” investigates how nonperformance-based characteristics of an employee strike how their drudgery is assessed within organizations. Her earliest drudgery was on negation addressing how negotiators process data during the negotiation process.

    Joshua T. White, aide professor of management (finance)

    B.S., University of Tennessee, 2007M.B.A., University of Tennessee, 2008Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 2012

    White’s research focuses on the repercussion of securities regulation and disclosure requirements on the information differences between managers and investors and among different market participants (retail versus institutional investors). His current research interests are intentional and mandatory corporate disclosure, analysts, cost-benefit analysis at the SEC, and over-the-counter markets.

    Peabody College of education and human development

    Amy Booth, professor of psychology and human development

    Sc.B., Brown University, 1993M.A., University of Virginia, 1995Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1998

    Booth studies cognitive evolution and learning in adolescent children. In much of her work, she has explored interactions between categorization, conceptual learning and word learning in infants and preschoolers. With the uphold of a concede from the National Science Foundation, she is currently investigating the role of individual differences in children’s word-learning skills in explaining disparities in vocabulary and early literacy as children enter school. In another line of work, also supported by the National Science Foundation, Booth is investigating the origins of children’s scientific literacy by examining early interests in, and the talent to understanding about, causal information. The long-term goals of both projects are to develop early interventions to nearby persistent achievement gaps and to optimize academic success for consummate children in both language and science.

    James Booth, professor of psychology and human evolution and Patricia and Rodes Hart Professor of Educational Neuroscience

    B.A., University of Michigan, 1990M.S., University of Maryland, 1993Ph.D., University of Maryland, 1995

    Booth is the Patricia and Rodes Hart Professor of Educational Neuroscience in the Department of Psychology and Human evolution at Vanderbilt University. The overall goals of his research are to understand the brain mechanisms of the evolution of reading, math and scientific reasoning in typical and atypical populations. He has been continuously funded for nearby to two decades and has published extensively in diverse journals. He has served in various roles both within and outside of the university, such as departmental chairperson, review panel member and associate editor. Booth aims to facilitate the interaction between the fields of cognition, neuroscience and education.

    Brian Christens, associate professor of human and organizational development

    B.A., Auburn University, 2002M.S., Vanderbilt University, 2004Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2008

    Christens studies processes that enhance people’s and organizations’ talent to capture action to capitalize their communities and alter power structures. His research provides insights into the mechanisms linking civic participation to individual and collective well-being, and how different approaches to civic action can lead to different outcomes. His research lies at the intersection of community psychology, human development, community evolution and public health.

    Nicole Cobb, senior lecturer in human and organizational development

    B.S., Tennessee Technological University, 1996M.A., Tennessee Technological University, 1998Ed.D., University of Tennessee, 2011

    Cobb has worked in education for 21 years as a teacher, school counselor and administrator at the district and status levels. Her professional relish has allowed her to link research to exercise in the territory of school counseling, specifically as it relates to school climate, crisis response, college access and school counselor effectiveness.

    Bradley Erford, professor of human and organizational development

    B.S., Grove City CollegeM.A., Bucknell UniversityPh.D., University of Virginia

    Erford’s research specialization falls primarily in the areas of outcome research and the evolution and technical analysis of psycho-educational tests. He is most interested in determining what they know that works in counseling, especially in their drudgery with school-aged youth.

    Ocheze Joseph, lecturer in teaching and learning

    B.S., Lincoln University, 1996M.A., Johns Hopkins University, 1999Ed.D., University of Maryland, 2009

    Joseph’s research has focused on school districts’ best practices and programs to retain novice teachers. She has gained additional interest in analyzing the literacy needs of novel teachers and best practices that uphold students’ reading achievement.

    Yolanda McDonald, aide professor of human and organizational development

    B.A., University of Texas–El Paso, 2009M.A., University of Texas–El Paso, 2012Ph.D., Texas A&M University, 2017

    McDonald focuses her research interests on health disparities, health keeping access, cervical cancer prevention, public water infrastructure and quality, and stout geospatial data uses. Her research applies an interdisciplinary focus on the intersections of health geography, geographic information systems, and epidemiology on health disparities and health inequalities.

    Jessica Perkins, aide professor of human and organizational development

    B.S., Davidson College, 2005S.M., Harvard School of Public Health, 2008Ph.D., Harvard University, 2015

    Perkins’ broad areas of research expertise within community and global health comprehend convivial epidemiology and convivial psychology. Her main line of research focuses on how convivial networks and misperceptions of convivial norms repercussion health-related behaviors and attitudes, typically among low-resource and secondary school populations. The goal of her drudgery is to inform the evolution of behavioral health interventions to reduce negative behaviors such as risky alcohol expend and violence in bucolic Uganda, as well as promote positive behaviors such as HIV testing. Perkins also uses a similar framework to study bullying, burden use, and food and beverage consumption among youth across middle schools and elevated schools in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Matthew Shaw, aide professor of public policy and education

    A.B., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2002J.D., Columbia University, 2005Ed.M., Harvard University, 2014Ed.D., Harvard University, 2016

    Shaw is a sociologist of law whose research focuses on educational institutions and the students, educators and communities who engage with them. As a scholar in the law and society tradition, his drudgery brings together captious legal studies and econometrics to enhance his sociological methods. His current projects are on laws that shape the experiences of undocumented youth as they transition from elevated school to college; Title IX as a directive on educational institutions; and funding challenges experienced by Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

    Anita Wager, professor of the exercise of mathematics education

    B.S., University of Delaware, 1983M.B.A., Columbia University, 1986M.A.T., Johns Hopkins University, 2000Ph.D., University of Wisconsin–Madison, 2008

    Wager’s research focuses on teacher education that supports culturally relevant and socially just mathematics teaching in early childhood and elementary school. She is particularly interested in practices that draw on children’s multiple mathematical resources, including mathematical thinking, mathematics (and other) experiences in homes and communities, and the mathematics children engage with in play.

    School of Engineering

    Daniel Arena, senior lecturer in computer science

    B.A., Rutgers University, 1986M.A., Rutgers University, 1990

    Arena teaches the following courses: CS
1101 Programming and Problem Solving, CS 1151 Computers and Ethics, and CS 2212 Discrete Structures.

    Joshua D. Caldwell
, associate professor of mechanical engineering and of electrical engineering

    B.A., Virginia Tech, 2000Ph.D., University of Florida, 2004

    Caldwell’s research focuses on the confinement of electromagnetic energy and charged particles in the nano- to atomic-scale dimensions and the interactions between such confined systems. This involves the sub-diffractional confinement of light using “polaritons” within the optical spectral domain (primarily the infrared), the design of nanoscale optical components, and identifying and characterizing novel optical, electro-optical and electronic materials.

    Yuche Chen, research aide professor of civil and environmental engineering

    B.S., Central South University of Technology (Changsha, China)
, 2006M.S., Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China), 2008Ph.D., University of California–Davis, 2014

    Chen’s research involves sustainable transportation systems, including the repercussion of energy and the environmental aspects of autonomous vehicles; consummate mobile emissions repercussion with air character and alternative transportation infrastructure and operational designs; and stout data analytics of these options.

    Neal P. Dillon, research aide professor of mechanical engineering

    B.S., Villanova University, 2008Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Dillon focuses on medical robotics and image-guided surgery, design of medical devices, dynamics and control, biomechanical modeling, medical image processing, error modeling and analysis of surgical systems, and parallel robot design and analysis.

    Shannon L. Faley, research aide professor of mechanical engineering

    B.E. (Biomedical Engineering), Vanderbilt University, 1999B.S. (Physics), Vanderbilt University, 1999M.S., Vanderbilt University, 2002Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2007

    Faley’s research focuses on developing biomimetic in vitro tissue models for disease modeling and regenerative medicine applications. Using sacrificial materials that are 3D printed, spun into fibers, or readily available, they are currently fabricating fluidic hydrogels that mimic capillary- to arteriole-sized vasculature and examining the effects of fluidic shear upon endothelial barrier integrity.

    Ana Gainaru, research aide professor of computer science

    B.S., University Politehnica of Bucharest, 2008M.S., University Politehnica of Bucharest, 2010Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2015

    Gainaru’s main research focus is on applying machine learning and signal analysis methods to solving stout data problems in general, and specifically for sparse graph applications used in neuroscience. Her drudgery will breathe divided among consummate levels of the software stack, starting with the application and the middleware it uses. While software solutions are the first step for better understanding these applications, she is also interested in creating novel hardware architecture models designed specifically for them. Optimizing the communication patterns and workflow will allow scientists to gather and resolve data at a novel flush of detail.

    Kelsey B. Hatzell, aide professor of mechanical engineering

    B.A. (Economics), Swarthmore College, 2009B.S. (Engineering), Swarthmore College, 2009M.S., Pennsylvania status University, 2012Ph.D., Drexel University, 2015

    Hatzell’s group seeks to understand far-from-equilibrium multiphase colloidal material systems for energy and water applications. They examine multicomponent inks for advanced additive manufacturing of energy storage and conversion, sensors and biomedical applications. To probe the complex interactions in multicomponent material systems, they expend a host of in-situ and ex-situ electron, neutron and X-ray characterization techniques. The group broadly seeks to understand how it can expend novel materials processing approaches and manufacturing platforms to combine materials in synergistic ways that can contribute to augmented material properties and performance in engineered devices.

    Richard J. Hendrick, research aide professor of mechanical engineering

    B.S., Texas A&M University, 2011Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Hendrick’s focuses are hand-held deployment of intelligent, robotic tools for surgery that seamlessly meet into the clinical workflow; embedded robotic system design and control for minimally and non-invasive surgery; continuum robot design, modeling and optimization for minimally invasive surgery; and robotic system design for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery.

    Piran Kidambi, aide professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering

    B.S., National Institute of Technology (Tiruchirappalli, India), 2006M.S., Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Zurich, Switzerland), 2010Ph.D., University of Cambridge, 2014

    Kidambi’s research leverages the intersection between in-situ metrology, process engineering and material science to enable bottom-up novel materials design and synthesis for energy, novel membranes, electronics, catalysis, metrology and health keeping applications. Kidambi’s research in two-dimensional materials synthesis, device integration and processing for applications has been recognized by several awards and honors, including the Lindemann faith Fellowship U.K., the Elizabeth Mabel Burnett Prize from Cambridge, and first prize in the ABTA Doctoral Thesis Awards. Kidambi anticipates being an dynamic participant in the Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science and Engineering.

    Michael King, professor of biomedical engineering and radiology and radiological sciences and J. Lawrence Wilson Chair in Biomedical Engineering

    B.S., University of Rochester, 1995Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 2000

    King’s research combines concepts of cellular engineering, drug delivery and nanotechnology. He focuses on the receptor-mediated adhesion of circulating cells, and has developed novel computational and in vitro models to study the function of leukocytes, platelets, originate and circulating tumor cells under flow. Additionally, King has written textbooks on the subjects of statistical methods and microchannel flows.

    Yiorgos Kostoulas, associate professor of the exercise of engineering management

    B.S., University of Thessaloniki (Greece), 1989M.A., University of Rochester, 1991Ph.D., University of Rochester, 1996M.B.A., Boston College, 2001

    Alice Leach, research aide professor of materials science and engineering

    M.Chem., University of Oxford, 2012Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Leach is primarily focused on the evolution and implementation of undergraduate courses in the VINSE cleanroom. Current areas of focus comprehend nanoscale fabrication and characterization, semiconductor materials processing, and microfluidic device design. She also contributes to the research and teaching initiatives of VINSE faculty.

    Ilwoo Lyu, research aide professor of computer science

    B.S., Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 2009M.S., Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 2011Ph.D., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2017

    Lyu’s research interest is mainly in developing novel algorithms for medical image analysis. His current research focuses on surface-based analysis to understand/explore highly convoluted shapes such as the brain. In particular, he is working on surface registration, anatomical/geometric feature extraction/recognition, statistical shape analysis and 3D visualization.

    Justus Ndukaife, aide professor of electrical engineering

    B.S., University of Lagos (Nigeria), 2010M.S., Purdue University–Calumet, 2012Ph.D., Purdue University–West Lafayette, 2017

    Ndukaife’s past and current research drudgery is at the interface between the fields of nanophotonics and microfluidics; micro and nanoscale motors; and novel bio-inspired soft actuators and robots for applications in nanoparticle assembly, sensing, imaging, food security, energy harvesting, quantum photonics and on-chip nano-manufacturing.

    Dominique Piot, lecturer in computer science

    M.Eng., Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (France), 1974Master of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Université de Lyon, 1977

    Piot teaches the following courses: CS1101: An introductory class to problem- solving and Java language; CS2231: Processor architecture and assembly language (more specifically ARM); and CS2212: Discrete structures – how to prove that a program is correct.

    Cynthia Reinhart-King, Cornelius Vanderbilt Professor of Biomedical Engineering

    S.B., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2000Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 2006

    Reinhart-King’s research focuses on how cells interact with their environments and how mechanical and chemical changes in tissues can promote disease. Her drudgery brings together tools from engineering, biology and medicine to build and utilize novel models of disease. Her research seeks to develop novel tools and identify novel targets to obviate disease progression.

    Janos Sallai, research aide professor of electrical engineering, computer engineering and computer science

    M.Sc., Technical University of Budapest, 2001Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2008

    Sallai is a research aide professor at the Institute for Software Integrated Systems. His research areas comprehend model integrated computing and cyber-physical systems, with accent on low-power localization and sensor fusion algorithms. He has worked on collaborative, component-based modeling and metamodeling environments for chemical and material science applications, and he has an extensive track record on sensor network-based shooter localization applications and has recently developed data-driven and machine learning techniques for acoustic shot detection. He has published more than 70 scientific papers, and he is the co-author on two patents. In addition, Sallai has worked on several DARPA projects related to acoustic shooter localization and has been the co-P.I. of an endeavor to build a smartphone-based counter-sniper system.

    Carlos A. Silvera Batista, aide professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering

    B.E., City College of novel York, 2005Ph.D., University of Florida, 2011

    Formerly a President’s Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Michigan, Silvera Batista plans to establish a multiscale control over the assembly of colloids. He seeks to better control over the structure of soft materials through the manipulation of the shape and chemistry of colloidal pile blocks as well as interparticle forces. He also will investigate the design of materials with elevated barrier properties for food packaging. Silvera Batista plans to engage broadly with the Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science and Engineering. He has extensive relish in service and outreach and has proposed an innovative set of plans to bolster the assignation of the Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering at Vanderbilt with Latin America.

    Vikash Singh, aide professor of the exercise of computer science

    B.Arch, Birla Institute of Technology (Ranchi, India), 2002M.S., Mississippi status University, 2006Ph.D., University of North Carolina–Charlotte, 2015

    Singh’s research interests comprehend human-computer interaction, collaboration tools and computer science pedagogy. His recent research has focused on team-based and video-centered dynamic learning. He has received National Science Foundation I-corps and STTR grants to study, develop and commercialize tools for particular and accurate discussion of video material targeting the flipped classroom model for originate higher education.

    Eric Spivey, research aide professor of biomedical engineering

    B.S.E., Duke University, 1997Ph.D., University of Texas–Austin, 2012

    Spivey’s focuses comprehend the evolution of tools for single-cell culture, segregation and analysis through fabrication of defined cellular micro-environments; and the construction of high-throughput microfluidic and optical systems to enable registration of mass spectrometry data to other analytical techniques at the single-cell scale.

    Hongyang Sun, research aide professor of computer science

    B.Eng., Nanyang Technological University
 (Singapore), 2005M.Sc., National University of Singapore and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006Ph.D., Nanyang Technological University, 2011

    Sun’s research focuses on improving the performance, energy efficiency and resilience of high-performance computing (HPC) systems and Cloud computing systems, with applications for processing data-intensive workload and performing stout data analytics. His drudgery so far has included establishing solid speculative foundations as well as solving practical problems for both HPC and Cloud. He has proposed novel algorithms and techniques that span multiprocessor and multicore scheduling, energy-efficient or green computing, datacenter power and thermal managements, and HPC foible tolerance. His most recent research starts to consider data-intensive computing by looking at clustering and partitioning algorithms for great datasets (e.g., represented by sparse graphs/matrices), and by applying the research findings to serve enhance and forward medical/neuroscience research while doing data analysis from these domains.

    Manav Vohra, research aide professor of civil and environmental engineering

    B.Tech., Indian Institute of Technology (Dhanbad, India), 2010M.S.E., Johns Hopkins University, 2012Ph.D., Duke University, 2015

    Vohra has served two years as a postdoc, one at Corning, Inc. and the other at the University of Texas at Austin. He has stalwart research relish in doubt quantification and experimental design, with applications in fluid mechanics and materials. He also has a stalwart background in heat transfer and numerical methods. He is working with Sankaran Mahadevan, John R. Murray Sr. Chair in Engineering, on his research in civil and environmental engineering.

    Daniel M. Work, associate professor of civil and environmental engineering

    B.S., Ohio status University, 2006M.S., University of California–Berkeley, 2007Ph.D., University of California–Berkeley, 2010

    Work’s research is traffic modeling and transportation systems in interdisciplinary contexts, specifically civil, electrical, computer engineering and applied mathematics. He also concentrates on traffic engineering by improving human mobility while mitigating its negative environmental impacts.

    School of Medicine (Basic Sciences)

    Jun-Song Chen, research instructor 
in cell and developmental biology

    B.S., Zhejiang University, 1994Ph.D., Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry, 2011

    Chen studies function and regulation of proteins involved in cell division using fission yeast as the model organism. He currently focuses on a protein called Fic1, which is involved in cytokinesis regulation. He also uses liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify protein-protein interaction and protein post-translational modification in fission yeast and mammalian cells.

    Rocco G. Gogliotti, research instructor in pharmacology

    B.S., Eastern Michigan University, 2004Ph.D., Northwestern University, 2012Postdoctoral research fellow, Vanderbilt University, 2016

    Gogliotti’s two main projects believe focused on the role of the mGlu5 and mGlu7 receptors in MeCP2-related disorders. His research interests are in pediatric diseases of the nervous system focused on autism spectrum disorder. He has been a driving force behind what is now a major research focus of Rett syndrome.

    Erkan Karakas, aide professor of molecular physiology and biophysics

    B.S., Middle East Technical University (Turkey), 2002Ph.D., Stony Brook University, 2006

    Karakas’ research focuses on understanding the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium signaling that regulates cellular bioenergetics and cell kismet decisions. He uses a multidisciplinary approach that includes structural biology, biophysics and biochemistry to study the structure and function of ion channels involved in calcium signaling.

    Teresa H. Sanders, research aide professor of pharmacology

    B.S., University of Alabama–HuntsvilleM.S., University of California–Los AngelesPh.D., Georgia Institute of Technology
, 2014Postdoctoral fellow, Emory University

    Sanders’ research focuses on the emerging district of cognitive enhancement and neuroepigenetics. Specific research areas comprehend learning and memory, basic molecular biology, molecular neurobiology, synaptic plasticity and behavior, neuropharmacology, and pharmacoepigenetics.

    Jenny Schafer, 
 research aide professor
 of cell and developmental biology

    B.S., Rhodes College, 1998Ph.D., University of Alabama–Birmingham, 2006

    Schafer is a trained cell biologist and experienced microscopist currently working as the managing director of Vanderbilt’s Cell Imaging Shared Resource (CISR). Her research background has focused on studying cilia formation in C. elegans as well as researching vesicle trafficking in mammalian cells. Her current position within CISR allows her to abide on the cutting edge of modern microscopy by training users on current microscopes, assisting researchers with experimental design, and collaborating with Vanderbilt research centers and investigators on heart concede support.

    School of Medicine

    Mingfeng Bai,
 aide professor of radiology and radiological sciences

    B.S., Nankai University (Tianjin, China), 2001M.S., Vanderbilt University, 2003Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2007

    Bai’s research interests are fluorescent probe and photosensitizer development, fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy, multifunctional drug delivery systems, and intraoperative imaging. The Bai laboratory develops targeted molecular probes for cancer imaging and therapy purposes, particularly fluorescence imaging agents and photosensitizers, with the ultimate goal of pathetic their basic science discoveries to the clinic.

    Jennifer Below, aide professor of medicine

    B.A., Carleton College, 2003Ph.D., University of Chicago, 2011

    Below is interested in developing and applying computational methodologies to further their understanding of the genetic basis of human disease. She’s solved the problem of maximal unrelated set identification in arbitrarily great genetic datasets using a novel application of graph theory, and is tackling the transpose problem of reconstructing pedigrees from estimates of genomic sharing. She’s expanding this drudgery to genetically heterogeneous and admixed populations. She’s also worked through the heart for Mendelian Genomics to develop and apply methods to identify the genetic occasions of Mendelian diseases using high- density next-generation sequence data.

    Laura Beskow, professor of health policy

    B.S., Iowa status University, 1985M.P.H., Boston University, 1995Ph.D., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2005

    Beskow’s research focuses on ethics and policy issues in biomedical research, particularly human subjects issues in large-scale genomic and translational research. Her drudgery integrates both qualitative and quantitative convivial science methods. Examples of topics she has studied comprehend research recruitment, informed consent, confidentiality protections, the revert of research results to participants and families, and research expend of electronic health records.

    Jordan Everson, aide professor of health policy

    B.A., Duke University, 2008M.P.H., Georgetown University, 2012Ph.D., University of Michigan, 2017

    Everson’s research exemplifies an interest in how information, exercise and patients travel through the health keeping delivery system. He studies the adoption and expend of health information technology and explores opportunities to facilitate better coordination as patients traverse the complex delivery system through electronic health information exchange. Principally, he aims to serve shape how public programs are designed to facilitate achieving high-value coordinated keeping supported by the well-designed expend of information technology.

    Ayush Giri, aide professor of obstetrics and gynecology

    B.A., Knox College, 2006M.S., University of Massachusetts–Amherst, 2011Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2015

    Giri’s primary research interests involve the genetics of racial health disparities and gene-environment interactions as it relates to various confirmed women’s health conditions. His interests also encompass understanding the epidemiology of thyroid disease and genetics of several quantitative traits, including BMI, height and blood pressure.

    Jacob Houghton, aide professor of radiology and radiological sciences

    B.A., Carleton College, 2007Ph.D., University of Michigan, 2012

    Houghton’s research focuses on the evolution of molecular imaging tools for cancer. His primary focus is the evolution of antibody-based PET imaging agents as diagnostic and staging tools for pancreatic cancer. Additionally, his laboratory develops optical, molecularly targeted imaging tools for surgical navigation.

    Brian Lindman, associate professor of medicine

    B.S., Duke University, 1997M.A., Reformed Theological Seminary, 2001M.D., Vanderbilt University, 2003M.S.C.I., Washington University, 2012

    Lindman’s research is focused on clinical and translational projects on calcific aortic stenosis, using sophisticated imaging techniques and a biobank of specimens to elucidate the pathology of aortic stenosis and the effects of pressure overload on the left ventricle and pulmonary vasculature. He has a particular interest in how diabetes affects these processes and aims to identify novel targets for adjunctive medical therapy to better clinical outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis.

    Jeffrey Neul,
 professor of pediatrics
 and director of the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center

    B.S., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1991Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1998M.D., University of Chicago, 2000

    Neul joins Vanderbilt as head of the Division of Child Neurology and as the director of the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center. A child neurologist and an internationally recognized expert in genetic neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically Rett syndrome, Neul conducts clinical research and clinical trials, research to identify other genetic causes of neurodevelopmental disorders, and translational research using disease models to identify and test novel treatment modalities for these disorders.

    Tuya Pal,
 associate professor of medicine

    M.D., McGill University, 1992

    Pal’s research interests focus on epidemiological studies of inherited cancer predisposition. Her research has spanned the continuum of cancer prevention and control, with evaluations of genetic etiology, cancer risks and outcomes, including efforts among underserved populations. She also has evaluated the keeping delivery of genetic services, including identification, access, utilization, character of keeping and follow-up care. Her efforts among underserved ethnically and racially diverse populations of adolescent women with breast cancer believe focused on both the prevention and control of cancer, as well as keeping delivery, including evolution of educational and outreach efforts to enhance awareness about inherited breast cancer.

    Kristine Phillips, associate professor of medicine

    B.S., Louisiana status University, 1988Ph.D., Louisiana status University, 1993M.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1995M.S., University of Michigan, 2016

    Phillips’ research interests believe been directed at improving the outcomes of patients with arthritis and related autoimmune diseases. She and her colleagues believe studied the pathophysiology and epidemiology of rheumatologic diseases in prospective longitudinal cohorts. Related translational studies believe focused on the role of inflammation in the evolution of confirmed disease.

    Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, aide professor of medicine

    B.S., McGill University, 2004M.S., Université de Sherbrooke (Québec, Canada), 2008Ph.D., University of Washington, 2012

    Robinson-Cohen’s research interests equivocate in the areas of cardiovascular, clinical and genetic epidemiology. She focuses on understanding risk factors for and consequences of mineral metabolism disturbances in the generic population and in confirmed kidney disease. Further interests comprehend identifying risk factors for and potential treatment options to address the disproportionate affliction of cardiovascular disease in the setting of confirmed kidney disease.

    Douglas Ruderfer, aide professor of medicine

    B.S., Johns Hopkins University, 2004M.S., Johns Hopkins University, 2004Ph.D., Cardiff University (Wales), 2013

    Ruderfer has spent the eventual 10 years applying computational approaches to answering fundamental questions in genetics, specifically elucidating the genetic causes of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. His drudgery has contributed substantially to what is currently known about the genetic architecture of these diseases, including seminal publications on the polygenic nature of these disorders. In particular, his drudgery has provided integral contributions to the talent to resolve and assess the role of copy number variation to disease risk. He developed some of the earliest methods to resolve these data and demonstrated extensive contribution of this class of variation to schizophrenia risk.

    Jere Segrest, professor of medicine

    B.A., Vanderbilt University, 1962M.D., Vanderbilt University, 1967Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 1969

    Segrest has a broad background in chemistry, physics and biochemistry, with specific training and relish in proteins, membranes and lipoproteins. He has a particular interest in computational and experimental structural biology of lipoproteins. Recently, he took the high-risk approach of using a computational approach—molecular dynamics (MD) simulations—to aid in exploring the dynamic structure of both discoidal and spheroidal (circulating) HDL. In spite of the elevated risk, he has published 13 high-impact papers that, for the first time, provide a robust model of HDL structure at the all-atom level.

    Staci Sudenga, aide professor of medicine

    B.A., Luther College, 2007M.P.H., University of Alabama–Birmingham, 2009Ph.D., University of Alabama–Birmingham, 2013

    Sudenga’s research program focuses on infections and cancer, the natural history of infections, and the synergy between infections. The goal is to identify modifiable factors associated with acquisition of infections and to identify biologically meaningful associations between the host and pathogen that can breathe translated into primary prevention efforts, early diagnosis or treatment.

    Ran Tao, aide professor of biostatistics

    B.S., Tsinghua University (Beijing, China), 2010Ph.D., University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 2016

    Tao’s research focuses comprehend developing novel statistical methods to decipher problems arising in the design and analysis of modern biomedical and public health studies, including genome-wide association studies, next-generation sequencing studies, and electronic health records systems. His current research topics comprehend design and analysis of two-phase studies and association analysis under complex survey sampling.

    Eric Tkaczyk, aide professor of medicine

    B.S., Purdue University, 2003M.S.E., University of Michigan, 2007Ph.D., University of Michigan, 2010

    Tkaczyk is a physician-scientist with a research interest in biophotonics for diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases. His current projects focus on cutaneous imaging in cGVHD and its repercussion on disease diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

    Norman Trevathan, professor of pediatrics

    B.S., Lipscomb University, 1977M.D., Emory University, 1982M.P.H., Emory University, 1982

    Trevathan joins Vanderbilt having previously served as the executive vice president and provost, as well as professor of neuroscience, at Baylor University. As a former administrator and senior leader with the CDC, Trevathan facilitated the research efforts of his faculty and colleagues. At Vanderbilt, he will pursue his own research, writing, clinical activity and teaching in his specialty of pediatric neurology.

    Vivian Weiss, aide professor of pathology, microbiology and immunology

    B.A., Columbia University, 2004M.D., Johns Hopkins University, 2012Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 2012

    Weiss’ research focuses on merging molecular diagnostics and cytopathology, as well as understanding the molecular basis underlying thyroid lesions. Her projects comprehend developing a qPCR expression assay that can breathe used as an adjunct to next-generation sequencing to establish sampling adequacy in thyroid lesions to obtain diagnostic, prognostic and targeted therapy information.

    School of Nursing

    Jennifer David, instructor in nursing

    B.S., Valdosta status University, 2000M.S.N., Vanderbilt University, 2014

    Cristy DeGregory, aide professor of nursing

    B.S.N., University of Pittsburg, 2002M.S.N., Drexel University, 2006Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 2014

    Diane Folk, instructor in nursing

    B.S.N., Jacksonville University, 2008M.S.N., status University of novel York Health Science Center, 2010D.N.P., Chatham University, 2012

    Ruth Kleinpell, professor of nursing and aide dean for clinical scholarship

    B.S.N., University of Illinois, 1986M.S., University of Illinois, 1988Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1991Ns. Pract., Rush University, 1995

    Kleinpell has conducted research in several areas of focus, including roles of acute keeping nurse practitioners, outcomes of advanced exercise nurses, character of life of critically ill elders, and expend of telehealth to promote post-operative recovery. She has received funding for several clinical projects, including one targeting hypoglycemia prevention funded by the American Association of captious keeping Nurses; a falls prevention initiative funded by the American Organization of Nurse Executives; and a project focused on improving workplace esprit for nurses funded by the Prince Foundation, among others.

    Mariann Piano, professor of nursing and senior associate dean for research

    B.S.N., Loyola University of Chicago, 1979M.S.N., University of Illinois–Chicago, 1984Ph.D., University of Illinois–Chicago, 1989

    Piano’s program of research focuses on elucidating the adverse cardiovascular risks, outcomes and mechanisms associated with unhealthy patterns of alcohol consumption, such as orgy drinking. Her research team has established that orgy drinking in adolescent adults is associated with changes in vascular biology and function that may increase their risk for future adverse cardiovascular events. Other studies are underway to examine techniques for the measurement of orgy drinking conduct among adolescent adults and how the expend of alcohol consumption biomarkers, such as phosphatidylethanol, can breathe used in research settings to validate drinking behaviors.

    Susan Piras, instructor in nursing

    B.S.N., Cedar Crest College, 1982M.S.N., Duke University, 2009Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2016

    Piras’ focus is nursing research, specifically that exploring the relationship between role modeling and health keeping behaviors and enforcing and redirecting behaviors related to safe practice.

    Patty Sengstack, associate professor of nursing

    B.S.N., University of Maryland, 1982M.S.N., University of Maryland, 1988Post-master’s in nursing, University of Maryland, 2002D.N.P., Vanderbilt University, 2010

    Sengstack teaches informatics at the master’s and doctoral levels, focusing the eventual several years on health information technology’s repercussion on patient safety. She recently published the book Mastering Informatics: A Healthcare Handbook for Success. She is also the chief nursing informatics officer for the Bon Secours Health System and past president of the American Nursing Informatics Association. She also serves on the Health and Human Service’s Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT’s (ONC) Standards Committee. She currently co-chairs ONC’s Consumer job force to provide insight on HHS/ONC initiatives with a consumer focus.

    Terrance Sims, instructor in nursing

    B.S.N., Kaplan University, 2013M.S.N., Kaplan University, 2016

    Julia Steed, aide professor of nursing

    B.S.N., Middle Tennessee status University, 2006M.S.N., Vanderbilt University, 2010Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2017

    Steed’s focus is health services research. Her dissertation study examines the influence of perceived health risk on smoking behaviors among hospitalized smokers.

    Dominique Stratton, lecturer in nursing

    B.S.N., George Mason University, 2009M.S.N., Vanderbilt University, 2014

    Stratton’s research includes the competency tools used to measure the manner in which nurses expend clinical research for effective resource allocation in daily practice.

    Marci Zsamboky, lecturer in nursing

    B.S.N., Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 1985M.S.N., University of Pittsburg, 1994

    Zsamboky’s focus is nursing science.

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