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HP0-894 Implementing Windows Server 2003 on ProLiant Cluster Solutions

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HP0-894 exam Dumps Source : Implementing Windows Server 2003 on ProLiant Cluster Solutions

Test Code : HP0-894
Test denomination : Implementing Windows Server 2003 on ProLiant Cluster Solutions
Vendor denomination : HP
exam questions : 117 actual Questions

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HP Implementing Windows Server 2003

enforce IPSec on home windows Server 2003 | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

WEBINAR:On-Demand

EUC with HCI: Why It matters

during this, the newest installment in their chain of windows Server 2003 administration tutorials, they are going to entangle a glance at the system of implementing IPSec on a home windows Server 2003 gadget. they are going to besides examine one of the crucial processes you should breathe aware about when performing this implementation on a reside community. once we're outright performed, they will show lower back on the technique and weigh up the execs and cons, in quest of to reply one elementary query: Is it expense due to the fact an IPSec implementation in your community?

IPSec a hundred and one

before wading into an evidence of a passage to enforce IPSec, they may soundless first entangle a second to interlard you to, or refresh your competencies of, this free and extremely positive system of securing network transmissions.

On a hypothetical level, IPSec is a framework designed to provide safety for IP based network site visitors. On a practical degree, it's a network layer protocol that encrypts facts in order that it cannot breathe 'sniffed' from the network and then due to this fact study or altered. IPSec achieves this functionality via two protocols referred to as IPSec Authentication Header (AH) and IPSec Encapsulating protection Payload (ESP).

IPSec AH does not truly encrypt facts, but it surely does deliver authentication and warranted records integrity. In different words, with IPSec AH, somebody can read the records in a transmission, but they can not alter it. Nor can somebody fake the supply of the statistics. IPSec ESP, in contrast, focuses on securing the records in the transmission, although it does additionally give some authentication, and a measure of records integrity checking.

The decent advice is that in a windows Server 2003 IPSec implementation, as with most others, you don't should select between IPSec AH and IPSec ESP. that you could utilize each protocols to accumulate the complete capitalize of IPSec – authentication, certain integrity of facts, and encrypted facts switch.

IPSec and windows Server 2003

Now that they now enjoy recapped what IPSec is and does, they will accumulate on with taking a keep at a passage to implement it.

IPSec performance is supplied on a windows Server 2003 gadget in the course of the IPSec capabilities provider. So, the 1st step in configuring IPSec is to build certain that this is operating in your server by using looking in the features MMC. On a domain controller, the functions MMC may besides breathe accessed through the Administrative tools menu. The IPSec provider is configured to birth instantly by default, so until it has been stopped or disabled, your investigate should soundless breathe nothing greater than cursory.

determine 1.(click for a bigger picture)

The subsequent section of implementing IPSec is opting for and assigning an IPSec policy. IPSec guidelines, as soon as assigned, silhouette what moves may soundless breathe carried out on incoming network site visitors that does or does not meet a distinctive criteria.

IPSec policies, and their components, are configured through the IP safety coverage administration MMC snap-in. There isn't any shortcut to this MMC on the administrative tools menu, so you'll necessity to open a blank MMC and then add the snap-in to it. after getting executed this, you are going to breathe able to delivery working in the IP safety management MMC snap-in as shown in figure 1.

constitution of policies

The residences of an latest rule can breathe considered by means of double-clicking the rule of thumb from inside the IPSec safety policies snap-in. The houses web page for one of the vital default policies, which are discussed in a second, is proven in determine 2.

figure 2.(click for a larger picture)

As discussed, guidelines silhouette what moves are carried out on community traffic when the server is the utilize of IPSec. guidelines are created from guidelines that define what site visitors may soundless breathe lined by passage of the coverage, what kind of authentication mechanism should soundless breathe used (greater about the alternate options for authentication later during this collection), and what happens to site visitors when it does or does not meet the standards specific in the coverage. This ultimate procedure is close as the filter action. that you can additionally silhouette whether or no longer this rule applies to outright community connections, just these originating from the LAN, or just from far flung connections.

As you could notice from determine 2, there are three suggestions during this coverage. the primary defines that safety should breathe requested for outright IP traffic, and that the safety should utilize Kerberos (define) for authentication and encryption. The second rule defines that outright ICMP traffic (similar to that linked to ping and tracert) (define) is permitted and not using a request for security. The third rule (<default>) defines what occurs to traffic that does not conform to either of the primary two guidelines.


HP looks to power windows Server 2003 conclusion-of-life earnings | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The transition of purchasers faraway from windows Server 2003 is being described as a $10 billion global chance. To entangle capabilities of that probability, Hewlett-Packard Co. and Microsoft today at Microsoft's international associate conference here rolled out a brand new joint application -- the HP Microsoft home windows Server 2003 software – to rally companions, a yr to the day earlier than windows Server 2003 discontinue of lifestyles.

in line with HP and Microsoft, there are more than 11 million servers operating windows Server 2003. Microsoft stated there are more than 22 million licenses that necessity to breathe migrated.

"now they enjoy achieved the research and located that 60% of consumers enjoy no migration contrivance in region and simplest three hundred and sixty five days to head earlier than aid ends," mentioned Doug Oathout, HP's vp of channel partners, alliances and OEM marketing.

And therein lies the associate probability.

The HP Microsoft home windows Server 2003 application is designed to aid partners circulation valued clientele to a new Microsoft OS, servers, storage and networking wrapped with HP abet capabilities and HP economic features. it's accessible instantly.

"Our basic route to market is in the course of the channel, with the goal of helping customers circulate safely, prerogative now and effectively to a brand new OS reminiscent of windows Server 2012 R2," spoke of Jim Ganthier, vice president of world advertising and marketing for HP's server division.

Migrations will entangle about 200 days on regular, the enterprise mentioned, so the time for valued clientele and companions to accumulate started is now. shoppers that don't migrate off of the operating device ahead of home windows Server 2003 conclusion of life risk having purposes that become non-compliant with government rules, which is particularly essential for healthcare and monetary features companies; and lacking protection updates and patches, which leaves programs supine to hackers.

shoppers that supplant their OS can are expecting to notice efficiency enhancements and superior birth on company results that line-of-enterprise managers are looking for, in keeping with Ganthier.

Addressing the readiness of partners to seize this new enterprise chance, HP stated that 60% of its companions enjoy the features capabilities required. nonetheless, the seller will give partners with a new set of tools which enjoy been collectively developed with Microsoft.

the new tools will permit partners to conduct basic assessments for valued clientele, which can develop into migration opportunities, Ganthier noted.

"We're taking the best of what they recognize in conjunction with Microsoft and packaging it up so companions can find out how to finish assessments in accordance with most useful practices within the business," he observed.

The HP Microsoft windows Server 2003 application includes:

  • HP Flex-Bundles that are in line with ProLiant Gen8 servers, storage and network solutions
  • home windows Server 2012 R2
  • HP setting up and start-up functions for windows 2012
  • HP and Microsoft collaborative advocate capabilities
  • HP Packaged Consulting services (akin to HP Transformation Workshop for windows 2003, HP Migration assessment provider for home windows 2003 or HP practicing needs Advisement) to aid companions bolster their consulting capabilities
  • A 20% condense for partners that entangle opt for courses from HP education services to better their Microsoft and HP technology capabilities
  • The ability for HP ServiceOne commercial enterprise companions to sell and convey HP Proactive Care
  • The means for partners to promote Datacenter Care
  • The companies are besides proposing revenue and advertising components around the new application, together with special promotions for home windows Server and Microsoft OS license combos when a ally replaces a windows Server 2003 installing; HP monetary functions with aggressive economic incentives; income enablement and practicing materials; the home windows 2003 conclusion-of-assist adventure kit; and co-advertising property.


    understanding and implementing smart Card Authentication | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    an silhouette on Authentication and sensible playing cards

    administrators enjoy to restful the community from attacks launched through hackers, spies, terrorists, thieves and criminals. security encompasses numerous applied sciences, protocols, standards, guidelines, passwords, and clandestine keys. outright these mechanisms usually focus on prerogative here:

    Authentication is the technique wherein an entity identifies itself, before network logon is authorized. After a consumer is authenticated, entry control defines what materials will besides breathe accessed, what actions can besides breathe performed on the aid, and whether these actions are audited or no longer. entry exploit is carried out by specifying permissions for elements and objects, and assigning rights to clients. facts insurance policy involves two security ideas, specifically, information confidentiality, and information integrity. information confidentiality deals with securing statistics because it is transmitted over the community in the course of the software of cryptographic operations. Encryption algorithms and the utilization of private and public keys provide data confidentiality. Any unauthorized parties intercepting the message, aren't capable of interpret the contents of the message. information integrity is implemented through the digital signing of messages, and info. by utilizing digital signatures, that you may verify no matter if the message become tampered with or now not. From this brief discussion, which you could notice that many ideas and principals are blanketed when discussing protection. So where does sensible cards felicitous into the manner of securing a firm's network and substances from malicious attacks. The reply is authentication.Understanding and Implementing Smart Card Authentication

    As mentioned earlier, authentication is system whereby which clients or other entities determine themselves to breathe able to try and entry community resources. Authentication is the preliminary step in the system of allowing clients to entry community elements. In lively directory, person authentication occurs by means of the consumer proposing user account credentials, such because the consumer logon identify, password, and the person's protection identifier (SID).

    Authentication in home windows Server 2003 environments contains here two techniques:

  • Interactive logon: Interactive logon occurs when a consumer logs on to the system using a password or smart card.

  • network authentication: community authentication happens when a consumer is approved to access elements, devoid of the person having to re-enter this password or the personal identification quantity (PIN) of the smart card.

  • The person or entity proves its identification by using a shared secret. The shared clandestine may besides breathe one of the most components listed under, and needs to breathe a clandestine between the consumer inquiring for authentication, and the authenticator, for authentication to breathe a hit:

  • A password

  • An encryption key

  • A clandestine PIN

  • Authentication protocols are used to partake the key between the person and authenticator. The authenticator then both allows for access or denies the requestor entry. The authentication protocols that can breathe utilized in home windows Server 2003 environments are listed beneath:

  • Kerberos version 5, used for network authentication. Kerberos version 5 is used for the interactive logon authentication method, and for community authentication in home windows Server 2003.

  • at ease Socket Layer/Transport Layer safety (SSL/TLS), used for network authentication and is in keeping with X.509 public key certificates.

  • Microsoft home windows NT LAN manager (NTLM), used for community authentication but certainly for Microsoft home windows NT four compatibility.

  • Microsoft problem Handshake Authentication Protocol edition 2 (MS-CHAP v2), used for community authentication and dial-up authentication.

  • Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), used for network authentication and dial-up authentication.

  • Extensible Authentication Protocol-Transport stage safety (EAP-TLS), used for instant connection authentication.

  • Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), used for community authentication and dial-up authentication, and contains assist for sensible playing cards (hardware enabled authentication).

  • Hardware enabled authentication occurs when encryption keys are kept on a smart card, a pc card, or every other cryptographic token mechanism, and the person needs to enjoy the smart card, and the PIN or password to circulate authentication and access the equipment. This provides an additional degree of safety as a result of any unauthorized individuals attempting to access the gadget, needs the smart card and the PIN or password.

    smart card authentication is in accordance with the utilize of sensible playing cards and is supported in windows 2000 and windows Server 2003. a sensible card is a protection tackle or bank card sized hardware token which can besides breathe used to supply further insurance contrivance to purposes and security protocols.

    wise cards deliver the following aspects:

    In network environments, they're typically used for following purposes

    As mentioned previous, sensible card authentication gives very strong authentication because the consumer has to own the smart card, and the user has to grasp the very own identification number (PIN). that you can conceal a sensible card from the tackle after a successive variety of unsuccessful logon attempts enjoy been made. To enable these facets, smart card authentication involves using a smart card reader which is connected to the computer. it's advised to build utilize of Plug and Play (PnP) readers with home windows Server 2003. The smart card carries a microprocessor and everlasting flash reminiscence that holds the user's logon assistance, deepest key, digital certificates, and different private tips. When the user inserts the sensible card into the sensible card reader, the consumer has to provide the PIN to log on to the system. smart cards are designed to provide tamper-resistant authentication. The incompatibility between sensible cards and software private keys is that you can circulation sensible cards from one laptop to computer.

    The sensible card reader is always attached to the serial port, USB port, or PCMCIA port of the computer. due to the fact that PCs, desktop computers, and PDAs enjoy one of those ports, sensible card readers are supported via outright computer systems. sensible playing cards can breathe establish in a number of kinds. the bulk even though enjoy a resemblance to credit score playing cards. The more superior sensible playing cards utilize magnetics. What this potential is that they finish not necessity to enjoy exterior contacts. a gauge profile is the dongle that may felicitous into a USB port. From prerogative here, it is accessed by the Cryptographic provider provider (CSP). The dongle benign doesn't want any particular reader. The downfall of the benign is that it's roughly four times extra costly than the commonplace sensible card varieties. while the installing of a sensible card implementation can besides breathe complicated and costly, yet another intricate process is picking which vendor to use. The drivers of sensible card products from Gemplus and Schlumberger are in fact developed into the working system.

    sensible Card Deployment concerns

    Authentication via sensible playing cards is supported in windows 2000 and windows Server 2003, but is based on the public Key Infrastructure (PKI). The PKI has to exist before you could redeem into effect sensible card authentication. it is informed to utilize an commercial enterprise certification authority (CA) for authentication in accordance with smart playing cards. Stand-on my own CAs and exterior CA entities aren't informed to breathe used with sensible card authentication.

    while there are relatively a few companies to build a election from to supply your smart card expertise, breathe aware that windows Server 2003 does not abet on-Plug and Play sensible card readers. it's suggested to only utilize own computing device/smart Card (computer/SC) compliant smart playing cards and readers, even when a seller provides non-Plug and Play sensible card readers that may duty with windows Server 2003. moreover the implementation of a PKI, every computer wants a sensible card reader.

    as a result of imbue is always a crucial factor, which you could accord with the elements listed under as those that enjoy an effect on the cost of administering a smart card implementation:

  • The variety of users so that you can utilize the sensible card program, in addition to the dwelling these particular clients are located.

  • The system through which the clients are going to breathe issued smart playing cards. The necessities for verifying person identities should even breathe protected.

  • The manner for utilize when clients misplace or pain the sensible cards which were issued to them.

  • When planning a sensible card authentication answer, you enjoy to define the authentication and logon strategies that are going to breathe utilized. this is able to encompass:

    getting ready the PKI for a smart Card Implementation

    As outlined earlier, sensible playing cards are conditional on the implementation of a PKI. sensible playing cards want certificates to exploit which clients are allowed to authenticate the usage of sensible cards. Certificates are used to examine the identities of clients, functions, computers, and capabilities; and might breathe used to at ease email, for internet and utility code authentication, and to enable the utilize of smart cards. A certificates authority (CA) issues certificates to clients and other entities.

    The certificates would always hold here assistance:

  • The serial variety of the certificate

  • information that identifies the user.

  • assistance that identifies CA that issued the certificate.

  • The person's public key

  • The validity duration of the certificates

  • The unique identify of the issuing CA server

  • The capability of the PKI to assist smart cards is a gorgeous feature of the windows PKI implementation. To implement smart cards, one of the crucial first steps is to installation certificates services on a server within your environment, and configure the server as an industry CA. After this, you could possibly deserve to create three certificate templates to permit using sensible playing cards inside your organization. certificate templates can breathe defined as a collection of rules and settings which specify the content material and structure of certificates which are issued, in line with meant use. You configure certificate templates on the CAs within your PKI implementation. The certificates template is applied when a person requests a certificates from the CA. simplest home windows Server 2003 industry CAs makes utilize of certificates templates kept in energetic directory to create certificates for users and computer systems.

    For a sensible card implementation, you necessity to create here three certificate templates:

    imposing smart cards

    The middling steps for implementing a sensible card reply in a company are listed beneath. The genuine steps are decided through the manner by which sensible cards are used within the PKI:

  • Configure an enrollment station

  • outline the imperative certificates templates for the CA and lively directory.

  • outline enrollment agents who will problem sensible playing cards

  • prepare the smart playing cards

  • situation certificatesto the sensible card for clients

  • Configure faraway access servers to settle for smart card authentication

  • sign up the servers for computer certificates

  • because the certificates templates used by using sensible playing cards don't seem to breathe redeem in on an enterprise CA by default, you'll should utilize the Certification Authority console to configure these certificates templates. in addition to this, you deserve to allocate clients the amend permissions for the certificate templates. To trade permissions for a certificate template, you should breathe a member of the domain Admins neighborhood in the woodland root domain, or a member of the commercial enterprise Admins neighborhood.

    a passage to set permissions on certificates templates
  • click on beginning, Run, and enter certtmpl.msc within the race dialog box. click on excellent enough.

  • locate and right-click the certificates whose permissions you are looking to alter, and then click on homes on the shortcut menu.

  • click on the safety tab.

  • Assign users and corporations who necessity to request certificates that are in keeping with the certain certificate template, the examine and token up permissions.

  • click adequate.

  • The certificates server included in windows Server 2003 contains a sensible card enrollment station which will besides breathe used to dole certificates to users. which you can utilize the sensible card enrollment station to request a smart card certificates on a behalf of the person. This in flip makes it workable for you to preinstall it on the sensible card of the person. before clients can request certificates, you necessity to prepare the enrollment station to create the certificates. the first step in getting ready the CA to challenge sensible card certificates is to create the Enrollment Agent certificate.

    how to create the Enrollment Agent certificate
  • click birth, Administrative tools, after which click Certification Authority.

  • within the console tree, extend certificate Authority, <Server name>, and certificate Templates.

  • click on New, after which certificate to problem from the motion menu.

  • select Enrollment Agent template. click on excellent enough.

  • On the action menu, click on New, after which certificates to problem from the motion menu

  • in case you want to create certificates for person authentication, select the smart Card Logon certificates template. click excellent enough.

  • if you necessity to create certificates for consumer authentication, and for the encryption of the person's advice, select the sensible Card person certificate template. click on ok.

  • The certificates templates should now breathe displayed within the console window

  • shut the Certification Authority console.

  • how to create a sensible card certificates enrollment station
  • go browsing to the desktop

  • click delivery, Run, and enter mmc in the race dialog box. click on adequate

  • From the File menu, click Add/eradicate Snap-in, after which click Add.

  • Double-click on the Certificates snap-in. click on adequate.

  • click shut.

  • within the Certificates snap-in, expand Certificates, latest user, and then very own.

  • choose outright initiatives, and then Request new certificate from the action menu.

  • When certificates Request Wizard begins, click on subsequent.

  • When certificate types web page opens, click Enrollment Agent after which click on subsequent.

  • On certificates pleasant identify and silhouette page, enter an silhouette for the certificate. click next.

  • When the summary page opens, click conclude.

  • establishing users to build the most of sensible playing cards comprises the buy and installation of sensible card readers for outright person workstations. installing smart card readers which are Plug and Play arrogate is always an smooth hardware setting up.

    The sensible card readers supported by means of windows XP and windows Server 2003 are listed below.

  • American specific, GCR435 – USB port

  • Bull, SmarTLP3 – serial port

  • Compaq, Serial reader – serial port

  • Gemplus, GCR410P – serial port

  • Gemplus, GPR400 – PCMCIA port

  • Gemplus, GemPC430 – USB port

  • Hewlett-Packard, ProtectTools, – serial port

  • Litronic, 220P, – serial port

  • Schlumberger, Reflex 20 – PCMCIA port

  • Schlumberger, Reflex 72 – serial port

  • Schlumberger, Reflex Lite – serial port

  • SCM Microsystems, SCR111 – serial port

  • SCM Microsystems, SCR120 – PCMCIA port

  • SCM Microsystems, SCR200 – serial port

  • SCM Microsystems, SCR300 – USB port

  • Systemneeds, exterior – serial port

  • Omnikey AG, 2010 – serial port

  • Omnikey AG, 2020 – USB port

  • Omnikey AG, 4000 – PCMCIA port

  • Some sensible card reader's drivers are preinstalled in home windows Server 2003, while others don't seem to be. you could set up a sensible card reader on the computer via attaching the sensible card reader to a serial port or USB port. For laptops, insert the sensible card reader prerogative into a PCMCIA slot.

    After the sensible card reader is redeem in, the Enrollment Station necessity to breathe used for prerogative here initiatives:

    When the sensible card readers are redeem in, the next step is to matter sensible card certificates to users. This manner is known as enrollment. before enrolling a person, and issuing the consumer with smart card, build certain you users on these features:

  • clients may soundless abstain from bending the sensible card as a result of they could damage the interior mechanisms of the sensible card.

  • users should protect the exterior smart card chip from being scratched or dented. The smart card reader may breathe unable to study the information stored on the card if it is broken during this way.

  • clients should redeem their sensible playing cards in a fab dehydrate vicinity, and safe from some other magnetic sources reminiscent of credit playing cards. extreme sizzling temperatures may influence in the sensible card fitting brittle and breakable.

  • To enroll a sensible card consumer,

  • access the computer using a user account which has the quintessential rights in the Enrollment Agent certificate template for the domain containing the consumer account.

  • Open information superhighway Explorer, and entry the CA by means of entering http://CA server name/certsrv.

  • On the Welcome page, click Request a certificate

  • On the Request a certificate page, click on advanced certificate Request.

  • On the superior certificate Request web page, select the Request a certificates for a sensible Card on behalf of another person option.

  • On the sensible Card certificates Enrollment Station web page, select to create certainly one of here:

  • in the certificates Authority listing container, select the identify of the CA for the locality that should soundless challenge sensible card certificates.

  • within the Cryptographic service company checklist box, enter the identify of the vendor which you're the usage of for sensible cards.

  • in the Administrator Signing certificates box, enter the denomination of the enrollment Agent certificate in an application to signal the certificates enrollment request. click on subsequent.

  • On the consumer to enroll web page, click select user to locate the user account that you simply wish to create a smart card certificate for, and the click enroll.

  • area the sensible card of the user within the smart card reader, and click ok.

  • Proceed to enter the initial PIN for the smart card.

  • click View certificate to determine that the certificate became issued to the consumer which you unique.

  • A windows 2000 or home windows Server 2003 far flung access server helps sensible card logon. To permit smart card logon for these servers, you should configure the RRAS carrier to utilize the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). Then, you should specify sensible card logon as the EAP method.

    To configure a windows 2000 or home windows Server 2003 far flung access server for sensible card logon,

  • Open the RRAS console from Administrative Toos.

  • Proceed to open the homes dialog field of the far flung entry server that should soundless accept sensible card logon.

  • click on the security tab.

  • click on home windows Authentication, and click Authentication methods.

  • select the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) alternative.

  • click on EAP methods.

  • Use the obtainable list to locate and double-click on smart Card or other certificate. click adequate.

  • Proceed to deselect the different authentication options. click on ok.

  • within the homes dialog field of the server, click ok.

  • in the RRAS console, find far flung entry guidelines within the console tree.

  • Double-click on allow entry If Dial-In permission Is Enabled.

  • When the homes dialog field open, click Edit Profile.

  • click on the Authentication tab.

  • click on EAP strategies.

  • When the opt for EAP providers dialog box opens, click on Add.

  • within the Add EAP dialog container, select the sensible Card or other certificate option.

  • click on ok.

  • within the select EAP suppliers dialog box, click on Edit.

  • When the smart Card or other certificates properties dialog field opens, within the certificates Issued To box, opt for the computer certificate issued to the selected server.

  • click adequate, and nigh outright open dialog bins.

  • which you could enable certain coverage settings in group coverage that may advocate in simplifying smart card administration to your environment:

  • Account lockout threshold: you could utilize the settings of this coverage to protect your sensible card authentication process from password assaults.

  • do not allow sensible card machine redirection: When enabled, users are not able to utilize smart cards to retrograde surfing to a Terminal capabilities server.

  • On smart card removing: you can utilize this environment to prevent clients running unattended lively periods. utilize these settings to specify that the users' classes are locked, or logged off once they remove their smart playing cards from the sensible card reader.

  • smart card required for interactive logon: When enabled, a user can best retrograde online to the autochthonous laptop the utilize of smart card authentication. The user can't utilize a person account and provide the user denomination and password credentials to retrograde browsing.


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    Implementing Windows Server 2003 on ProLiant Cluster Solutions

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    Configuring SQL Server 2005 Failover Settings in Windows Server 2003 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Overview

    Clustering SQL Server 2005 Services in Windows Server 2003 has been greatly enhanced from SQL 2000 on Windows 2000 clusters. There are quite some excellent articles in the internet offering guidance on cluster topics ranging from preparation, installation and configuration to post installation maintenance. On the other hand, the enhancements by the new versions besides created certain confusions regarding cluster group failover behaviors due to the fact that the new failover behaviors are significantly different from what they used to await from the older versions. The proof is that there are some questions posted in advice groups complaining about something affection "My SQL Server 2005 database engine failed last night. But the resource group didn't fail over to the passive node. Is the failover cluster not working? Why? Help! ".

    To reply this benign of questions, they necessity to drill down to several basic Windows Server 2003 cluster concepts. There are several configuration items within the Windows 2003 Cluster Administrator utensil that they necessity to explore in more details to accumulate a better understanding about how the cluster failover works according to these configuration settings. This is principal because it can abet us entangle replete odds of the new failover mechanism offered by Windows Server 2003 and SQL Server 2005 to design a better failover solution to felicitous in individual Service flat Agreement (SLA) requirements.

    About Cluster Administrator (CluAdmin.exe)

    Cluster Administrator is a Microsoft Windows administrative utensil to manage clusters in your domain. It is not section of the Administrative Tools programs by default. It is available after the Windows Cluster services are installed in your servers. It can besides breathe installed in your Windows XP professional workstation as section of the Windows Server 2003 Admin tools Pack (adminpak.msi) installation. The pack can breathe downloaded from Microsoft website http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=c16ae515-c8f4-47ef-a1e4-a8dcbacff8e3&displaylang=en

    Configure Cluster Properties

    Once you enjoy this utensil ready for utilize either in Cluster node servers or in your local workstation, and you enjoy administrative privileges to the clusters in your network, then you can launch it to examine, configure and manage a wide variety of cluster properties. This article will only focus on the following two levels of properties that enjoy significant impacts on SQL cluster resources failover behaviors. The two levels of cluster properties are Group flat and Resource level. Group properties enjoy repercussion on outright resources under the group, while Resource properties can enjoy repercussion on its own resources most of the time with the exception of the "Affect the group" option, which will breathe covered with more details later in the article.

    There are a number of Group and Resource cluster properties available for us to configure. However, they only focus on the ones that matter the failover behaviors. You will find these properties by prerogative click on a Group or Cluster Resource and select Properties.

    Group flat Properties:

    Failback: The properties can breathe establish under Failback tab of a group properties window. It specifies what should occur when the group comes back online, and finds itself owned by a node other than its original primary node. select "Prevent Failback" to prevent the group from failing back to a failed node that returns to online status. select "Allow Failback" to enable failback. You should besides specify that the failback will either occur immediately or within a specified span of hours.

    What does this mean: In most cases, they should stick with the default setting of "Prevent Failback" to prevent an additional unnecessary failover. This will leave you more room and time to determine what caused the service failure and contrivance on a better time to fail it back once the root occasions of the problem gets resolved. Otherwise, you will find your SQL services may enjoy to breathe interrupted for twice as the cluster service trying to retrograde back to its original primary node during an unpleasant time ( for a 24x7 server, any time could breathe unpleasant time unless it is scheduled ).

    Resource flat Properties:

    You can find these properties by right-click on the concerning Resource, and select Properties. The following properties are under the Advanced tab in the Resource Properties window.

    Restart: to specify whether or not to restart the resource if it fails.

    What does this mean: For most resources, the Restart option should breathe selected because you want outright cluster resources to breathe kept online.

    Affect The Group: If selected, the group will fail over when the resource fails. The Threshold and era values determine how many times the Cluster Service will attempt to restart the resource for a specific attempts within a specified era of time before the group fails.

    What does this mean: This may breathe the most principal separate particular to configure. There are only a handful of resources should enjoy this option turned on. And if it is turned on for the resource, the Threshold and era values control whether you want the Group to fail over to the other node(s) immediately or try to recover on the identical node for the specified times within the era of time. Usually they would want it to fail over to the other node immediately because trying to recover on the identical node could possibly breathe a squander of time without knowing the occasions of the issue. The following Resource should usually enjoy the "Affect the group" option turned on:- SQL Server database engine service

    You may want to disable "Affect the group" option for the following resources to avoid unessential resources bringing down the entire group and the SQL engine.

  • SQL Server Agent Service
  • MSDTC
  • Backup drives
  • File partake folders
  • In case these resources fail, investigations and manual restart should breathe performed without impacting the SQL engine service.

    Below are the steps to configure SQL Server Agent Service so that a failure to the SQL Agent resource does not move the group

  • Log on to any node of the cluster.
  • Start Cluster Administrator.
  • Under Groups, click the cluster group that includes the SQL Server Agent Service resource.
  • Right-click the SQL Agent Service resource and then click Properties.
  • On the Advanced tab, lucid the move the group check box, and then click OK.
  • Polling: utilize the Looks Alive and Is Alive parameters to specify how often the Cluster Service polls the resource to determine if it is up

    What does this mean: Usually they should utilize the default values of "Use values from resource type" unless you enjoy a compelling reason for otherwise.

    Pending Timeout: specify the amount of time a resource can breathe in a pending situation before the Cluster Service fails the resource.

    What does this mean: identical tactic as Polling should breathe applied to Pending Timeout. If there are issues with your cluster that require adjusting this parameter to avoid certain problems, you may want to tackle the root occasions rather than playing around with the number unless this is your last resort.

    Dependencies: This property is under Dependencies tab in the Resource Properties window to specify what other cluster resources are required online as a prerequisite for the resource to maintain online status.

    What does this mean: This is the cluster resource internal integrity checking mechanism and it is a very principal property to configure. For example, if the master database resides on cluster partake H drive, then they enjoy to build certain SQL Service has a dependency on H drive, such that SQL Service will wait for H drive being online before trying to bring itself online. Otherwise they will notice error message if H drive is soundless in the process of bringing online when the SQL service resource is trying to start up.On the other hand, they should eliminate unnecessary dependencies for SQL services. They may want to remove SQL dependencies to resources not essential to database engine. For example, a dump/backup drive may not breathe a excellent candidate as a SQL dependency. (Noted that some database backup software does require this categorical dependency to build the drive available for operations)

    File partake in Cluster

    In addition to the above two levels of properties, partake folders used by faultfinding SQL functionalities such as log shipping and snapshot replications, should breathe made as cluster resources. Local Windows folder partake names on each node may breathe lost when failover occurs.For example, you create a folder partake named "My_File_Share" on partake drive F of the lively node. If you don't defined the partake folder as a FileShare cluster resource, the partake denomination "My_File_Share" may not breathe recognized in the cluster after drive F fails over to another node. So the best drill to maintain your folder partake names is to build them cluster resources in the identical group of the SQL engine services. To create a Clustered file share, please notice KB article How to create file shares on a cluster (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/224967) for particular steps.

    Conclusions

    The above provided basic descriptions and configuration lead lines of the following configurable items: Failback, Dependencies, Restart, move Resource Group and its child parameters. outright of the items could enjoy significant repercussion on the SQL cluster group's failover behaviors. Users should breathe aware of the implications before implementing any of settings, and should test the adjusted environments to notice if the changes match with your design expectations before roll out to production environments.


    Creating a Fault-Tolerant Environment in Windows Server 2003 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    There are many ways to add foible tolerance to network services and resources running on Windows Server 2003 servers, and outright without the hassle of third-party software. Find out how to utilize them in this chapter from Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Insider Solutions.

    This chapter is from the engage 

    In This Chapter

  • Optimizing Disk Management for foible Tolerance

  • Maximizing Redundancy and Flexibility with Distributed File System

  • Simplifying foible Tolerance with Volume Shadow Copy

  • Optimizing Disk Utilization with Remote Storage

  • Optimizing Clusters to Simplify Administrative Overhead

  • Leveraging Network Load Balancing for Improved Availability

  • Realizing Rapid Recovery Using Automated System Recovery (ASR)

  • Best Practices

    Because more and more businesses rely on constant and uninterrupted access to their IT network resources, many technologies enjoy been created to abet ensure continuous uptime of servers and applications. Windows Server 2003 is inline with these new technologies to meet the demands of the modern industry model that seeks to provide a fault-tolerant network environment where unexpected downtime is a thing of the past. By combining Windows Server 2003 technologies with the arrogate hardware and universal best practices, IT organizations can realize both file-level and system-level foible tolerance to maintain a high flat of availability for their business-critical applications and network services.

    This chapter highlights the features available in Windows Server 2003 that target foible tolerance and provides best practices for their implementation of and application to the IT environment. On the file-system side, in addition to proper disk management and antivirus protection, Windows Server 2003 provides Distributed File System (DFS), Volume Shadow Copy (VSC), and Remote Storage technologies. Related to system-level foible tolerance, Windows Server 2003 includes the Microsoft Cluster Service (MSCS) and Network Load Balancing (NLB) technologies to provide redundancy and failover capabilities.

    System administrators enjoy long since relied on Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) technologies to provide levels of foible tolerance for their server disk resources. And though the technology is a close mainstay in server management, its significance should not breathe overlooked. There are a pair of ways to leverage RAID to optimize disk management in Windows Server 2003. The first is creating RAID disks using disk controller configuration utilities, and the second is creating the RAID disks using dynamic disk configuration from within the Windows Server 2003 operating system.

    Hardware-based RAID Solutions

    Using two or more disks, different RAID-level arrays can breathe configured to provide foible tolerance that can withstand disk failures and soundless provide uninterrupted disk access. Hardware-based RAID is achieved when a divorce RAID disk controller is used to configure and manage the disks participating in the RAID array. The RAID controller stores the information on the array configuration, including disk membership and status.

    Implementing hardware-level RAID configured and stored on the disk controller is preferred over the software-level RAID configurable within Windows Server 2003 Disk Management because the Disk Management and synchronization processes in hardware-level RAID are offloaded to the RAID controller. With Disk Management and synchronization processes offloaded from the RAID controller, the operating system will effect better overall.

    Another reason to provide hardware-level RAID as a best drill is that the configuration of the disks does not depend on the operating system. This gives administrators greater flexibility when it comes to recovering server systems and performing upgrades.

    Because there are many hardware-based RAID solutions available, it is principal to mention to the manufacturer's documentation on creating RAID arrays to understand the particular functions and peculiarities of the RAID disk controller in use.

    Using Dynamic Disk RAID Configurations

    Windows Server 2003 supports two types of disks: basic and dynamic. Basic disks are backward-compatible, sense that basic partitions can breathe accessed by previous Microsoft operating systems such as MS-DOS and Windows 95 when formatted using FAT; and when formatted using NTFS, Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows .NET Server 2003 can access them.

    Dynamic disks are managed by the operating system and provide several configuration options, including software-based RAID sets and the capability to extend volumes across multiple disks. Though there are several configuration options, including spanned and stripped volumes, the only really foible tolerant dynamic disk configurations involve creating mirrored volumes (RAID 1) or RAID 5 volumes as described in the following list:

  • Mirrored Volume (RAID 1). Mirrored volumes require two divorce disks, and the space allocated on each disk must breathe equal. Mirrored sets duplicate data across both disks and can withstand a separate disk failure. Because the mirrored volume is an exact replica of the first disk, the space capacity of a mirrored set is limited to half of the total allocated disk space.

  • RAID 5 Volume. Software-based RAID 5 volumes require three or more disks and provide faster read/write disk access than a separate disk. The space or volume provided on each disk of the RAID set must breathe equal. RAID 5 sets can withstand a separate disk failure and can continue to provide access to data using only the remaining disks. This capability is achieved by reserving a diminutive portion of each disk's allocated space to store data parity information that can breathe used to rebuild a failed disk or to continue to provide data access.

  • Using the Disk Management MMC

    Most disk-related administrative tasks can breathe performed using the Disk Management MMC snap-in. This utensil is located in the Computer Management console, but the standalone snap-in can besides breathe added in a divorce Microsoft Management Console window. Disk Management is used to identify disks, define disk volumes, and format the volumes.

    New Feature in the Windows Server 2003 Disk Management Console

    A new feature in the Windows Server 2003 Disk Management console enables administrators to besides manage disks on remote machines.

    To utilize the Disk Manager to create a software-based RAID, the disks that will participate in the array must first breathe converted to dynamic disks. This is a simple process by which the administrator right-clicks on each disk in question and chooses metamorphose to Dynamic, as shown in figure 22.1.

    Figure 22.1Figure 22.1 metamorphose basic disks to dynamic.

    The system will require a reboot to complete if the system volume is being converted to Dynamic. After the disks are converted, effect the following steps to set up a Mirrored volume or RAID 1 of the system volume:

  • Click Start, outright Programs, Administrative Tools, Computer Management.

  • In the left pane, if it is not already expanded, double-click Computer Management (local).

  • Click the plus token next to Storage, and select Disk Management.

  • In the prerogative pane, right-click the system volume and select Add Mirror.

  • Choose the disk on which to create the mirror for the system volume and click Add Mirror.

  • The volumes on each disk start a synchronization process that might entangle a few minutes or longer, depending on the size of the system volume and the types of disks being used. When the mirrored volume's status changes from Re-synching to Healthy, select File, Exit in the Computer Management console to nigh the window.

  • Using the Diskpart Command-Line Utility

    Diskpart.exe is a springy command-line disk management utility that performs most of the functions available to it with the Disk Management console. Using diskpart.exe, both basic volumes and dynamic volumes can breathe extended whereas the Disk Management can only extend dynamic volumes. The actual value of using Diskpart.exe is that it can breathe race with a script to automate volume management. This is particularly useful when automating server builds across several servers that enjoy the identical characteristics. For more information on automatic server installations, mention to Chapter 11, "Implementing Windows Server 2003."

    Extend a Basic Volume Using Diskpart.Exe

    If you want to extend a basic volume using diskpart.exe, the unallocated disk space must breathe on the identical disk as the original volume and must breathe contiguous with the volume you are extending. Otherwise, the command will fail.

    The syntax for Diskpart.exe is as follows:

    Diskpart.exe /s script

    The script referenced by the utility is a text file that will involve the specific instructions necessary for the desired function. For example, to extend a volume using unallocated space on the identical disk, the associated script file would keep affection this:

    Select Volume 2 Extend Exit

    Migrating from Windows Server 2003: 12 best practices straight from the trenches | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    group juvenile industry it network server room solving abet
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    Most of us enjoy hopefully managed to accumulate off the sinking ship that was Windows XP. As much of a recent remembrance as that has become, a new discontinue of life is rearing its head, and it's approaching fervently for those who haven't started planning for it. Microsoft's Windows Server 2003, a solid server operating system that's now about eleven and a half years old, is heading for complete extinction in just under 300 days. Microsoft has a trendy countdown timer already ticking.

    Seeing as they just finished their second server migration in a separate week (a personal record so far), sharing some of the finer aspects of how they are streamlining these transitions seems affection a timely fit. This braindump of sorts is a collection of best practices that they are routinely following for their own customers, and they seem to breathe serving us well so far.

    The best practices below outright assume that you enjoy gone through a replete inventory of your current servers, taking note how many servers are soundless in production and what ongoing workloads they support. If you don't know where you stand, you enjoy no notion where you're heading -- so desist reading here and start getting a grasp on your current server layout. I'm going to pen a fuller piece about how to inventory and contrivance a server drag that addresses outright of the non-technical criteria.

    Microsoft has redeem together a fairly excellent four-step first party lead that you can ensue on their Server 2003 EOL website, but as you can expect, it's chock replete of soft sells on numerous products you may or may not need, so entangle it with the accustomed grain of salt and accumulate an expert involved if necessary.

    Given you enjoy a solid inventory, a contrivance for replacement, and hardware to accumulate the job done, here's a rundown of some of the things saving us hours of frustration.

    There's Nothing Wrong with Re-Using Servers -- In Some Cases

    Need to re-deploy another physical server after ditching 2003? Refurbishing existing servers for usage in your upgraded environment is not sinful, affection some traditional MSPs or IT consulting firms may build it out to be. Many of the voices always pushing for "buy new!" are the ones who are used to making elephantine margins on expensive server purchases, so ensue the money trail when being baited into a brand new server when it may not breathe necessary.

    The last server I just finished deploying was a re-purposed Dell PowerEdge R210 1u rack mount server that was previously being underutilized as a mere Windows 7 evolution sandbox. With only a few years of age, and no just production workload wear (this is a lower discontinue box, but it was used as anything but a server), the box was a flawless felicitous for the 20-person office it would discontinue up supporting for AD, file shares, print serving, and other light needs.

    We didn't just jump to conclusions on OK'ing the box to breathe placed back into production, mind you. Re-use of the server was wholly contingent upon the unit passing outright initial underlying diagnostics of the existing hardware, and upon passing, getting numerous parts upgrades.

    For this particular Dell R210, they ended up installing the max amount of RAM it allows (16GB), the second fastest CPU it could entangle (a quad core Intel Xeon X3470), dual brand new Seagate 600GB 15K SAS arduous drives, and a new Dell H200 Perc RAID controller to exploit the disks. A copy of Windows Server 2012 R2 was besides purchased for the upgrade.

    We besides picked up a spare power supply for the unit to enjoy on hand in case the feeble one dies, since the unit doesn't enjoy warranty anymore. Having a spare HDD on hand doesn't hurt, either, for those planning such a similar move. You don't enjoy to rely on manufacturer warranty advocate if you can roll your own, and the two most likely parts to fail on any server are arguably the PSU and HDDs.

    Still enjoy
 a excellent server that has useful life left? Refurbish it! Consultants pushing new servers blindly usually enjoy
 elephantine
 margins backing up their intentions. They overhauled a Dell R210 for a 20-person office for less than half the cost of a brand new box. Proper stress testing and diagnosis before deciding to retrograde
 this route are critical. (Image Source: Dell)

    Still enjoy a excellent server that has useful life left? Refurbish it! Consultants pushing new servers blindly usually enjoy elephantine margins backing up their intentions. They overhauled a Dell R210 for a 20-person office for less than half the cost of a brand new box. Proper stress testing and diagnosis before deciding to retrograde this route are critical. (Image Source: Dell)

    Instead of spending upwards of $5000-$6000 on a proper new Dell PowerEdge T420 server, this customer spent about half a thousand on refurbishment labor, and another $2000 or so in parts. In the discontinue they ended up saving thousands on what I establish to breathe unnecessary hardware.

    We besides did a similar upgrade on an HP Proliant DL360e just a week prior. Second matching CPU installed, RAM increased, brand new Samsung 850 Pro SSDs redeem into a RAID 1, Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard, and a pair of extra fans. They took a capital outlay that would enjoy been no less than $5K and turned it into a $2K overhaul.

    Want to retrograde the extra mile with the refurbished system and extend fan life? On outright of their overhauls, they lubricate outright of the server fans with a few drops of sewing machine oil. You can read about how Great of a cheap lease on life this is per this TechRepublic blog post. A $5 bottle at Ace Hardware has lubricated dozens of servers and soundless has years of oil left.

    One last key: it's super principal to ensure you are using the prerogative software to diagnose the system's internals with outright parts being installed. On server overhauls, they race diagnostics before the system is approved for an overhaul, and besides after outright new parts retrograde in. Unlike a workstation where they can afford downtime due to a contaminated section in many cases, a server doesn't enjoy this benign of leeway for being down.

    Almost every server maker out there has custom software for testing their boxes. Their favorite server OEM, Dell, has excellent utilities under the guise of Dell Diagnostics that can breathe loaded onto a DVD or USB stick and ran in a "Live CD" style. Only after outright tests pass with flying colors is a box allowed to retrograde back into production.

    In addition, they always stress test servers days before they are meant to breathe placed back into production with a free utensil by JAM Software called HeavyLoad. It does the equivalent of red-lining a car for as many hours as you wish. They usually stress a server for 6-10 hours before giving it a green stamp of being ready for workloads again.

    In another related scenario last year, they had a client who had dual Dell PowerEdge 2900 servers in production. They refurbished both, and kept one running as the production unit on Windows Server 2012, with the second clone kept in the server cage as a erotic spare and as a parts depot. It was a rock solid contrivance that is humming away nicely to this day, one year later nearly to the day.

    We enjoy numerous clients running such refurbished servers today and they are extremely contented not only with the results, but besides with the money they saved.

    Move to Windows Server 2012 R2 Unless You enjoy Specific Reasons You Can't

    I've talked about this notion so many times before, it feels affection I'm beating the inanimate horse. But it's an principal section in planning for any new server to breathe in production for the next 5-7 or so years for your organization, so it's not something that should breathe swept under the rug.

    There is absolutely zero reason you should breathe installing servers running on Windows Server 2008 R2 these days. That is, unless you enjoy a special software or technical reason to breathe doing so. But aside from that, there are no advantages to running Windows Server 2008 R2 on new servers going forward. We've redeem Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 through extensive paces already in live client environments and the former is leagues ahead of the latter as far as stability, performance, resource usage, and numerous other areas, especially related to Hyper-V, clustering, and related functions.

    Need further reason to tarry away from Windows Server 2008? Seeing as they are already halfway through 2014, you would breathe doing yourself a disservice since Microsoft is cutting advocate for outright flavors of 2008 by January of 2020. That's a mere sliver of just over five years away -- too nigh for comfort for any server going into production today.

    Server 2012 R2 is getting advocate through January of 2023 which is much more workable in terms of giving us wiggle room if they necessity to retrograde over a five year deployment on this next retrograde around, with room to spare.

    At FireLogic, any new server going up is Windows Server 2012 R2 by default, and they will breathe anxiously waiting to notice what is around the corner as Windows Server releases seem to enjoy a track record lately of only getting markedly better.

    A quick note on licensing for Windows Server 2012 R2: finish know that you can race three replete instances of Windows Server 2012 R2 on any gauge copy of the product. This includes one physical (host) instance for the bare metal server itself, and two fully licensed VMs at no imbue via Hyper-V off the identical box.

    It's an awesome fringe capitalize and they entangle odds of it often to spin up VMs for things affection RDS (Remote Desktop Services). You can read about the benefits of Server 2012 licensing in a Great post by Microsoft MVP Aidan Finn.

    Ditch the SANs: Storage Spaces Is a Workable, Cheaper Alternative

    Like clockwork, most organizations with great storage needs or intent to finish things affection clustering, are listening to the vendors who are beating the SAN (Storage locality Network) drum near incessantly. If the clock were turned back just four to five years, I could notice the justification in doing so. But it's 2014, and Microsoft now lets you roll your own SAN in Server 2012 and up with a feature I've blogged about before, Windows Storage Spaces.

    I recently heard a stat from an industry storage expert that nearly 50 percent or more of SANs on the market race Windows behind the scenes anyway, so what's so special about their fancy hardware that justifies the high expense tags? I'm having a arduous time seeing the benefits, and as such, am not looking at SANs for clients as first-line recommendations. Unless there's a excellent reason Storage Spaces can't finish it, we're not buying the SAN line any longer going forward.

    Think Storage Spaces isn't capable of great
 production workloads yet? The Windows Release team replaced eight replete
 racks of SANs with cheaper, plentiful DAS attached to Windows Server 2012 R2 boxes, using this production network to pass upwards of 720PB of data on a weekly basis. They carve their cost/TB by 33 percent, and ended up tripling their previous storage capacity. While far larger in scale than anything small-midsize businesses would breathe doing, this just shows how scalable and cost efficacious Storage Spaces actually is. (Image Source: Aidan Finn)

    Think Storage Spaces isn't capable of great production workloads yet? The Windows Release team replaced eight replete racks of SANs with cheaper, plentiful DAS attached to Windows Server 2012 R2 boxes, using this production network to pass upwards of 720PB of data on a weekly basis. They carve their cost/TB by 33 percent, and ended up tripling their previous storage capacity. While far larger in scale than anything small-midsize businesses would breathe doing, this just shows how scalable and cost efficacious Storage Spaces actually is. (Image Source: Aidan Finn)

    The premise is very simple. Tie sets of JBOD roll your own DAS (direct attached storage -- SATA/SAS) drives in gauge servers running Server 2012 R2 into storage pools which can breathe aligned into Storage Spaces. These are nothing more than fancy replicated, foible tolerant sets of DAS drives that can scale out storage space without sacrificing performance or the reliability of traditional SANs.

    Coupled with Microsoft's new age file system, ReFS, Storage Spaces are highly reliable, highly scalable, and future proofed since Microsoft is supporting the technology for the long haul from everything I am reading.

    While Storage Spaces aren't bootable volumes yet, this will change with time, probably rendering the necessity for RAID cards besides a moot point by then, as I questioned in a previous in-depth article on Storage Spaces.

    You can read about Microsoft's own internal cost savings and tribulations in a post-SAN world for their Windows Release team, which has far greater data storage needs than any industry I consult with.

    Clean Out AD/DNS For outright References to inanimate Domain Controllers

    This nasty thorn of an issue was something I had to rectify on a client server replacement just this week. When domain controllers die, they may retrograde to server heaven, but their remnants are alive and well, causing havoc within lively Directory and DNS. It's principal to ensure these inanimate phalanges are cleansed before introducing a new Windows Server 2012 R2 server into the fold, as you will enjoy an uphill battle otherwise.

    In a current Windows Server 2003 environment, you can easily find your complete list of lively and inanimate domain controllers via some simple commands or GUI-based clicks. Match this list with what you actually soundless enjoy running, and if there are discrepancies, it's time to investigate if any of the inanimate boxes were handling any of your FSMO (Flexible separate Master Operation) roles. A simple passage to view what boxes are in control of FSMO in your domain can breathe establish on this article.

    While a potentially Dangerous operation, if any inanimate boxes are shown as controlling any FSMO roles, you necessity to retrograde through and seize those roles back onto an lively AD controller (NOT on a potential new Windows Server 2012 R2 box). The steps to exploit this are outlined here.

    In most small/midsize organizations they support, the FSMO roles are held by a separate server, and they can easily transition these over to new Windows Server 2012 R2 instances after the Windows Server 2012 R2 box is promoted as a domain controller.

    Be certain that you besides finish a metadata cleanup of AD for outright references of the feeble inanimate DCs, and finally, clean out your DNS manually for any references leftover as well -- this includes fine tooth combing outright forward and reverse lookup zones for leftover records. Even a separate remaining entry to a inanimate box could occasions messes you want to avoid down the road.

    Once you enjoy a fully clean FSMO role structure, which sit on a well DC, you can initiate proper formal role transfer over to the Windows Server 2012 R2 box after you enjoy promoted the system properly through Server Manager. Canadian IT Pro blog has an excellent illustrated lead on handling this.

    Remember: your network is only as strong as its lowest common denominator, and that is the core of AD and DNS in most respects. A clean AD is a contented AD.

    Getting "Access is Denied" Errors on new Windows Server 2012 R2 DC Promotion? Quick Fix

    I lost hours on a recent migration to a Windows Server 2012 R2 server from a Windows Server 2003 R2 box due to this Access is Denied error. After cleaning out a few things which I thought may enjoy been causing Server Manager's integrated ADPREP on 2012 R2 to bomb, I finally establish the fix which was causing the below error:

    adprep_error_2012_registry_issue

    The fix? The Windows Server 2003 R2 server had registry issues related to not giving a proper key permissions to the LOCAL SERVICE account on that box. Prior to the adjustment, the registry key in question only had read/write access to the domain and enterprise admins, which was fruitless for what ADPREP wants to notice in a replete domain controller promotion of a Windows Server 2012 R2 box.

    The replete fix is described on this blog post, and don't mind the references to Windows client systems -- the information is accurate and fully applies to Windows Server 2003 and likely Windows Server 2008 as well, depending on what your feeble server runs.

    Other problems that could lead to this nasty error involve having multiple IP addresses assigned to a separate NIC on a domain controller (not kosher in general); using a non-Enterprise Admin or Domain Scheme Admin account to effect the promotion; and having the new Windows Server 2012 R2 server pointing its DNS requests to something other than a primary Windows DNS server, likely your feeble DC itself.

    Follow Best Practices When Configuring 2012 R2 for DNS

    DNS by and far is one of the most misconfigured, maligned, and misunderstood entities that build up a Windows network. If I got a dime for every time I had to clean up DNS in a customer network due to misconfiguration... you know the rest.

    You can read my replete in-depth post on how DNS should keep inside a company domain, but here are the main points to entangle away:

  • Your Windows Server 2012 R2 server should always breathe the primary DNS record. I am assuming you will breathe hosting DNS on your new Windows Server 2012 R2 domain controller, as is the case with most small-midsize organizations. If so, the primary DNS records on both the server itself, as well as what is broadcasted over DHCP to clients, should breathe the actual internal IP of the server itself (or the NIC team you enjoy setup for it).
  • Consider adding the IP of your firewall as a secondary internal DNS server. This goes more so for the DHCP settings being broadcasted to clients, but reckon this: if your DNS server is undergoing maintenance or is rebooting, how finish clients resolve internet addresses during this time? To avoid the helpdesk calls, I usually set secondary DNS to point to the Meraki firewall they deployed so it can exploit backup DNS resolution. This works extremely well in periods of server downtime.
  • Never utilize public DNS servers in client DHCP broadcasting or on the IP settings of Windows Server 2012 R2. This is a sizable no-no when it comes to Windows networks, and I notice it outright too often on maligned networks. The only dwelling public DNS servers should breathe used (Google DNS, OpenDNS, etc) is on the DNS Forwarders page of the DNS administration locality on Windows Server 2012 R2. This ensures the internal network is trying to finish first-level resolution externally, causing numerous headaches in the passage AD wants to work. I dispute how to set this up on my aforementioned DNS Best Practices article.
  • Don't disable IPv6 in nearly outright cases. balky to the notion of "less is more" in the world of servers, IPv6, while soundless not widely used, is having itself baked in as a dependency on many core Windows Server functions. Unless you specifically enjoy tested to ensure disabling IPv6 doesn't occasions any issues, I would almost always recommend leaving it turned on. It doesn't harm anything, and Microsoft even publicly advises against turning it off. As it situation on its blog post, Microsoft does not finish any internal testing on Windows Server scenarios with IPv6 turned off. You've been warned!
  • Take some time to ensure the above best practices are followed when setting up your Windows Server 2012 R2 DNS, because an improperly configured network will occasions you endless headache. confidence me -- I've been knee profound in numerous server cleanups in the last few years where DNS was the occasions of dozens of hours of troubleshooting down the drain.

    Use the chance to Implement Resiliency Best Practices: Dual NICs, PSUs, RAID, etc

    A server update is the flawless chance to implement the kinds of things I wrote about in a piece earlier last week outlining what excellent backbone resiliency looks affection on faultfinding servers and network components. If you are purchasing new tackle outright, there is no reason at outright you shouldn't breathe spec'ing out your system(s) with at least the following criticals:

  • Dual NICs or better: Windows Server 2012 R2 has NIC teaming functionality baked into the core OS -- no fancy drivers needed. It's smooth to setup, works well, and protects you in the face of cable/port/NIC/switch failure during heavy workload periods.
  • Dual PSUs or better: The lowest discontinue Dell server they will actively recommend to customers is the Dell PowerEdge T420 when buying new. This awesome tower/rack server has the ability to enjoy dual power supplies loaded in which can breathe erotic swapped and removed on demand in case of failure. Zero downtime needed. Can't disburse the money on a hot-swap PSU server? Buy a spare PSU to enjoy on hand, even if you enjoy warranty coverage.
  • RAID-1 across (2) SAS or SSD Drives for Windows: Since Storage Spaces cannot breathe made bootable yet, they are stuck with using tried and just RAID for the core Windows installation on a server. Their go-to option is a pair of high-end SSDs or dual SAS drives paired in a RAID1 on a decent controller.
  • RAID-1 or Storage Spaces for data volumes: You enjoy slightly more flexibility with data volumes since they don't necessity to breathe bootable to the autochthonous bare metal server. Their new up and coming favorite is Storage Spaces due to its cost effectiveness and flexibility, but if you enjoy a RAID controller already due to needing it for your Windows install, then using it to build a 1-2 volume array for storage works well, too. They affection RAID-1 sets due to their simplicity and ease of data recovery in the face of failure, but RAID 10 is an option if you want something a runt more fancy and can spare the extra pair hundred bucks.
  • Dual WAN connectivity: For more and more businesses, having outside connectivity to the main office, or similarly, up to cloud services, is getting increasingly common and important. While Cisco ASAs or Sonicwalls used to breathe go-to options for many IT pros, these days they are finding huge success by choosing to retrograde with Meraki firewalls and access points. Not only finish they enjoy dual WAN connectivity across their firewall line, but the boxes are fully cloud managed and receive firmware updates every few weeks automatically. Can't Say enough excellent things about these excellent units.
  • Most of the items on the above list aren't going to increase costs that much more. For the amount of productivity loss and headache that not having them will cost otherwise, the expense up front is well worth it in my eyes and that of my customers.

    Promote, Test, Demote, Raise: 4 Keys to a Successful Domain Controller Replacement

    PTDR is a goofy acronym, but it represents the four key items that they usually ensue when implementing new domain controllers into an environment, and wiping away the vestiges of the legacy domain levels. These steps ensure that you aren't removing any feeble servers before the functionality of new replacements are fully tested.

    It goes something affection this:

  • Promote your new Windows Server 2012 R2 DC. After joining your new Windows Server 2012 R2 server as a member server, it needs to breathe promoted properly to breathe a domain controller on the network. Ideally, this means having it entangle over a shared role for handling DNS as well (if it will breathe taking over fully), and slowly transferring things affection file shares, shared printers, etc. accumulate the basics in dwelling for what you want this box to exploit so you can allow time for step two.
  • Test the environment after promotion. Is everything working OK? Is the new server replicating AD information properly and handling DNS requests the passage it should? Are there any other goblins coming out of the AD closet you necessity to tackle? Give yourself anywhere from a few days to a week of breathing room to let these nasties raise to the surface so they can breathe expunged properly before giving the new DC replete control of the network.
  • Demote the feeble Windows Server 2003 server fully after transferring FSMO/DNS roles to it. After you had a chance to test outright functionality, and transfer core server roles from Windows Server 2003 to Windows Server 2012 R2, it's time to demote the server. A Great lead on how this works can breathe establish here. Once it gets demoted, that's it -- entangle it off the network, unplug it, and archive the contents of its system situation into something affection a Shadowprotect or Acronis backup.
  • Raise the functional levels of your forest and domain. Running a Windows Server 2012 R2 server on a network acting affection it's a Windows Server 2003 one has few benefits. The former introduced numerous enhancements to AD and core infrastructure services within Windows Server, and null of those advantages can near to the surface until you raise your forest and domain functional levels. This is a one time change that cannot breathe undone, but if you enjoy confirmed you enjoy no other older servers running as DCs, you can safely effect these raises.
  • Some of the enhancements made in the Windows Server 2012/2012 R2 functional levels are described in an excellent WindowsITPro post.

    Virtualize Up Internally, or Better Yet, Virtualize Out via the Cloud

    It's no clandestine that virtualizing is an smooth passage to reduce the necessity for physical hardware. They tend to prefer using Hyper-V from Microsoft, mostly in the profile of Hyper-V that is baked into the replete Windows Server 2012 R2 gauge edition. It's Microsoft's go-to kind 2 hypervisor option that allows us to host VMs on domain controllers for companies that don't enjoy money for extra divorce servers and don't want to drag VMs into the cloud.

    The other option, which they haven't adopted with clients that widely yet, is the VMWare alternative called Hyper-V Server 2012 R2 which is a completely free kind 1 hypervisor that lives natively on the raw bare metal itself. You heard prerogative -- it's totally free, doesn't cost a dime, and is not feature crippled in any way. finish note that the sole purpose of this edition of Windows Server is to merely host Hyper-V virtual machines. It can'texplains why in detail.

    For many organizations, especially ones either looking to drag from expensive VMWare rollouts, or considering going down that path, Hyper-V Server 2012 R2 is an awesome option. It receives replete advocate from Microsoft in terms of Windows Updates (there are relatively few needed each month, but they finish near out) and follows the identical exact advocate lifecycle policy as Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard, which has a sunset of Jan 2023.

    A lot of customers are snoopy as to what exact areas they can offload by using a cloud IaaS provider affection Azure. This tidy infographic explains it fairly well. Microsoft handles the networking backbone, storage arrays, servers themselves, virtualization hypervisor, and two items not shown -- the maintenance and geo-redundancy of the instances, too. Not as nice as what SaaS offers, but if you necessity your own replete
 blown Windows Server instances, IaaS on Azure is as clean as it gets. (Image Source: TechNet Blogs)

    A lot of customers are snoopy as to what exact areas they can offload by using a cloud IaaS provider affection Azure. This tidy infographic explains it fairly well. Microsoft handles the networking backbone, storage arrays, servers themselves, virtualization hypervisor, and two items not shown -- the maintenance and geo-redundancy of the instances, too. Not as nice as what SaaS offers, but if you necessity your own replete blown Windows Server instances, IaaS on Azure is as clean as it gets. (Image Source: TechNet Blogs)

    While keeping VMs internally is a Great first-party option, and getting more ripen by the day, they are actively recommending to many clients that touching their VM needs off to services affection Azure or Rackspace is a much better bet, especially for organizations with no formal IT staff and no MSP to drop back on. These platforms entangle custody of the hardware maintenance, resiliency, geo-redundancy, and numerous other aspects that are tough to exploit on their own with limited resources.

    For example, they were at a turning point with a ticket broker who either needed to supplant 4-6 standalone aging boxes with new ones, or opt to drag them to the cloud as VMs. They ended up choosing to build the replete drag to Azure with the former boxes being converted into IaaS VMs. With the ability to create virtual networks that can breathe linked back to your office, they ended up tying those Azure machines back over a VPN being tunneled by a Meraki MX60 firewall. After stabilizing the VPN tunnel to Azure, the broker hasn't looked back.

    When deciding on whether to retrograde cloud or tarry on premise, there are numerous decision points to consider. They abet customers wade through these regularly. But you can ensue the recommendation I penned in an article from about a year ago that went over the core criteria to utilize when outlining an intended path.

    Evaluate What Internal Needs Can breathe Offloaded to SaaS

    Pinning up extra servers just to continue the age-old mess of "hosting your own" services internally, whether it's on-prem via Hyper-V or in the cloud on Azure IaaS, is just modest silly. SaaS offerings of every shape and size are trimming the number of items that are truly reliant on servers, sense you should breathe doing your homework on what items could breathe offloaded into most cost-effective, less maintenance-hungry options.

    For example, it's a no-brainer these days that Office 365, in the profile of Exchange Online, is the best ante for hosting industry email these days. Businesses used to host Exchange, their own spam filters, and archiving services -- outright of which needed convoluted, expensive licensing to drudgery and operate. Office 365 brings it outright together under one smooth to utilize SaaS service which is always running the latest and greatest software from Microsoft. I haven't been bashful about how much my company loves Office 365, especially for email.

    Another particular that can likely breathe evaluated to supplant traditional file shares is SharePoint Online. Their own company made the switch last year and they are nearing their year designate on the product soon. While they maintain a diminutive subset of files on-premise soundless (client PC backups; too great to maintain in the cloud), the bulk of their day to day client-facing documentation and supporting files are outright in SharePoint Online now, accessible from OneDrive for Business, the web browser, and numerous mobile devices. It's an awesome alternative to hosting file shares, if its limitations drudgery with your industry needs.

    And for many companies, hosting their own phone server or PBX for VoIP needs has always been a necessity. But this day in age, why continue to perpetuate this nightmare when offerings affection CallTower Hosted Lync exist? This hybrid UCaaS (Unified Communications as a Service) solution and VoIP telephone offering from CallTower brings the best of a modern phone system along with the huge benefits of Lync together into a separate package. They enjoy been on this platform ourselves, along with a number of clients, for a few months now and cannot imagine going back to the status quo.

    Still hosting your own PBX, plus paying for GoToMeeting/Webex, and maintaining PRIs or SIP trunks? CallTower has a UCaaS solution called Hosted Lync which integrates outright of the above under a simple, cheap cloud-hosted PBX umbrella that runs over any gauge WAN connection(s). I moved FireLogic onto this platform, and fully believe this is the future of UC as I can notice it. (Image Source: CallTower)

    Still hosting your own PBX, plus paying for GoToMeeting/Webex, and maintaining PRIs or SIP trunks? CallTower has a UCaaS solution called Hosted Lync which integrates outright of the above under a simple, cheap cloud-hosted PBX umbrella that runs over any gauge WAN connection(s). I moved FireLogic onto this platform, and fully believe this is the future of UC as I can notice it. (Image Source: CallTower)

    Hosting your own servers has its benefits, but it besides comes with its unprejudiced partake of pains that can, as shown above, breathe avoided by using cost efficacious alternative SaaS offerings. They almost always offload capable needs to SaaS platforms where workable these days for customers as it continues to build industry sense from a price, redundancy, and maintenance perspective.

    Moving File Shares? utilize the chance to clean House!

    Most organizations don't enjoy excellent formal policies for de-duplicating data, or at the least, ensuring that file shares are properly maintained and not flooded with needless data. If you haven't skimmed your file shares recently, a server drag to Windows Server 2012 R2 is the flawless chance to evaluate what exists and what can go.

  • Take inventory of current shares. As I mentioned earlier, if you don't know where you stand, you enjoy no notion where you're heading. It's affection one of those Google cars hitting snow or rain -- going somewhere, but not intelligently. build a simple exceed sheet of outright the shares, and a summary of who has rights to what.
  • See what can breathe culled -- less is more in the world of shares. There's no reason a company of 30 people needs 100 file shares. Someone wasn't in the driver's seat when it comes to motto no. Regardless of where you are, notice what can breathe logically cut, and better yet, consolidated into other shares. accumulate rid of duplicated data, and utilize the chance to clean up internal policies on what gets stored where and for how long.
  • Move the shares to RAID-backed or Storage Spaces Windows Server 2012 R2 volume(s). File shares running off separate non-redundant arduous drives is policy for failure. utilize this chance to not only clean up feeble data, but besides dwelling the cleansed data onto proper redundant, tested volumes that can exploit the failure of any separate given drive. Using Windows 7 or Windows 8 workstations as file partake hosts is not best practice, either, no matter how cheap and friendly such an option may look.
  • In some cases, they won't let clients drag data onto clean volumes of a new Windows Server 2012 R2 server until they enjoy been able to sit down with them and verify that feeble garbage data has been culled and cleaned out. Garbage in, garbage out. Don't perpetuate a contaminated situation any longer than needed. A server upgrade is ripe timing to compel action here.

    Is a Server Migration Above Your Head? Hire an Expert

    Moving between servers is something warranted once every 5-7 years for most companies, and especially for smaller entities without IT staff, handling such a drag first party is rarely a excellent idea. Companies affection mine are handling these situations at least once a month now. We've (almost) seen it all, been there, and done that -- not to brag, but to Say that professionals usually know what they are doing since they are doing this week in, week out.

    The number of times we've been called in for an SOS on server migrations or email migrations gone south is staggering. And it's usually when they accumulate the muster which is generally the time it's too late to reverse course and start from scratch the prerogative way. Customers loathe emergency labor fees, but honestly, the best passage to avoid them is to avoid the mess in the first place!

    Not only can a professional abet with the actual technical aspects of a Windows Server 2003 to Windows Server 2012 R2 server move, but besides abet evaluate potential options for slimming down internal needs and offloading as much as workable to SaaS or IaaS in the cloud. Increasingly, it is besides principal that organizations under PCI and HIPAA compliance umbrellas reckon the finer aspects of end-to-end security such as encryption at-rest, in-transit, and other related areas. A professional can abet piece such intricate needs into a proven, workable solution.

    With Windows Server 2003 being deprecated in under 300 days at this point, if you haven't started thinking about touching off that feeble server yet, the time to start is prerogative about now. Seeing as organizations such as healthcare offices and those that exploit credit card payments enjoy much to lose with failing HIPAA or PCI compliance, for example, there's no reason to procrastinate any longer.

    Have any other best practices to partake when touching off Server 2003? partake them below!

    Photo Credit: dotshock/Shutterstock

    Derrick WlodarzDerrick Wlodarz is an IT Specialist who owns Park Ridge, IL (USA) based technology consulting & service company FireLogic, with over eight+ years of IT experience in the private and public sectors. He holds numerous technical credentials from Microsoft, Google, and CompTIA and specializes in consulting customers on growing erotic technologies such as Office 365, Google Apps, cloud-hosted VoIP, among others. Derrick is an lively member of CompTIA's matter Matter Expert Technical Advisory Council that shapes the future of CompTIA exams across the world. You can gain him at derrick at wlodarz dot net.



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