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HP0-704 TruCluster v5 Implementation and Support

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HP0-704 exam Dumps Source : TruCluster v5 Implementation and Support

Test Code : HP0-704
Test denomination : TruCluster v5 Implementation and Support
Vendor denomination : HP
exam questions : 112 true Questions

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HP TruCluster v5 Implementation and

GSSAPI Authentication and Kerberos v5 | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the publication 

This portion discusses the GSSAPI mechanism, in selected, Kerberos v5 and the course this works at the side of the sun ONE listing Server 5.2 software and what's involved in implementing such an answer. delight breathe conscious that here's no longer a paltry task.

It’s price taking a short look at the relationship between the generic protection functions application application Interface (GSSAPI) and Kerberos v5.

The GSSAPI does not truly give security functions itself. reasonably, it's a framework that gives protection capabilities to callers in a regular fashion, with more than a few underlying mechanisms and technologies similar to Kerberos v5. The latest implementation of the GSSAPI most efficacious works with the Kerberos v5 safety mechanism. The most excellent approach to feel in regards to the relationship between GSSAPI and Kerberos is in right here method: GSSAPI is a community authentication protocol abstraction that enables Kerberos credentials for exhaust in an authentication change. Kerberos v5 enjoy to breathe installed and operating on any device on which GSSAPI-conscious courses are running.

The profit for the GSSAPI is made viable in the directory server through the introduction of a unique SASL library, which is based on the Cyrus CMU implementation. through this SASL framework, DIGEST-MD5 is supported as explained prior to now, and GSSAPI which implements Kerberos v5. extra GSSAPI mechanisms carryout exist. as an instance, GSSAPI with SPNEGO profit could breathe GSS-SPNEGO. different GSS mechanism names are in line with the GSS mechanisms OID.

The sun ONE listing Server 5.2 software best supports the exhaust of GSSAPI on Solaris OE. There are implementations of GSSAPI for other operating systems (as an instance, Linux), but the solar ONE listing Server 5.2 application does not exhaust them on platforms other than the Solaris OE.

understanding GSSAPI

The accepted protection features application program Interface (GSSAPI) is a typical interface, described by RFC 2743, that offers a close authentication and comfy messaging interface, whereby these security mechanisms can breathe plugged in. the most commonly mentioned GSSAPI mechanism is the Kerberos mechanism it truly is in line with stealthy key cryptography.

one of the crucial main points of GSSAPI is that it permits developers so as to add comfy authentication and privateness (encryption and or integrity checking) coverage to facts being omitted the wire with the aid of writing to a single programming interface. here is proven in device 3-2.

03fig02.gifdetermine three-2. GSSAPI Layers

The underlying security mechanisms are loaded at the time the programs are completed, as opposed to when they're compiled and built. In apply, probably the most touchstone GSSAPI mechanism is Kerberos v5. The Solaris OE provides a number of distinct flavors of Diffie-Hellman GSSAPI mechanisms, which are only beneficial to NIS+ purposes.

What may also breathe perplexing is that builders may write applications that write directly to the Kerberos API, or they might write GSSAPI applications that request the Kerberos mechanism. there's a huge change, and functions that discourse Kerberos directly cannot discourse with those who talk GSSAPI. The wire protocols are not appropriate, even though the underlying Kerberos protocol is in use. An instance is telnet with Kerberos is a comfy telnet program that authenticates a telnet consumer and encrypts data, including passwords exchanged over the community entire over the telnet session. The authentication and message insurance design aspects are supplied using Kerberos. The telnet application with Kerberos best makes exhaust of Kerberos, which is in accordance with secret-key expertise. despite the fact, a telnet software written to the GSSAPI interface can exhaust Kerberos in addition to different security mechanisms supported by means of GSSAPI.

The Solaris OE does not deliver any libraries that supply assist for third-celebration agencies to software at once to the Kerberos API. The intention is to motivate builders to design exhaust of the GSSAPI. Many open-supply Kerberos implementations (MIT, Heimdal) enable users to jot down Kerberos functions at once.

On the wire, the GSSAPI is suitable with Microsoft’s SSPI and hence GSSAPI purposes can discourse with Microsoft functions that exhaust SSPI and Kerberos.

The GSSAPI is favourite because it is a standardized API, whereas Kerberos is not. This means that the MIT Kerberos development group may exchange the programming interface anytime, and any applications that exist these days could no longer drudgery sooner or later without some code modifications. the usage of GSSAPI avoids this issue.

an additional improvement of GSSAPI is its pluggable feature, which is a great improvement, particularly if a developer later decides that there's a much better authentication components than Kerberos, because it can with no inconvenience breathe plugged into the gadget and the latest GSSAPI functions should soundless breathe capable of exhaust it devoid of being recompiled or patched in any approach.

knowing Kerberos v5

Kerberos is a community authentication protocol designed to supply efficacious authentication for customer/server functions through the exhaust of secret-key cryptography. at first developed on the Massachusetts Institute of know-how, it's included in the Solaris OE to supply robust authentication for Solaris OE network purposes.

in addition to presenting a secure authentication protocol, Kerberos additionally offers the potential to add privacy sheperd (encrypted data streams) for far flung applications reminiscent of telnet, ftp, rsh, rlogin, and different typical UNIX community applications. within the Solaris OE, Kerberos can even breathe used to provide potent authentication and privacy assist for community File methods (NFS), allowing comfy and personal file sharing across the network.

because of its frequent acceptance and implementation in different operating programs, together with windows 2000, HP-UX, and Linux, the Kerberos authentication protocol can interoperate in a heterogeneous ambiance, allowing clients on machines running one OS to safely authenticate themselves on hosts of a different OS.

The Kerberos utility is purchasable for Solaris OE versions 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 in a sunder kit called the solar traffic Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) application. For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, sun traffic Authentication Mechanism utility is blanketed as a portion of the Solaris convenient access Server 3.0 (Solaris SEAS) kit. For Solaris eight OE, the sun traffic Authentication Mechanism application kit is attainable with the Solaris eight OE Admin Pack.

For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, the sun commercial enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is freely available as a portion of the Solaris handy access Server 3.0 package accessible for down load from:

http://www.solar.com/software/solaris/7/ds/ds-seas.

For Solaris 8 OE techniques, sun enterprise Authentication Mechanism utility is purchasable in the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack, accessible for download from:

http://www.solar.com/bigadmin/content material/adminPack/index.html.

For Solaris 9 OE systems, sun enterprise Authentication Mechanism application is already installed with the aid of default and consists of the following packages listed in table 3-1.

desk three-1. Solaris 9 OE Kerberos v5 applications

equipment identify

Description

SUNWkdcr

Kerberos v5 KDC (root)

SUNWkdcu

Kerberos v5 grasp KDC (user)

SUNWkrbr

Kerberos version 5 champion (Root)

SUNWkrbu

Kerberos version 5 sheperd (Usr)

SUNWkrbux

Kerberos version 5 champion (Usr) (64-bit)

All of those sun commercial enterprise Authentication Mechanism software distributions are in line with the MIT KRB5 unencumber version 1.0. The client classes in these distributions are confiscate with later MIT releases (1.1, 1.2) and with different implementations which are compliant with the general.

How Kerberos Works

here is an profile of the Kerberos v5 authentication gadget. From the consumer’s standpoint, Kerberos v5 is in the main invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Initializing a Kerberos session often includes no greater than logging in and featuring a Kerberos password.

The Kerberos gadget revolves across the thought of a ticket. A ticket is a set of digital information that serves as identification for a user or a service such because the NFS carrier. just as your driver’s license identifies you and shows what using permissions you enjoy got, so a ticket identifies you and your network entry privileges. in the event you duty a Kerberos-primarily based transaction (for example, in case you exhaust rlogin to log in to an additional computer), your gadget transparently sends a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution middle, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your id and returns a ticket that provides you license to entry the different computing device. Transparently means that you carryout not deserve to explicitly request a ticket.

Tickets enjoy positive attributes associated with them. for instance, a ticket can also breathe forwardable (which faculty that it can breathe used on an extra computing device without a unique authentication process), or postdated (no longer legitimate unless a targeted time). How tickets are used (as an example, which users are allowed to obtain which types of tickets) is decided by policies that are determined when Kerberos is achieve in or administered.

you will commonly espy the phrases credential and ticket. within the Kerberos world, they are sometimes used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session.

preliminary Authentication

Kerberos authentication has two phases, an preliminary authentication that enables for entire subsequent authentications, and the subsequent authentications themselves.

a client (a consumer, or a provider corresponding to NFS) starts a Kerberos session with the aid of requesting a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) from the necessary thing Distribution focus (KDC). This request is often finished immediately at login.

A ticket-granting ticket is required to attain different tickets for particular features. believe of the ticket-granting ticket as some thing comparable to a passport. relish a passport, the ticket-granting ticket identifies you and permits you to obtain a lot of “visas,” the space the “visas” (tickets) aren't for international nations, but for faraway machines or network capabilities. relish passports and visas, the ticket-granting ticket and the different a number of tickets enjoy limited lifetimes. The change is that Kerberized instructions notice that you've a passport and procure the visas for you. You don’t exigency to fulfill the transactions yourself.

The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket and sends it lower back, in encrypted kind, to the client. The client decrypts the ticket-granting ticket the exhaust of the customer’s password.

Now in possession of a sound ticket-granting ticket, the customer can request tickets for entire styles of network operations for as long as the ticket-granting ticket lasts. This ticket constantly lasts for just a few hours. each and every time the customer performs a unique community operation, it requests a ticket for that operation from the KDC.

Subsequent Authentications

The customer requests a ticket for a specific service from the KDC with the aid of sending the KDC its ticket-granting ticket as proof of identity.

  • The KDC sends the ticket for the specific service to the client.

    for instance, believe consumer lucy desires to access an NFS file outfit that has been shared with krb5 authentication required. in view that she is already authenticated (it is, she already has a ticket-granting ticket), as she makes an attempt to entry the data, the NFS client system immediately and transparently obtains a ticket from the KDC for the NFS service.

  • The customer sends the ticket to the server.

    When the usage of the NFS service, the NFS customer instantly and transparently sends the ticket for the NFS provider to the NFS server.

  • The server allows for the customer access.

    These steps design it look that the server doesn’t ever communicate with the KDC. The server does, although, as it registers itself with the KDC, simply because the first client does.

  • Principals

    a shopper is recognized via its foremost. A principal is a unique identity to which the KDC can apportion tickets. A major can breathe a user, comparable to joe, or a service, comparable to NFS.

    with the aid of convention, a necessary denomination is divided into three components: the simple, the instance, and the realm. a touchstone primary could be, as an example, lucy/admin@instance.COM, the place:

    lucy is the primary. The primary may also breathe a person identify, as shown right here, or a carrier, reminiscent of NFS. The basic can even breathe the notice host, which signifies that this necessary is a provider most necessary it really is installation to supply a variety of community features.

    admin is the instance. An illustration is optional in the case of person principals, however it is required for carrier principals. for instance, if the consumer lucy once in a while acts as a gadget administrator, she will exhaust lucy/admin to differentiate herself from her typical user id. Likewise, if Lucy has accounts on two distinct hosts, she will breathe able to exhaust two necessary names with diverse instances (as an example, lucy/california.illustration.com and lucy/boston.instance.com).

    realms

    A realm is a logical network, akin to a site, which defines a gaggle of programs under the identical grasp KDC. Some geographical regions are hierarchical (one realm being a superset of the other realm). in any other case, the geographical regions are non-hierarchical (or direct) and the mapping between both nation-states exigency to breathe defined.

    nation-states and KDC Servers

    each realm should consist of a server that maintains the grasp reproduction of the essential database. This server is called the grasp KDC server. additionally, each realm should involve at the least one slave KDC server, which carries duplicate copies of the fundamental database. both the master KDC server and the slave KDC server create tickets which are used to establish authentication.

    figuring out the Kerberos KDC

    The Kerberos Key Distribution focus (KDC) is a trusted server that concerns Kerberos tickets to shoppers and servers to communicate securely. A Kerberos ticket is a obstruct of statistics that is introduced as the person’s credentials when trying to access a Kerberized carrier. A ticket carries counsel about the user’s identity and a brief encryption key, entire encrypted in the server’s private key. in the Kerberos environment, any entity this is described to enjoy a Kerberos identification is called a primary.

    A necessary could breathe an entry for a particular user, host, or provider (comparable to NFS or FTP) it truly is to enjoy interaction with the KDC. Most generally, the KDC server system additionally runs the Kerberos Administration Daemon, which handles administrative instructions equivalent to adding, deleting, and editing principals in the Kerberos database. usually, the KDC, the admin server, and the database are entire on the equal laptop, however they can also breathe separated if necessary. Some environments may additionally require that assorted geographical regions breathe configured with master KDCs and slave KDCs for every realm. The principals applied for securing each realm and KDC should soundless breathe applied to entire nation-states and KDCs in the community to breathe positive that there isn’t a single vulnerable hyperlink within the chain.

    probably the most first steps to recall when initializing your Kerberos database is to create it using the kdb5_util command, which is organize in /usr/sbin. When running this command, the consumer has the preference of no matter if to create a stash file or not. The stash file is a local replica of the master key that resides on the KDC’s indigenous disk. The grasp key contained in the stash file is generated from the master password that the person enters when first creating the KDC database. The stash file is used to authenticate the KDC to itself automatically earlier than starting the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons (for example, as portion of the machine’s boot sequence).

    If a stash file is not used when the database is created, the administrator who starts up the krb5kdc procedure will must manually enter the master key (password) every time they birth the manner. This may additionally explore relish a customary trade off between comfort and safety, but if the leisure of the system is sufficiently hardened and guarded, puny or no security is misplaced by having the master key kept in the included stash file. it's suggested that as a minimum one slave KDC server breathe achieve in for each realm to design positive that a backup is attainable in the suffer that the master server turns into unavailable, and that slave KDC breathe configured with the selfsame flush of security as the master.

    currently, the sun Kerberos v5 Mechanism utility, kdb5_util, can create three sorts of keys, DES-CBC-CRC, DES-CBC-MD5, and DES-CBC-raw. DES-CBC stands for DES encryption with Cipher obstruct Chaining and the CRC, MD5, and uncooked designators quest advice from the checksum algorithm this is used. by course of default, the key created could breathe DES-CBC-CRC, which is the default encryption class for the KDC. The ilk of key created is specified on the command line with the -k alternative (see the kdb5_util (1M) man page). pick the password for your stash file very cautiously, as a result of this password will also breathe used in the future to decrypt the master key and regulate the database. The password may well breathe up to 1024 characters long and might involve any aggregate of letters, numbers, punctuation, and spaces.

    the following is an sample of making a stash file:

    kdc1 #/usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r instance.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/important' for realm 'illustration.COM' master key identify 'k/M@instance.COM' You may breathe caused for the database grasp Password. it's necessary that you simply not forget this password. Enter KDC database master key: master_key Re-enter KDC database grasp key to check: master_key

    word the exhaust of the -s dispute to create the stash file. The location of the stash file is within the /var/krb5. The stash file appears with here mode and possession settings:

    kdc1 # cd /var/krb5 kdc1 # ls -l -rw------- 1 root other 14 Apr 10 14:28 .k5.illustration.COM

    The directory used to sustain the stash file and the database should soundless not breathe shared or exported.

    secure Settings within the KDC Configuration File

    The KDC and Administration daemons both read configuration counsel from /and so on/krb5/kdc.conf. This file incorporates KDC-certain parameters that govern typical behavior for the KDC and for specific realms. The parameters within the kdc.conf file are defined in detail within the kdc.conf(four) man page.

    The kdc.conf parameters picture places of quite a few information and ports to design exhaust of for gaining access to the KDC and the administration daemon. These parameters often don't should breathe changed, and doing so doesn't influence in any brought protection. however, there are some parameters that may breathe adjusted to enhance the ordinary security of the KDC. the following are some examples of adjustable parameters that increase protection.

  • kdc_ports – Defines the ports that the KDC will pay attention on to obtain requests. The regular port for Kerberos v5 is 88. 750 is blanketed and accepted to assist older purchasers that nevertheless exhaust the default port particular for Kerberos v4. Solaris OE nevertheless listens on port 750 for backwards compatibility. this is no longer regarded a security chance.

  • max_life – Defines the highest lifetime of a ticket, and defaults to eight hours. In environments where it is desirable to enjoy clients re-authenticate often and to reduce the opening of having a most important’s credentials stolen, this value should soundless breathe lowered. The suggested cost is eight hours.

  • max_renewable_life – Defines the duration of time from when a ticket is issued that it may well breathe renewed (the usage of kinit -R). The regular price here is 7 days. To disable renewable tickets, this price could breathe set to 0 days, 0 hrs, 0 min. The advised value is 7d 0h 0m 0s.

  • default_principal_expiration – A Kerberos most necessary is any entertaining identification to which Kerberos can apportion a ticket. in the case of clients, it is a similar because the UNIX device user name. The default lifetime of any foremost within the realm could breathe defined within the kdc.conf file with this alternative. This should soundless breathe used only if the realm will hold brief principals, in any other case the administrator will must perpetually breathe renewing principals. usually, this setting is left undefined and principals carryout not expire. here is now not insecure provided that the administrator is vigilant about getting rid of principals for clients that not want entry to the methods.

  • supported_enctypes – The encryption types supported via the KDC may well breathe described with this choice. at this time, sun traffic Authentication Mechanism utility only supports des-cbc-crc:standard encryption category, but sooner or later this could breathe used to design positive that simplest powerful cryptographic ciphers are used.

  • dict_file – The vicinity of a dictionary file containing strings that don't look to breathe allowed as passwords. A major with any password policy (see beneath) aren't able to exhaust words present in this dictionary file. here's now not described by default. the exhaust of a dictionary file is a mighty course to sustain away from users from growing paltry passwords to give protection to their accounts, and thus helps steer limpid of probably the most accustomed weaknesses in a computer network-guessable passwords. The KDC will simplest verify passwords in opposition t the dictionary for principals which enjoy a password policy affiliation, so it's first rate supervene to enjoy at least one essential policy associated with entire principals within the realm.

  • The Solaris OE has a default device dictionary it really is used via the spell program that may also breathe used through the KDC as a dictionary of typical passwords. The locality of this file is: /usr/share/lib/dict/words. different dictionaries can breathe substituted. The structure is one notice or phrase per line.

    here is a Kerberos v5 /and so forth/krb5/kdc.conf instance with counseled settings:

    # Copyright 1998-2002 solar Microsystems, Inc. entire rights reserved. # exhaust is locality to license terms. # #ident "@(#)kdc.conf 1.2 02/02/14 SMI" [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] ___default_realm___ = profile = /and many others/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/foremost admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /and so on/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s default_principal_flags = +preauth needs relocating -- dict_file = /usr/share/lib/dict/words entry handle

    The Kerberos administration server makes it practicable for for granular maneuver of the administrative commands by course of exhaust of an access control record (ACL) file (/and so forth/krb5/kadm5.acl). The syntax for the ACL file enables for wildcarding of fundamental names so it isn't crucial to record every single administrator within the ACL file. This feature should soundless breathe used with astonishing care. The ACLs used by course of Kerberos allow privileges to breathe broken down into very exact functions that each administrator can perform. If a positive administrator handiest needs to breathe allowed to enjoy study-entry to the database then that grownup should soundless not breathe granted replete admin privileges. beneath is a list of the privileges allowed:

  • a – allows the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • A – Prohibits the addition of principals or guidelines in the database.

  • d – allows the deletion of principals or policies within the database.

  • D – Prohibits the deletion of principals or guidelines in the database.

  • m – allows the amendment of principals or policies within the database.

  • M – Prohibits the change of principals or guidelines within the database.

  • c – allows the altering of passwords for principals within the database.

  • C – Prohibits the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • i – makes it practicable for inquiries to the database.

  • I – Prohibits inquiries to the database.

  • l – allows for the checklist of principals or policies within the database.

  • L – Prohibits the list of principals or guidelines within the database.

  • * – short for entire privileges (admcil).

  • x – short for entire privileges (admcil). just relish *.

  • adding administrators

    After the ACLs are install, exact administrator principals may soundless breathe brought to the device. it's strongly counseled that administrative users enjoy sunder /admin principals to exhaust handiest when administering the gadget. for example, person Lucy would enjoy two principals in the database - lucy@REALM and lucy/admin@REALM. The /admin necessary would best breathe used when administering the equipment, now not for getting ticket-granting-tickets (TGTs) to entry far off functions. using the /admin predominant only for administrative applications minimizes the probability of someone running up to Joe’s unattended terminal and performing unauthorized administrative instructions on the KDC.

    Kerberos principals could breathe differentiated with the aid of the instance portion of their main identify. in the case of consumer principals, the most touchstone sample identifier is /admin. it is generic rehearse in Kerberos to differentiate user principals with the aid of defining some to breathe /admin circumstances and others to enjoy no selected instance identifier (for example, lucy/admin@REALM versus lucy@REALM). Principals with the /admin illustration identifier are assumed to enjoy administrative privileges described in the ACL file and may handiest breathe used for administrative purposes. A necessary with an /admin identifier which does not hale up with any entries within the ACL file are not granted any administrative privileges, it might breathe treated as a non-privileged user predominant. additionally, user principals with the /admin identifier are given sunder passwords and sunder permissions from the non-admin foremost for the selfsame user.

    here is a sample /and many others/krb5/kadm5.acl file:

    # Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by course of solar Microsystems, Inc. # entire rights reserved. # #pragma ident "@(#)kadm5.acl 1.1 01/03/19 SMI" # lucy/admin is given replete administrative privilege lucy/admin@instance.COM * # # tom/admin consumer is allowed to question the database (d), directoryprincipals # (l), and changing user passwords (c) # tom/admin@example.COM dlc

    it is tremendously suggested that the kadm5.acl file breathe tightly controlled and that users breathe granted best the privileges they exigency to duty their assigned tasks.

    creating Host Keys

    developing host keys for systems within the realm comparable to slave KDCs is carried out the identical approach that growing person principals is performed. besides the fact that children, the -randkey option should soundless always breathe used, so no one ever is aware of the genuine key for the hosts. Host principals are nearly always stored within the keytab file, to breathe used by using root-owned methods that wish to act as Kerberos functions for the indigenous host. it is hardly ever necessary for any individual to in fact comprehend the password for a host major because the key's stored safely within the keytab and is just attainable by root-owned procedures, never by course of precise users.

    When growing keytab files, the keys should entire the time breathe extracted from the KDC on the identical machine where the keytab is to dwell the exhaust of the ktadd command from a kadmin session. If here's not feasible, recall splendid keeping in transferring the keytab file from one computing device to the next. A malicious attacker who possesses the contents of the keytab file may exhaust these keys from the file with the intention to profit access to an extra user or features credentials. Having the keys would then allow the attacker to impersonate whatever necessary that the necessary thing represented and further compromise the protection of that Kerberos realm. Some guidance for transferring the keytab are to exhaust Kerberized, encrypted ftp transfers, or to exhaust the relaxed file transfer classes scp or sftp provided with the SSH outfit (http://www.openssh.org). another protected components is to space the keytab on a detachable disk, and hand-bring it to the destination.

    Hand birth does not scale well for gigantic installations, so the usage of the Kerberized ftp daemon is possibly essentially the most light and secure system purchasable.

    the exhaust of NTP to Synchronize Clocks

    All servers participating in the Kerberos realm should enjoy their system clocks synchronized to within a configurable closing date (default 300 seconds). The most secure, most restful approach to systematically synchronize the clocks on a network of Kerberos servers is by using the network Time Protocol (NTP) service. The Solaris OE comes with an NTP customer and NTP server software (SUNWntpu equipment). espy the ntpdate(1M) and xntpd(1M) man pages for more information on the particular person instructions. For greater counsel on configuring NTP, argue with here sun BluePrints online NTP articles:

    it is faultfinding that the time breathe synchronized in a at ease method. a simple denial of service assault on both a shopper or a server would hold just skewing the time on that outfit to breathe outdoor of the configured clock skew value, which would then sustain away from any individual from acquiring TGTs from that system or accessing Kerberized capabilities on that equipment. The default clock-skew value of 5 minutes is the highest informed value.

    The NTP infrastructure ought to even breathe secured, together with using server hardening for the NTP server and application of NTP security elements. the usage of the Solaris safety Toolkit software (previously referred to as JASS) with the at ease.driver script to create a minimal outfit after which installation simply the crucial NTP utility is one such components. The Solaris protection Toolkit application is accessible at:

    http://www.solar.com/protection/jass/

    Documentation on the Solaris safety Toolkit utility is available at:

    http://www.solar.com/safety/blueprints

    organising Password policies

    Kerberos allows for the administrator to define password policies that can breathe applied to a couple or the entire user principals in the realm. A password policy incorporates definitions for right here parameters:

  • minimal Password size – The number of characters in the password, for which the suggested cost is 8.

  • highest Password courses – The variety of different character classes that ought to breathe used to design up the password. Letters, numbers, and punctuation are the three classes and legitimate values are 1, 2, and 3. The counseled cost is 2.

  • Saved Password background – The variety of archaic passwords which enjoy been used through the primary that can't breathe reused. The counseled value is three.

  • minimal Password Lifetime (seconds) – The minimum time that the password should breathe used earlier than it may also breathe changed. The counseled cost is 3600 (1 hour).

  • optimum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The highest time that the password can also breathe used earlier than it enjoy to breathe modified. The counseled cost is 7776000 (ninety days).

  • These values can also breathe set as a bunch and kept as a single policy. distinct guidelines will also breathe defined for distinct principals. it is suggested that the minimal password size breathe set to at the least 8 and that at the least 2 courses breathe required. Most people are inclined to opt for easy-to-be aware and simple-to-classification passwords, so it is a top-notch persuasion to at the least deploy policies to motivate just a puny extra difficult-to-bet passwords through the exhaust of these parameters. surroundings the maximum Password Lifetime price can breathe beneficial in some environments, to coerce people to alternate their passwords periodically. The duration is as much as the indigenous administrator in keeping with the overriding company security policy used at that particular site. environment the Saved Password historical past cost combined with the minimum Password Lifetime value prevents people from easily switching their password a couple of times unless they acquire lower back to their fashioned or favorite password.

    The optimum password length supported is 255 characters, unlike the UNIX password database which most efficacious supports up to 8 characters. Passwords are stored in the KDC encrypted database using the KDC default encryption components, DES-CBC-CRC. with the intention to evade password guessing assaults, it is counseled that clients opt for long passwords or poke phrases. The 255 personality limit allows for one to select a miniature sentence or light to breathe aware phrase as an alternative of an light one-be aware password.

    it's practicable to design exhaust of a dictionary file that can breathe used to steer limpid of clients from determining general, effortless-to-bet phrases (see “secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File” on page 70). The dictionary file is simply used when a major has a policy affiliation, so it is tremendously advised that at the least one coverage breathe in repercussion for entire principals in the realm.

    here is an sample password coverage advent:

    if you specify a kadmin command without specifying any options, kadmin shows the syntax (usage tips) for that command. the following code box indicates this, followed through an exact add_policy command with options.

    kadmin: add_policy usage: add_policy [options] coverage alternatives are: [-maxlife time] [-minlife time] [-minlength length] [-minclasses number] [-history number] kadmin: add_policy -minlife "1 hour" -maxlife "90 days" -minlength eight -minclasses 2 -heritage three passpolicy kadmin: get_policy passpolicy coverage: passpolicy maximum password existence: 7776000 minimal password existence: 3600 minimal password length: 8 minimum variety of password personality classes: 2 number of archaic keys stored: three Reference count: 0

    This illustration creates a password policy known as passpolicy which enforces a highest password lifetime of ninety days, minimal size of 8 characters, not less than 2 diverse personality courses (letters, numbers, punctuation), and a password legacy of 3.

    To rehearse this coverage to an current person, modify the following:

    kadmin: modprinc -policy passpolicy lucyPrincipal "lucy@illustration.COM" modified.

    To modify the default policy it really is utilized to entire consumer principals in a realm, alternate the following:

    kadmin: modify_policy -maxlife "90 days" -minlife "1 hour" -minlength eight -minclasses 2 -historical past 3 default kadmin: get_policy default policy: default maximum password existence: 7776000 minimum password life: 3600 minimal password length: eight minimal variety of password personality courses: 2 variety of archaic keys saved: three Reference signify number: 1

    The Reference signify number value shows how many principals are configured to design exhaust of the policy.

    The default policy is immediately applied to entire unique principals that are not given the identical password because the essential denomination when they're created. Any account with a coverage assigned to it's uses the dictionary (defined in the dict_file parameter in /and so forth/krb5/kdc.conf) to determine for typical passwords.

    Backing Up a KDC

    Backups of a KDC outfit may soundless breathe made constantly or in keeping with indigenous policy. besides the fact that children, backups should soundless exclude the /and so forth/krb5/krb5.keytab file. If the local coverage requires that backups breathe performed over a community, then these backups should soundless breathe secured either through the exhaust of encryption or probably through the exhaust of a sunder community interface that is simply used for backup applications and isn't exposed to the identical traffic because the non-backup community traffic. Backup storage media should at entire times breathe kept in a comfortable, fireproof region.

    Monitoring the KDC

    as soon as the KDC is configured and operating, it can breathe at entire times and vigilantly monitored. The solar Kerberos v5 utility KDC logs guidance into the /var/krb5/kdc.log file, however this locality can also breathe modified in the /and so on/krb5/krb5.conf file, in the logging area.

    [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log

    The KDC log file should enjoy read and write permissions for the basis user most effective, as follows:

    -rw------ 1 root different 750 25 might also 10 17:fifty five /var/krb5/kdc.log Kerberos alternate options

    The /and so forth/krb5/krb5.conf file carries counsel that every one Kerberos purposes exhaust to assess what server to quest advice from and what realm they're taking portion in. Configuring the krb5.conf file is coated within the sun enterprise Authentication Mechanism application installation book. also check with the krb5.conf(four) man page for a replete description of this file.

    The appdefaults portion in the krb5.conf file consists of parameters that maneuver the behavior of many Kerberos customer tools. every implement may additionally enjoy its personal portion within the appdefaults portion of the krb5.conf file.

    many of the purposes that exhaust the appdefaults section, exhaust the identical alternate options; youngsters, they may breathe set in other ways for each and every customer utility.

    Kerberos client functions

    the following Kerberos purposes can enjoy their behavior modified throughout the consumer of alternatives set in the appdefaults portion of the /and so on/krb5/krb5.conf file or through the exhaust of numerous command-line arguments. These purchasers and their configuration settings are described under.

    kinit

    The kinit customer is used with the aid of individuals who want to reap a TGT from the KDC. The /and so forth/krb5/krb5.conf file supports right here kinit alternatives: renewable, forwardable, no_addresses, max_life, max_renewable_life and proxiable.

    telnet

    The Kerberos telnet client has many command-line arguments that manage its behavior. quest advice from the man page for finished counsel. despite the fact, there are a couple of wonderful protection concerns involving the Kerberized telnet client.

    The telnet customer makes exhaust of a session key even after the provider ticket which it changed into derived from has expired. This means that the telnet session remains lively even after the ticket initially used to profit access, isn't any longer legitimate. this is insecure in a strict environment, despite the fact, the change off between ease of exhaust and strict security tends to rawboned in want of ease-of-use in this condition. it is counseled that the telnet connection breathe re-initialized periodically by disconnecting and reconnecting with a unique ticket. The overall lifetime of a ticket is described by using the KDC (/etc/krb5/kdc.conf), invariably defined as eight hours.

    The telnet customer allows the consumer to forward a replica of the credentials (TGT) used to authenticate to the remote system the exhaust of the -f and -F command-line options. The -f alternative sends a non-forwardable reproduction of the indigenous TGT to the remote system in order that the user can access Kerberized NFS mounts or other indigenous Kerberized capabilities on that gadget best. The -F option sends a forwardable TGT to the far off device so that the TGT will also breathe used from the far flung system to gain further access to other far flung Kerberos functions past that aspect. The -F option is a superset of -f. If the Forwardable and or forward alternatives are set to False in the krb5.conf file, these command-line arguments will also breathe used to override those settings, for this understanding giving individuals the control over no matter if and how their credentials are forwarded.

    The -x alternative should breathe used to switch on encryption for the statistics move. This further protects the session from eavesdroppers. If the telnet server does not aid encryption, the session is closed. The /and many others/krb5/krb5.conf file helps right here telnet alternate options: forward, forwardable, encrypt, and autologin. The autologin [true/false] parameter tells the customer to try and try to log in with out prompting the person for a person name. The indigenous user denomination is handed on to the far off gadget in the telnet negotiations.

    rlogin and rsh

    The Kerberos rlogin and rsh consumers behave tons the selfsame as their non-Kerberized equivalents. as a result of this, it's counseled that in the event that they are required to breathe included within the community data reminiscent of /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts that the basis clients directory breathe eliminated. The Kerberized types enjoy the additional advantage of the usage of Kerberos protocol for authentication and may also exhaust Kerberos to give protection to the privacy of the session using encryption.

    similar to telnet described prior to now, the rlogin and rsh clients exhaust a session key after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. for that reason, for max protection, rlogin and rsh classes may soundless breathe re-initialized periodically. rlogin uses the -f, -F, and -x alternatives in the selfsame vogue because the telnet client. The /and so forth/krb5/krb5.conf file helps the following rlogin alternatives: ahead, forwardable, and encrypt.

    Command-line alternate options override configuration file settings. for example, if the rsh section within the krb5.conf file shows encrypt false, however the -x preference is used on the command line, an encrypted session is used.

    rcp

    Kerberized rcp will also breathe used to transfer info securely between methods using Kerberos authentication and encryption (with the -x command-line option). It doesn't instant for passwords, the consumer enjoy to enjoy already got a cogent TGT before the exhaust of rcp in the event that they wish to exhaust the encryption feature. despite the fact, pay attention if the -x option is not used and no indigenous credentials are available, the rcp session will revert to the general, non-Kerberized (and insecure) rcp behavior. it's enormously advised that clients always exhaust the -x alternative when the exhaust of the Kerberized rcp customer.The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the encrypt [true/false] alternative.

    login

    The Kerberos login program (login.krb5) is forked from a successful authentication by using the Kerberized telnet daemon or the Kerberized rlogin daemon. This Kerberos login daemon is fracture away the touchstone Solaris OE login daemon and consequently, the common Solaris OE aspects similar to BSM auditing don't look to breathe yet supported when using this daemon. The /and many others/krb5/krb5.conf file helps the krb5_get_tickets [true/false] option. If this option is decided to genuine, then the login application will generate a unique Kerberos ticket (TGT) for the consumer upon proper authentication.

    ftp

    The sun enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) version of the ftp customer uses the GSSAPI (RFC 2743) with Kerberos v5 because the default mechanism. This faculty that it uses Kerberos authentication and (optionally) encryption during the Kerberos v5 GSS mechanism. The simplest Kerberos-related command-line alternatives are -f and -m. The -f alternative is an identical as described above for telnet (there is not any want for a -F alternative). -m allows the person to specify an preference GSS mechanism if so desired, the default is to exhaust the kerberos_v5 mechanism.

    The coverage flush used for the statistics switch can breathe set the usage of the protect command at the ftp on the spot. solar traffic Authentication Mechanism software ftp supports here insurance policy stages:

  • Clear unprotected, unencrypted transmission

  • safe records is integrity blanketed using cryptographic checksums

  • private facts is transmitted with confidentiality and integrity using encryption

  • it is counseled that clients set the protection degree to private for entire statistics transfers. The ftp client program doesn't aid or reference the krb5.conf file to locate any not obligatory parameters. entire ftp client options are passed on the command line. espy the person page for the Kerberized ftp client, ftp(1).

    In abstract, including Kerberos to a network can increase the overall safety purchasable to the clients and directors of that network. faraway periods can also breathe securely authenticated and encrypted, and shared disks will also breathe secured and encrypted across the community. additionally, Kerberos allows the database of user and repair principals to breathe managed securely from any desktop which supports the SEAM utility Kerberos protocol. SEAM is interoperable with different RFC 1510 compliant Kerberos implementations such as MIT Krb5 and a few MS windows 2000 energetic directory functions. Adopting the practices advised during this portion further comfy the SEAM software infrastructure to champion design positive a safer community ambiance.

    implementing the solar ONE listing Server 5.2 application and the GSSAPI Mechanism

    This portion gives a high-level overview, followed via the in-depth techniques that picture the setup fundamental to achieve in coerce the GSSAPI mechanism and the sun ONE directory Server 5.2 software. This implementation assumes a realm of instance.COM for this aim. here list offers an preliminary excessive-level overview of the steps required, with the next locality featuring the particular counsel.

  • Setup DNS on the client desktop. here's an necessary step because Kerberos requires DNS.

  • installation and configure the solar ONE directory Server edition 5.2 software.

  • assess that the directory server and client both enjoy the SASL plug-ins installed.

  • installation and configure Kerberos v5.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file.

  • Edit the /and so forth/krb5/kdc.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file.

  • movement the kerberos_v5 line so it is the first line in the /and many others/gss/mech file.

  • Create unique principals using kadmin.native, which is an interactive commandline interface to the Kerberos v5 administration device.

  • alter the rights for /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab. This entry is integral for the sun ONE directory Server 5.2 utility.

  • Run /usr/sbin/kinit.

  • determine that you enjoy a ticket with /usr/bin/klist.

  • function an ldapsearch, using the ldapsearch command-line device from the solar ONE listing Server 5.2 application to check and assess.

  • The sections that comply with fill in the details.

    Configuring a DNS client

    To breathe a DNS customer, a machine enjoy to Run the resolver. The resolver is neither a daemon nor a single software. it is a collection of dynamic library routines used through applications that should understand laptop names. The resolver’s feature is to resolve users’ queries. To try this, it queries a denomination server, which then returns either the requested suggestions or a referral to another server. as soon as the resolver is configured, a computer can request DNS provider from a reputation server.

    right here sample indicates you the course to configure the resolv.conf(four) file in the server kdc1 in the illustration.com area.

    ; ; /and so on/resolv.conf file for dnsmaster ; locality illustration.com nameserver 192.168.0.0 nameserver 192.168.0.1

    the first line of the /and many others/resolv.conf file lists the domain denomination in the form:

    area domainname

    No spaces or tabs are approved at the respite of the locality identify. breathe positive that you just press recur immediately after the closing persona of the domain name.

    The second line identifies the server itself within the kind:

    nameserver IP_address

    Succeeding traces listing the IP addresses of one or two slave or cache-handiest identify servers that the resolver should soundless check with to acquire to the bottom of queries. identify server entries enjoy the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    IP_address is the IP tackle of a slave or cache-best DNS identify server. The resolver queries these identify servers within the order they're listed until it obtains the guidance it needs.

    For more exact suggestions of what the resolv.conf file does, quest advice from the resolv.conf(4) man page.

    To Configure Kerberos v5 (grasp KDC)

    in the this procedure, the following configuration parameters are used:

  • Realm denomination = example.COM

  • DNS domain identify = illustration.com

  • master KDC = kdc1.illustration.com

  • admin principal = lucy/admin

  • on-line profit URL = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

  • This process requires that DNS is operating.

    earlier than you start this configuration process, design a backup of the /etc/krb5 data.

  • turn into superuser on the grasp KDC. (kdc1, during this instance)

  • Edit the Kerberos configuration file (krb5.conf).

    You exigency to exchange the realm names and the names of the servers. espy the krb5.conf(4) man web page for a replete description of this file.

    kdc1 # extra /and many others/krb5/krb5.conf [libdefaults] default_realm = instance.COM [realms] instance.COM = kdc = kdc1.example.com admin server = kdc1.example.com [domain_realm] .instance.com = example.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log [appdefaults] gkadmin = help_url = http://instance:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

    in this illustration, the strains for domain_realm, kdc, admin_server, and entire domain_realm entries were modified. in addition, the line with ___slave_kdcs___ within the [realms] locality became deleted and the road that defines the help_url become edited.

  • Edit the KDC configuration file (kdc.conf).

    You exigency to change the realm identify. espy the kdc.conf( four) man web page for a replete description of this file.

    kdc1 # extra /and many others/krb5/kdc.conf [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] example.COM= profile = /and so forth/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/primary admin_keytab = /and many others/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /and so on/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s exigency poignant ---------> default_principal_flags = +preauth

    in this illustration, most efficacious the realm identify definition within the [realms] section is changed.

  • Create the KDC database through the exhaust of the kdb5_util command.

    The kdb5_util command, which is observed in /usr/sbin, creates the KDC database. When used with the -s alternative, this command creates a stash file that is used to authenticate the KDC to itself earlier than the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons are entire started.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r illustration.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/foremost' for realm 'illustration.COM' master key identify 'k/M@instance.COM' You might breathe precipitated for the database master Password. it is vital that you not overlook this password. Enter KDC database master key: key Re-enter KDC database master key to investigate: key

    The -r preference adopted with the aid of the realm denomination is not required if the realm denomination is akin to the locality identify in the server’s identify space.

  • Edit the Kerberos access maneuver record file (kadm5.acl).

    as soon as populated, the /and many others/krb5/kadm5.acl file incorporates entire most necessary names which are allowed to administer the KDC. the first entry it really is added could look corresponding to here:

    lucy/admin@instance.COM *

    This entry offers the lucy/admin most necessary in the instance.COM realm the skill to regulate principals or policies within the KDC. The default installing contains an asterisk (*) to suit entire admin principals. This default could breathe a safety possibility, so it is more at ease to consist of a list of the entire admin principals. espy the kadm5.acl(4) man web page for greater tips.

  • Edit the /and so forth/gss/mech file.

    The /and so forth/gss/mech file includes the GSSAPI primarily based safety mechanism names, its demur identifier (OID), and a shared library that implements the functions for that mechanism below the GSSAPI. change the following from:

    # Mechanism identify demur Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # diffie_hellman_640_0 1.three.6.four.1.42.2.26.2.four dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.three.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1 kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5

    To the following:

    # Mechanism denomination demur Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5 diffie_hellman_640_0 1.three.6.four.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.three.6.4.1.forty two.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1
  • Run the kadmin.local command to create principals.

    which you could add as many admin principals as you need. however you enjoy to add at the least one admin necessary to comprehensive the KDC configuration method. In right here illustration, lucy/admin is added as the predominant.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin.native kadmin.local: addprinc lucy/admin Enter password for principal "lucy/admin@example.COM": Re-enter password for predominant "lucy/admin@illustration.COM": fundamental "lucy/admin@example.COM" created. kadmin.native:
  • Create a keytab file for the kadmind carrier.

    here command sequence creates a special keytab file with essential entries for lucy and tom. These principals are obligatory for the kadmind service. furthermore, that you would breathe able to optionally add NFS carrier principals, host principals, LDAP principals, and the like.

    When the principal sample is a bunch identify, the wholly qualified locality denomination (FQDN) exigency to breathe entered in lowercase letters, even with the case of the locality denomination in the /and so forth/resolv.conf file.

    kadmin.native: ktadd -k /and so forth/krb5/kadm5.keytab kadmin/kdc1.illustration.com Entry for fundamental kadmin/kdc1.instance.com with kvno 3, encryption classification DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/and so forth/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.native: ktadd -k /and many others/krb5/kadm5.keytab changepw/kdc1.example.com Entry for necessary changepw/kdc1.instance.com with kvno three, encryption category DES-CBC-CRC brought to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.native:

    after you enjoy delivered entire of the required principals, which you can exit from kadmin.native as follows:

    kadmin.local: give up
  • delivery the Kerberos daemons as proven:

    kdc1 # /and so on/init.d/kdc delivery kdc1 # /and so on/init.d/kdc.master birth

    note

    You discontinue the Kerberos daemons by means of running the following instructions:

    kdc1 # /and so forth/init.d/kdc stop kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master stop
  • Add principals through the exhaust of the SEAM Administration tool.

    To try this, you should disappear online with some of the admin essential names that you simply created earlier during this procedure. however, here command-line illustration is shown for simplicity.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin -p lucy/admin Enter password: kws_admin_password kadmin:
  • Create the grasp KDC host primary which is used through Kerberized applications reminiscent of klist and kprop.

    kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/kdc1.instance.com foremost "host/kdc1.example.com@illustration.COM" created. kadmin:
  • (optional) Create the master KDC root primary which is used for authenticated NFS mounting.

    kadmin: addprinc root/kdc1.instance.com Enter password for most necessary root/kdc1.illustration.com@instance.COM: password Re-enter password for major root/kdc1.illustration.com@example.COM: password main "root/kdc1.instance.com@example.COM" created. kadmin:
  • Add the master KDC’s host predominant to the master KDC’s keytab file which enables this primary for exhaust immediately.

    kadmin: ktadd host/kdc1.illustration.com kadmin: Entry for principal host/kdc1.instance.com with ->kvno 3, encryption class DES-CBC-CRC introduced to keytab ->WRFILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab kadmin:

    after getting added the entire required principals, which you can exit from kadmin as follows:

    kadmin: stop
  • Run the kinit command to achieve and cache an initial ticket-granting ticket (credential) for the fundamental.

    This ticket is used for authentication through the Kerberos v5 equipment. kinit best needs to breathe Run by using the customer at the moment. If the solar ONE directory server had been a Kerberos customer additionally, this step would should breathe finished for the server. despite the fact, you might also want to exhaust this to check that Kerberos is up and running.

    kdclient # /usr/bin/kinit root/kdclient.illustration.com Password for root/kdclient.illustration.com@illustration.COM: passwd
  • verify and check that you've a ticket with the klist command.

    The klist command reviews if there is a keytab file and shows the principals. If the results reveal that there isn't any keytab file or that there is not any NFS provider major, you should determine the completion of entire of the previous steps.

    # klist -ok Keytab identify: FILE:/and so on/krb5/krb5.keytab KVNO principal ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 nfs/host.illustration.com@illustration.COM

    The instance given right here assumes a single domain. The KDC can also reside on the selfsame machine because the sun ONE listing server for trying out functions, however there are protection issues to enjoy in reason on the space the KDCs live.

  • concerning the configuration of Kerberos v5 together with the sun ONE directory Server 5.2 application, you're complete with the Kerberos v5 half. It’s now time to examine what is required to breathe configured on the sun ONE directory server facet.

    sun ONE listing Server 5.2 GSSAPI Configuration

    As prior to now discussed, the widespread safety services application program Interface (GSSAPI), is touchstone interface that makes it practicable for you to exhaust a safety mechanism such as Kerberos v5 to authenticate consumers. The server uses the GSSAPI to definitely validate the identity of a particular consumer. once this user is validated, it’s up to the SASL mechanism to supervene the GSSAPI mapping suggestions to achieve a DN that is the bind DN for entire operations entire over the connection.

    the primary merchandise discussed is the brand unique identification mapping performance.

    The identity mapping carrier is required to map the credentials of a different protocol, such as SASL DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI to a DN in the listing server. As you are going to espy in right here instance, the id mapping feature makes exhaust of the entries in the cn=identification mapping, cn=config configuration branch, whereby each and every protocol is defined and whereby every protocol must duty the id mapping. For extra suggestions on the identity mapping function, quest advice from the solar ONE directory Server 5.2 files.

    To duty the GSSAPI Configuration for the sun ONE directory Server software
  • assess and verify, by retrieving the rootDSE entry, that the GSSAPI is back as one of the supported SASL Mechanisms.

    instance of the usage of ldapsearch to retrieve the rootDSE and acquire the supported SASL mechanisms:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -b "" -s base "(objectclass=*)" supportedSASLMechanisms supportedSASLMechanisms=external supportedSASLMechanisms=GSSAPI supportedSASLMechanisms=DIGEST-MD5
  • check that the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    by course of default, the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    example of the usage of ldapsearch to assess that the GSSAPI SASL mechanism is enabled:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D"cn=listing manager" -w password -b "cn=SASL, cn=protection,cn= config" "(objectclass=*)" # # should return # cn=SASL, cn=safety, cn=config objectClass=properly objectClass=nsContainer objectClass=dsSaslConfig cn=SASL dsSaslPluginsPath=/var/solar/mps/lib/sasl dsSaslPluginsEnable=DIGEST-MD5 dsSaslPluginsEnable=GSSAPI
  • Create and add the GSSAPI identity-mapping.ldif.

    Add the LDIF shown below to the sun ONE listing Server so that it carries the proper suffix in your directory server.

    You deserve to try this because by course of default, no GSSAPI mappings are described in the sun ONE listing Server 5.2 software.

    instance of a GSSAPI identity mapping LDIF file:

    # dn: cn=GSSAPI,cn=id mapping,cn=config objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: bestcn: GSSAPI dn: cn=default,cn=GSSAPI,cn=id mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: idealcn: default dsMappedDN: uid=$foremost,ou=people,dc=illustration,dc=com dn: cn=same_realm,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identification mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: dsPatternMatching objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: topcn: same_realm dsMatching-pattern: $fundamental dsMatching-regexp: (.*)@example.com dsMappedDN: uid=$1,ou=people,dc=illustration,dc=com

    it is essential to design exhaust of the $fundamental variable, because it is the simplest enter you enjoy from SASL within the case of GSSAPI. either you deserve to build a dn using the $foremost variable otherwise you deserve to operate sample matching to peer if you can apply a specific mapping. A main corresponds to the identity of a person in Kerberos.

    you can locate an instance GSSAPI LDIF mappings files in ServerRoot/slapdserver/ldif/identityMapping_Examples.ldif.

    here is an sample the usage of ldapmodify to try this:

    $./ldapmodify -a -c -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D "cn=listing supervisor" -w password -f id-mapping.ldif -e /var/tmp/ldif.rejects 2> /var/tmp/ldapmodify.log
  • function a check using ldapsearch.

    To fulfill this verify, class here ldapsearch command as proven beneath, and reply the prompt with the kinit cost you prior to now defined.

    example of the exhaust of ldapsearch to examine the GSSAPI mechanism:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -o mech=GSSAPI -o authzid="root/hostname.domainname@instance.COM" -b "" -s base "(objectclass=*)"

    The output it is lower back may soundless breathe the identical as without the -o choice.

    in case you carryout not exhaust the -h hostname choice, the GSS code finally ends up attempting to find a localhost.domainname Kerberos ticket, and an oversight occurs.


  • HP reports 'incredibly critical' Tru64 flaws | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Edmund X. DeJesus, Contributor

    Hewlett-Packard Co. is warning Tru64 administrators of "enormously crucial" vulnerabilities that could lead on to indigenous or faraway unauthorized gadget access or denial of provider. HP has launched patches for each flaws.

    HP has declined to specify the character of the vulnerabilities, except to affirm that they are in HP's implementation of IPSec and SSH.

    The areas of the vulnerabilities are ironic, in that each IPSec and SSH are reputed to give safety aspects to operating techniques. IPSec is used to create encrypted, relaxed VPN tunnels for passing guidance between IP-primarily based techniques. SSH (relaxed Shell) presents comfy versions of network instructions including rsh, rlogin and rcp, and functions such as telnet and ftp. clients frequently design exhaust of SSH to log-in to and execute commands on far off computer systems securely, in addition to set up secure communications between two computers.

    Affected types of HP Tru64 UNIX involve V5.1B PK2 (BL22) and PK3 (BL24), and V5.1A running IPSec and SSH utility kits sooner than IPSec 2.1.1 and SSH three.2.2. The vulnerabilities aren't current in IPSec version 2.1.1 and SSH version three.2.2.

    HP Tru64 UNIX, which runs on the inherited AlphaServer line, is in the manner of being changed by means of HP-UX. Tru64 has exhibited vulnerability issues before, including privilege escalation, denial of service and selected considerations with SSH in August 2003.

    FOR greater counsel:

    down load IPSec patch

    download SSH patch


    Microsoft teams with CyberSafe to design W2K Kerberos Interoperable | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    information

    Microsoft teams with CyberSafe to design W2K Kerberos Interoperable
  • with the aid of Scott Bekker
  • 01/17/2000
  • Microsoft Corp. and CyberSafe Corp. ( www.cybersafe.com ) nowadays introduced they enjoy collaborated to lengthen windows 2000-Kerberos interoperability to traffic shoppers working combined-system environments.

    Kerberos v5 is an business-typical network authentication protocol, designed on the Massachusetts Institute of know-how to deliver "proof of identification" on the community. Kerberos v5 is a local duty of home windows 2000 and will breathe shipped as portion of the working outfit to give relaxed, interoperable community authentication services to IT gurus.

    in line with Microsoft, interoperability between windows 2000 and ActiveTRUST from CyberSafe provides commercial enterprise purchasers with secured communications and facts transfers, available only by Kerberos validation; seamless interoperability with CyberSafe-supported structures, together with Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, Tru64, OS/390, windows 9x and windows NT; and single signal-on entry to entire community substances.

    Keith White, director of windows advertising and marketing at Microsoft, says this announcement is a component of Microsoft’s application to interoperate with different software platforms, and to champion open necessities.

    Microsoft and CyberSafe enjoy compiled their examine effects in an in depth Kerberos implementation paper primarily for heterogeneous environments. "Kerberos Interoperability: Microsoft home windows 2000 and CyberSafe ActiveTRUST" is accessible at RSA convention 2000 in San Jose, Calif., and shortly might breathe attainable on the CyberSafe net web site. – Thomas Sullivan

    in regards to the creator

    Scott Bekker is editor in chief of Redmond Channel accomplice journal.


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    Breaking the Limits of Relational Databases: An Analysis of Cloud-Native Database Middleware: portion 1 | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The development and transformation of database technology are on the rise. NewSQL has emerged to combine various technologies, and the core functions implemented by the combination of these technologies has promoted the development of the cloud-native database.

    This article provides insight into cloud-native database technology among the three types of NewSQL. The unique architecture and Database-as-a-Service types involve many underlying implementations related to the database, and thus will not breathe elaborated here. This article focuses on the core functions and implementation principles of transparent sharding middleware. The core functions of the other two NewSQL types are similar to those of sharding middleware but enjoy different implementation principles.

    Sharding

    Regarding performance and availability, traditional solutions that store data on a single data node in a centralized manner can no longer felicitous to the massive data scenarios created by the Internet. Most relational database products exhaust B+ tree indexes. When the data volume exceeds the threshold, the increase in the index depth leads to an increased disk I/O count, the substantially degrading query performance. In addition, highly concurrent access requests also spin the centralized database into the biggest bottleneck of the system.

    Since traditional relational databases cannot meet the requirements of the Internet, increasing numbers of attempts enjoy been made to store data in NoSQL databases that natively champion data distribution. However, NoSQL is not compatible with SQL Server, and its ecosystem has yet to breathe improved. Therefore, NoSQL cannot supplant relational databases, and the position of the relational databases is secure.

    Sharding refers to the distribution of the data stored in a single database to multiple databases or tables based on a positive dimension to help the overall performance and availability. efficacious sharding measures involve database sharding and table sharding of relational databases. Both sharding methods can effectively avert query bottlenecks caused by a huge data volume that exceeds the threshold.

    In addition, database sharding can effectively divide the access requests of a single database, while table sharding can transmogrify distributed transactions into local transactions whenever possible. The multi-master-and-multi-slave sharding manner can effectively avert the event of single-points-of-data and enhance the availability of the data architecture.

    Vertical Sharding

    Vertical sharding is also known as vertical partitioning. Its key persuasion is the exhaust of different databases for different purposes. Before sharding is performed, a database can consist of multiple data tables that correspond to different businesses. After sharding is performed, the tables are organized according to traffic and distributed to different databases, balancing the workload among different databases, as shown below:

    1Vertical sharding

    Horizontal Sharding

    Horizontal sharding is also known as horizontal partitioning. In contrast to vertical sharding, horizontal sharding does not organize data by traffic logic. Instead, it distributes data to multiple databases or tables according to a rule of a specific field, and each shard contains only portion of the data.

    For example, if the final digit of an ID mod 10 is 0, this ID is stored into database (table) 0; if the final digit of an ID mod 10 is 1, this ID is stored into database (table) 1, as shown below:

    2Horizontal sharding

    Sharding is an efficacious solution to the performance problem of relational databases caused by massive data.

    In this solution, data on a single node is split and stored into multiple databases or tables, that is, the data is sharded. Database sharding can effectively disperse the load on databases caused by highly concurrent access attempts. Although table sharding cannot mitigate the load of databases, you can soundless exhaust database-native ACID transactions for the updates across table shards. Once cross-database updates are involved, the problem of distributed transactions becomes extremely complicated.

    Database sharding and table sharding ensure that the data volume of each table is always below the threshold. vertical sharding usually requires adjustments to the architecture and design, and for this reason, fails to sustain up with the rapidly changing traffic requirements on the Internet. Therefore, it cannot effectively remove the single-point bottleneck. Horizontal sharding theoretically removes the bottleneck in the data processing of a single host and supports resilient scaling, making it the touchstone sharding solution.

    Database sharding and read/write separation are the two common measures for weighty access traffic. Although table sharding can resolve the performance problems caused by massive data, it cannot resolve the problem of slack responsiveness caused by extravagant requests to the selfsame database. For this reason, database sharding is often implemented in horizontal sharding to maneuver the huge data volume and weighty access traffic. Read/write separation is another course to divide traffic. However, you must deem the latency between data reading and data writing when designing the architecture.

    Although database sharding can resolve these problems, the distributed architecture introduces unique problems. Because the data is widely dispersed after database sharding or table sharding, application development and O&M personnel enjoy to face extremely weighty workloads when performing operations on the database. For example, they exigency to know the specific table shard and the home database for each benign of data.

    NewSQL with a brand unique architecture resolves this problem in a course that is different from that of the sharding middleware:

  • In NewSQL with the unique architecture, the database storage engine is redesigned to store the data from the selfsame table in a distributed file system.
  • In the sharding middleware, the impacts of sharding are transparent to users, allowing them to exhaust a horizontally sharded database as a common database.
  • Cross-database transactions present a mighty challenge to distributed databases. With confiscate table sharding, you can reduce the amount of data stored in each table and exhaust local transactions whenever possible. Proper exhaust of different tables in the selfsame database can effectively profit to avoid the problem caused by distributed transactions. However, in scenarios where cross-database transactions are inevitable, some businesses soundless require the transactions to breathe consistent. On the other hand, Internet companies turned their back on XA-based distributed transactions due to their impecunious performance. Instead, most of these companies exhaust soft transactions that ensure eventual consistency.

    Read/Write Separation

    Database throughput is challenged by a huge bottleneck due to increasing system access traffic. For applications with a great number of concurrent reads and few writes, you can split a single database into primary and secondary databases. The primary database is used for the addition, deletion, and modification of transactions, while the secondary database is for queries. This effectively prevents the row locking problem caused by data updates and dramatically improves the query performance of the entire system.

    If you configure one primary database and multiple secondary databases, query requests can breathe evenly distributed to multiple data copies, further enhancing the system's processing capability.

    If you configure multiple primary databases and multiple secondary databases, both the throughput and availability of the system can breathe improved. In this configuration, the system soundless can Run normally when one of these databases is down or a disk is physically damaged.

    Read/write separation is essentially a ilk of sharding. In horizontal sharding, data is dispersed to different data nodes. In read/write separation, however, read and write requests are respectively routed to the primary and secondary databases based on the results of SQL syntax analysis. Noticeably, data on different data nodes are consistent in read/write separation but are different in horizontal sharding. By using horizontal sharding in conjunction with read/write separation, you can further help system performance, but system maintenance becomes complicated.

    Although read/write separation can help the throughput and availability of the system, it also results in data inconsistency, both between multiple primary databases and between the primary and secondary databases. Moreover, similar to sharding, read/write separation also increases database O&M complexity for the application development and O&M personnel.

    As the key profit of read/write separation, the impacts of read/write separation are transparent to users, allowing them to exhaust the primary and secondary databases as common databases.

    Key Processes

    Sharding consists of the following processes: statement parsing, statement routing, statement modification, statement execution, and result aggregation. Database protocol adaptation is essential to ensure low-cost access by original applications.

    Protocol Adaptation

    In addition to SQL, NewSQL is compatible with the protocols for traditional relational databases, reducing access costs for users. Open-source relational database products act as indigenous relational databases by implementing the NewSQL protocol.

    Due to the popularity of MySQL and PostgreSQL, many NewSQL databases implement the transport protocols for MySQL and PostgreSQL, allowing MySQL and PostgreSQL users to access NewSQL products without modifying their traffic codes.

    MySQL Protocol

    Currently, MySQL is the most current open source database product. To learn about its protocol, you can start with the basic data types, protocol packet structures, connection phase, and command aspect of MySQL.

    Basic Data Types:

    A MySQL packet consists of the following basic data types defined by MySQL:

    3Basic MySQL data types

    When binary data needs to breathe converted to the data that can breathe understood by MySQL, the MySQL packet is read based on the number of digits pre-defined by the data ilk and converted to the corresponding number or string. In turn, MySQL writes each realm to the packet according to the length specified in the protocol.

    Structure of a MySQL Packet

    The MySQL protocol consists of one or more MySQL packets. Regardless of the type, a MySQL packet consists of the payload length, sequence ID, and payload.

  • The payload length is of the int<3> type. It indicates the total number of bytes occupied by the subsequent payload. Note that the payload length does not involve the length of the sequence ID.
  • The sequence ID is of the int<1> type. It indicates the serial number of each MySQL packet returned for a request. The maximum sequence ID that occupies one byte is 0xff, that is, 255 in decimal notation. However, this does not imply that a request can only hold up to 255 MySQL packets. If the sequence ID exceeds 255, the sequence ID restarts from zero. For example, hundreds of thousands of records may breathe returned for a request. In this case, the MySQL packets only exigency to ensure that their sequence IDs are continuous. If the sequence ID exceeds 255, it is reset and restarts from zero.
  • The length of the payload is the bytes declared by the payload length. In a MySQL packet, the payload is the actual traffic data. The content of the payload varies with the packet type.
  • Connection Phase

    In the connection phase, a communication channel is established between the MySQL client and server. Then, three tasks are completed in this phase: exchanging the capabilities of the MySQL client and server (Capability Negotiation), setting up an SSL communication channel, and authenticating the client against the server. The following device shows the connection setup flood from the MySQL server perspective:

    4Flowchart of the MySQL connection phase

    The device excludes the interaction between the MySQL server and client. In fact, MySQL connection is initiated by the client. When the MySQL server receives a connection request from the client, it exchanges the capabilities of the server and client, generates the initial handshake packet in different formats based on the negotiation result, and writes the packet to the client. The packet contains the connection ID, server's capabilities, and ciphertext generated for authorization.

    After receiving the handshake packet from the server, the MySQL client sends a handshake packet response. This packet contains the user denomination and encrypted password for accessing the database.

    After receiving the handshake response, the MySQL server verifies the authentication information and returns the verification result to the client.

    Command Phase

    The command aspect comes after the successful connection phase. In this phase, commands are executed. MySQL has a total of 32 command packets, whose specific types are listed below:

    5MySQL command packets

    MySQL command packets are classified into four types: text protocol, binary protocol, stored procedure, and replication protocol.

    The first bit of the payload is used to identify the command type. The functions of packets are indicated by their names. The following describes some necessary MySQL command packets:

    COM_QUERY

    COM_QUERY is an necessary command that MySQL uses for queries in simple text format. It corresponds to java.sql.Statement in JDBC. COM_QUERY itself is simple and consists of an ID and SQL statement:

    1 [03] COM_QUERY

    string[EOF] is the query the server will execute

    The COM_QUERY response packet is complex, as shown below:

    6MySQL COM_QUERY flowchart

    Depending on the scenario, four types of COM_QUERY responses may breathe returned. These are query result, update result, file execution result, and error.

    If an error, such as network disconnection or incorrect SQL syntax, occurs during execution, the MySQL protocol sets the first bit of the packet to 0xff and encapsulates the oversight message into the ErrPacket and returns it.

    Given that it is rare that files are used to execute COM_QUERY, this case is not elaborated here.

    For an update request, the MySQL protocol sets the first bit of the packet to 0x00 and returns an OkPacket. The OkPacket must hold the number of row records affected by this update operation and the final inserted ID.

    Query requests are most complex. For such requests, an independent FIELD_COUNT packet must breathe created based on the number of result set fields that the client obtains by reading int. Then, independent COLUMN_DEFINITION packets are sequentially generated based on the details of each column of the returned field. The metadata information of the query realm ends with an EofPacket. Later, Text Protocol Resultset Rows of the packet will breathe generated row by row and breathe converted to the string format regardless of the data type. Finally, the packet soundless ends with an EofPacket.

    The java.sql.PreparedStatement operation in JDBC consists of the following five MySQL binary protocol packets: COM_STMT_PREPARE, COM_STMT_EXECUTE, COM_STMT_ CLOSE, COM_STMT_RESET, and COM_ STMT_SEND_LONG_DATA. Among these packets, COM_STMT_PREPARE and COM_STMT_ EXECUTE are most important. They correspond to connection.prepareStatement() and connection.execute()&connection.executeQuery()&connection.executeUpdate() in JDBC, respectively.

    COM_STMT_PREPARE

    COM_STMT_PREPARE is similar to COM_QUERY, both of which consist of the command ID and the specific SQL statement:

    1 [16] COM_STMT_PREPARE

    string[EOF] the query to prepare

    The returned value of COM_STMT_PREPARE is not a query result but a response packet that consists of the statement_id, the number of columns, and the number of parameters. Statement_id is the unique identifier that MySQL assigns to an SQL statement after the pre-compilation is completed. Based on the statement_id, you can retrieve the corresponding SQL statement from MySQL.

    For an SQL statement registered by the COM_STMT_PREPARE command, only the statement_id (rather than the SQL statement itself) needs to breathe sent to the COM_STMT_EXECUTE command, eliminating the unnecessary consumption of the network bandwidth.

    Moreover, MySQL can pre-compile the SQL statements passed in by COM_STMT_PREPARE into the abstract syntax tree for reuse, improving SQL execution efficiency. If COM_QUERY is used to execute the SQL statements, you must re-compile each of these statements. For this reason, PreparedStatement is more efficient than Statement.

    COM_STMT_EXECUTE

    COM_STMT_EXECUTE consists of the statement-id and the parameters for the SQL. It uses a data structure named NULL-bitmap to identify the null values of these parameters.

    The response packet of the COM_STMT_EXECUTE command is similar to that of the COM_QUERY command. For both response packets, the realm metadata and query result set are returned and separated by the EofPacket.

    Their differences prevaricate in that Text Protocol Resultset Row is replaced with Binary Protocol Resultset Row in the COM_STMT_EXECUTE response packet. Based on the ilk of the returned data, the format of the returned data is converted to the corresponding MySQL basic data type, further reducing the required network transfer bandwidth.

    Other Protocols

    In addition to MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQL Server are also open-source protocols and can breathe implemented in the selfsame way. In contrast, another frequently used database protocol, Oracle, is not open source and cannot breathe implemented in the selfsame way.

    SQL Parsing

    Although SQL is relatively simple compared to other programming languages, it is soundless a complete programming language. Therefore, it essentially works in the selfsame course as other languages in terms of parsing SQL grammar and parsing other languages (such as Java, C, and Go).

    The parsing process is divided into lexical parsing and syntactic parsing. First, the lexical parser splits the SQL statement into words that cannot breathe further divided. Then, the syntactic parser converts the SQL statement to an abstract syntax tree. Finally, the abstract syntax tree is accessed to extract the parsing context.

    The parsing context includes tables, Select items, Order By items, Group By items, aggregate functions, pagination information, and query conditions. For a NewSQL statement of the sharding middleware type, the placeholders that may breathe changed are also included.

    By using the following SQL statement as an example: select username, ismale from userinfo where age > 20 and flush > 5 and 1 = 1, the post-parsing abstract syntax tree is as follows:

    7Abstract syntax tree

    Many third-party tools can breathe used to generate abstract syntax trees, among which ANTLR is a top-notch choice. ANTLR generates Java code for the abstract syntax tree based on the rules defined by developers and provides a visitor interface. Compared with code generation, the manually developed abstract syntax tree is more efficient in execution but the workload is relatively high. In scenarios where performance requirements are demanding, you can deem customizing the abstract syntax tree.

    Request Routing

    The sharding strategy is to match databases and tables according to the parsing context and generate the routing path. SQL routing with sharding keys can breathe divided into single-shard routing (where the equal brand is used as the sharding operator), multi-shard routing (where IN is used as the sharding operator), and sweep routing (where BETWEEN is used as the sharding operator). SQL statements without sharding keys adopt broadcast routing.

    Normally, sharding policies can breathe incorporated by the database or breathe configured by users. Sharding policies incorporated in the database are relatively simple and can generally breathe divided into mantissa modulo, hash, range, tag, time, and so on. More flexible, sharding policies set by users can breathe customized according to their needs.

    SQL Statement Rewriting

    NewSQL with the unique architecture does not require SQL statement rewriting, which is only required for NewSQL statements of the sharding middleware type. SQL statement rewriting is used to rewrite SQL statements into ones that can breathe correctly executed in actual databases. This includes replacing the logical table denomination with the actual table name, rewriting the start and respite values of the pagination information, adding the columns that are used for sorting, grouping, and auto-increment keys, and rewriting AVG as SUM or COUNT.

    Results Merging

    Results merging refers to merging multiple execution result sets into one result set and returning it to the application. Results merging is divided into stream merging and remembrance merging.

  • Stream merging is used for simple queries, Order By queries, Group By queries, and Order By and Group By scenarios where the Order By and Group By items are completely consistent. The "next" manner is called each time to traverse the stream merging result set without consuming additional remembrance resources.
  • Memory merging requires that entire data in the result sets must breathe loaded to the remembrance for processing. If the result sets hold a great volume of data, lots of remembrance resources are consumed accordingly.
  • In portion 2 of this article, they will argue in further detail about distributed transactions and database governance.


    Parkland Fuel Corporation Selects Metegrity’s Visions Enterprise Inspection Data Management Software (IDMS) | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    ← Press Releases

    Parkland Fuel Corporation, one of North America’s fastest growing fuel retailers, has selected the Visions software as the Asset Integrity Management (AIM) system for their refinery in Burnaby, BC. Parkland Fuel recently acquired the Burnaby refinery from Chevron, who had been using Meridium as their point software on site.

    They recognized that the existing software was insufficient for their needs. They required an point software that offered a user-friendly interface, a moneyed variety of features, more affordable cost, easily retrievable data, robust custom regulatory reporting, and capability to interface with other products through API connectors to champion their drudgery flow. They vetted multiple products, ultimately determining that Visions best matched their needs. Having worked with Metegrity in the past and consistently satisfied with the Visions product, Parkland recognized it as the optimum preference and began the process to switch.

    Metegrity performed an implementation study on the refinery in early March 2018, and by May of that selfsame year the conversion had already begun. Visions V5 went live at the genesis of October 2018. It now supports over 9,700 assets for Parkland Fuel in Burnaby.

    “We are supercilious that Parkland’s inspection team recognizes the value of their software and had the opening to compare it to other IDMS software tools. These opportunities clearly demonstrate their superior solution in the market,” says Dave Maguire, Senior Advisor - Asset Integrity with Metegrity. “It is a mighty testament to the property of their product and the reliable service they tender when a client seeks you out based on self-confidence from past experience.”

    About Metegrity

    Metegrity is a globally trusted provider of comprehensive property & asset integrity management software solutions. Praised for unparalleled precipitate of deployment, their products are also highly configurable – allowing their experts to strategically tailor them to your traffic practices. With more than 20 years in the industry, they proudly service top tier global organizations in the Oil & Gas, Pipeline & Chemical industries. For more information, visit www.metegrity.com.


    Black Lab Software Announces Linux-Based Mac Mini Competitor Black Lab BriQ v5 | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    We enjoy been informed by Black Lab Software, the creators of the Ubuntu-based Black Lab Linux operating system about the generic availability of their unique class of hardware, the Black Lab BriQ version 5.

    The 5th version of the Black Lab BriQ computer comes with many unique features, among which they can mention the re-implementation of VGA for entire editions, HDMI support, air cooling champion for reduced power usage, as well as champion for adding either a 2.5" SATA drive or an SDD disk. These will rescue energy up to 38% and 64%, respectively.

    "The 5th incarnation of the Black Lab BriQ offers unique features and enhancements which disinguish it from its predecessors," says Robert Dohnert. "First, VGA has been reintroduced on entire models; HDMI is soundless included. The BriQ is totally air‐cooled which reduces power usage - energy savings are over 64% with the SSD drive option and 38% with a traditional laptop SATA difficult drive."

    Another piquant aspect of the unique Black Lab BriQ version 5 computer is that it's over 20% slimmer than previous versions. According to Mr. Dohnert, Black Lab BriQ v5 is the most environmentally friendly system on the planet, as the motherboard is 98% carcinogen-free, and the entire chassis is now made from recycled aluminum, which, in turn, is also recyclable.

    Black Lab BriQ v5 has the selfsame specs as Apple Mac Mini

    The unique Black Lab BriQ v5 hardware is available today in two different configurations, one with 4GB RAM, 64GB SDD drive, and an Intel i3 CPU running at 1.7GHz, and the other one with 4GB RAM, 500GB HDD, and the selfsame Intel i3 processor running at 1.7GHz. The SDD version will cost you $515.00 (€480), and the HDD model is priced at only $450.00 (€420).

    Black Lab Software claims that the specs of Black Lab BriQ v5 are equal to the ones of Apple's Mac Mini computer, but if you buy Black Lab BriQ, you'll rescue over $300.00 (€280). But wait, there's more, as Black Lab Software also offers a Pro version of Black Lab BriQ v5, which comes with Intel i5 CPUs, up to 16GB RAM, and 256GB SDD or 1TB HDD.

    Black Lab BriQ Pro models cost $775.00 (€730) if you disappear for the SDD version, and $995.00 (€930) if you pick the HDD edition. Also, both Pro models of Black Lab BriQ version 5 arrive with a 3-year extended warranty. You can purchase a Black Lab BriQ v5 computer right now from the official webstore of Black Lab Software.

    Black Lab BriQ v5 back view

    Black Lab BriQ v5 back view



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