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The costs of illegal US Detentions and Interrogations publish-9/11 | EADE105 braindumps and Free exam PDF

through Letta Tayler and Elisa Epstein[1]

This file become posted on January 9, 2022 by means of prices of war, a assignment at the Watson Institute of overseas and Public Affairs at Brown college

“We also have to work, notwithstanding, form of the darkish facet, if you will… if we'll be a success. that is the area these folks function in, and so or not it's going to be essential for US to make use of any means at their disposal, in fact, to obtain their aim.”– US vice chairman Dick Cheney, September 16, 2001[2]

Two a long time after the attacks of September 11, 2001, and the arrival of the first terrorism suspects at Guantánamo Bay on January 11, 2002, many americans might also now not take into account particulars of the systematic abuses performed with the aid of the us critical Intelligence agency (CIA) and US militia against a whole lot if not thousands of Muslims detained as part of what President George W. Bush abruptly declared a worldwide “struggle on Terror.” Yet for a lot of people in international locations backyard the united states, recollections of the united states executive’s brutal treatment of detained Muslims remain powerful. and a few abuses proceed, handing a recruitment card to Islamist armed groups and reducing the bar for treatment of terrorism suspects international.

With the participation of at the least 54 governments, the CIA secretly and extrajudicially transferred as a minimum 119 overseas Muslims from one international country to one other for incommunicado detention and harsh interrogation at quite a lot of CIA black websites. at the least 39 of the men have been subjected to “waterboarding,” “walling,” “rectal feeding” – a variety of rape – and other styles of torture.[3] the USA military additionally held thousands of foreign Muslim protection detainees and prisoners-of-battle – including some ladies and boys – at its detention centers overseas together with Abu Ghraib in Iraq, Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan, and its naval base at Guantánamo, and also subjected many to genuine and psychological abuse.[4]

As of January 6, 2022, the U.S. become nevertheless detaining 39 of the very nearly 800 guys and boys it brought to Guantánamo from 2002 to 2008. Twenty-seven of people who stay have under no circumstances been charged.[5] Many lack enough scientific care and even entry to their medical data, making the detention center a residing legacy of the rights violations spawned by way of 9/eleven.[6] The militia fee gadget created to prosecute suspects at Guantánamo is basically fallacious. in consequence, the five prisoners accused of plotting the 9/11 attacks have yet to be dropped at trial, depriving them of due procedure and the survivors and the households of the just about three,000 individuals who died within the attacks of their correct to justice.[7]

established way of life has regularly glossed over the cruelty and disasters of these measures. for instance, the 2012 blockbuster film Zero dark Thirty and a 2019 “interrogation” show at the foreign secret agent Museum in Washington, DC – simplest partly revised after an outcry by human rights activists and lawmakers – trivialized the abuses inflicted on suspects and suggested, erroneously, that the torture worked.[8]

today, even when the united states decries illegal practices abroad, it seems to have lost the ethical authority that may compel other countries to curb them. moreover, besides the fact that children President Barack Obama declared an conclusion to secret detention and torture upon taking office in 2009, merciless and unlawful US counterterrorism practices adopted in line with 9/11 continue to this day, as do their repercussions.

No US govt officers had been held responsible for developing, authorizing, or implementing the CIA’s secret detention and torture classes. All but a heavily redacted abstract of the landmark 2014 US Senate Intelligence Committee file on the covert CIA application (the “Torture document”) remains labeled. The portions that have been launched clarify that the torture changed into as needless in producing actionable intelligence as it was brutal.[9] Like Presidents Obama and Donald J. Trump earlier than him, President Joseph R. Biden has shown no urge for food for releasing the Torture record, an awful lot much less criminally investigating the architects of the Rendition, Detention, and Interrogation (RDI) program or other put up-September eleven abuses. Biden additionally opposes enabling the international crook court docket to include abuses via US nationals in its investigation on grave human rights crimes in Afghanistan.

abroad, the U.S. has persevered abusive practices against terrorism suspects including transferring them to international locations that torture, and, in at the least some circumstances, unlawfully detaining them at US-run sites abroad or at sea. despite the fact such US detention-related counterterrorism violations have dramatically reduced, Washington has replaced seize with kill, conducting air strikes – regularly with armed drones that have killed hundreds of civilians, including outside identified battlefields. Its counterterrorism campaign has spread to eighty five countries with scant transparency or oversight.[10]

meanwhile, some US allies in the combat against armed organizations like Al Qaeda, the Islamic State (ISIS), and Boko Haram are engaging in torture and other crimes towards terrorism suspects, including little ones, and detaining them inhumanely and, in many cases, indefinitely. Some allies have done suspects following fallacious trials.

This paper assesses the massive prices of US dazzling renditions, unlawful detentions, and torture after September eleven – together with to the victims and suspects, to US taxpayers, and to US ethical authority and counterterrorism efforts international, in the end jeopardizing common human rights protections for everybody. It argues that gigantic counterterrorism reforms, including closing the detention center at Guantánamo, strengthening measures to supply protection to civilians from dying and harm, expanding transparency and accountability for the crimes the U.S. has committed, and addressing non secular and racial biases, are important steps toward mitigating the hurt.

The Taliban’s return to vigor and the united states military withdrawal from Afghanistan in August 2021 will check the U.S. government’s criminal motive for indefinite law-of-battle detentions at Guantánamo, as smartly as the Biden administration’s commitment to adopting a extra rights-respecting strategy to counterterrorism. up to now, Biden administration moves raise sobering questions about its dedication to ending the so-known as “war on Terror.” Measures of challenge that they outline under encompass the Justice branch’s willingness to aspect-step essential felony questions on habeas rights for the men held at Guantánamo and to block definite testimony involving CIA torture, and Biden’s obvious intent to proceed the usage of deadly force backyard diagnosed warfare zones with drone strikes and special forces raids euphemistically rebranded as “over the horizon” operations.[11]

Key strategies

Biden should take daring steps to repair the harm from abusive US interrogations and detentions, starting with the closure of the us jail at Guantánamo. amongst other measures, the President may still release the Torture file, and authorize the legal professional familiar to nominate a distinct prosecutor to hang abusers to account. Biden should still increase transparency and accountability for different crimes and violations perpetrated within the identify of countering terrorism, including unlawful air strikes and raids that kill and injure civilians both out and in of identified battle zones. He should formally ask for forgiveness and supply redress to victims. anything much less now not best inadequately addresses the struggling and loss of life wrought by way of the united states, however additionally hazards perpetuating cycles of violence by using fueling the narrative of corporations just like the Islamic State and Al Qaeda that the West is at warfare with Islam.

On September eleven, 2001, coordinated strikes through Al Qaeda members who hijacked 4 airliners killed well-nigh 3,000 individuals, surpassing Pearl Harbor as the deadliest assault on US soil.[12] lots of the lifeless have been from the U.S. however greater than 300 had been from 84 other countries. The death toll continues to upward thrust amongst first responders and attack survivors.[13] On September 16, President George W. Bush declared a “campaign,” a “warfare on terrorism” – a term he rapidly amended to a “war on Terror” – against Al Qaeda and all terrorist agencies, unleashing a collection of activities that diminished the bar for human rights protections around the globe.[14]

On September 17, Bush issued a secret memo empowering the CIA to covertly catch and detain people "posing a constant, severe hazard of violence or demise to US folks and pastimes or planning terrorist actions.”[15] A day later, Bush signed into law the 2001 Authorization for using armed forces drive (AUMF), passed by Congress four days prior. The AUMF granted the executive near-limitless and indefinite vigour to wage conflict in opposition t any “countries, organizations or folks” linked to the assaults – a power that Bush, in addition to his successors Donald J. Trump and Barack Obama used as a blank examine to wage a warfare without boundaries in opposition t companies akin to Al Qaeda and the Islamic State (ISIS).[16] Three weeks after enacting the AUMF, the USA led a coalition that invaded Afghanistan to rout out Al Qaeda leader Osama bin laden, and his forces, after the ruling Taliban refused at hand him over to the us.[17] On January 11, 2002, the primary 20 guys to be imprisoned at Guantánamo had been flown to the bottom aboard a US military airplane. In March 2003, a US-led coalition invaded Iraq, in what Bush justified partially as a mission to “end [Iraqi leader] Saddam Hussein's support for terrorism.”[18]

Renditions, Detentions, and Interrogations

The memo signed through Bush days after the 9/11 assaults led to the Rendition, Detention, and Interrogation RDI application, below which the CIA and, at the company’s behest, US allies, covertly detained as a minimum 119 Muslim terrorism suspects whom they had captured or kidnapped in Pakistan, Afghanistan and other foreign nations.[19] often aided with the aid of foreign security brokers, the CIA held or transferred the detainees to undisclosed prisons referred to as “black sites” that it operated in nations together with Afghanistan, Lithuania, Romania, Poland, and Thailand, in an apparent try to keep them outdoor the attain of US and overseas legislation. The CIA additionally secretly held prisoners internal US-run armed forces prisons together with Guantánamo. a number of black websites or prisons retaining the detainees had been run with the aid of different international protection functions including in Afghanistan, Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco. The prisoners had been held incommunicado in merciless, inhuman, or deeply degrading situations for months or years.[20]

in addition, the CIA subjected at the least 39 of these men to torture and other unwell-treatment that it euphemistically referred to as “greater interrogation options,” in line with the Senate Torture file.[21] These blanketed forcing the detained guys to maintain painful stress positions for hours, submerging their heads in water to the factor of near suffocation (“waterboarding”), denying them sleep for days, “walling” (slamming a detainee’s head into what become alleged to be a versatile wall), sensory deprivation, sexual assault together with “rectal feeding” (forcing pureed meals right into a detainee’s anus, a procedure that has no nutritional or clinical value), compelled nudity, and psychological abuse together with threats of rape and different violence in opposition t them and their family members.[22] at least 9 FBI agents had been quickly transferred to the CIA to take part within the interrogations, in accordance with guidance that grew to be public in November 2021.[23]

The CIA additionally tortured opponents of then-Libyan chief Muammar Gaddafi before sending them lower back to Libya the place they have been abused anew, in keeping with money owed by means of former detainees and files from the CIA and uk’s Secret Intelligence service (MI6).[24] They also kidnapped an Egyptian cleric and sent him to Cairo, the place he alleges he became time and again tortured and raped.[25]

as a minimum fifty four governments participated to varying levels in the RDI program, in response to a finished 2012 Open Society Foundations file. besides internet hosting CIA black websites, forms of suggestions blanketed detaining, interrogating, or abusing the prisoners, enabling the use of airspace and airports for CIA flights that secretly transferred the detainees across borders, and sharing intelligence.[26]

the U.S. military also held hundreds of overseas Muslim protection detainees and Iraqi prisoners-of-conflict at detention centers it controlled abroad. The CIA operated black sites or had access to one of the crucial detainees in these prisons as well, including at Guantánamo and in sections of Bagram Air force Base in Afghanistan and Abu Ghraib in Iraq. lots of the prisoners were guys, but the CIA or US militia additionally detained girls and boys, some of whom were reportedly among these sexually abused.[27]

From 2002 to 2005, the height years of the U.S. detention and torture program, at least 17 americans died utterly or partly from abuse while in the custody of the CIA or US militia in Afghanistan, or the CIA and US or British forces in Iraq.[28] nine guys died at Guantánamo, seven from what the USA armed forces stated have been suicides, and two from herbal motives.[29] The military referred to as three deaths on June 10, 2006 a gaggle suicide, but others have alleged they have been homicides.[30] attorneys and members of the family of the others noted they took their own lives in despair over indefinite confinement and abusive conditions.[31]

many of those that survived continue to be physically or psychologically scarred. In a 2016 investigation, The big apple times found that at the least half of the 39 people frequent to have been subjected to CIA torture within the wake of 9/11, together with many who are actually free, persisted to undergo from circumstances akin to depression, post-nerve-racking stress disease, paranoia, or psychosis. Former detainees also described everlasting complications in addition to nightmares and different sleep disturbances.[32]

Bush administration officers intentionally sought to stay away from home and international legal prohibitions on torture – actions that warrant crook investigations.[33] In 2002, the CIA even sought enhance guarantees from the Justice department’s criminal Division that it would not prosecute its deliberate “aggressive interrogation” of one detainee.[34] When the crook Division refused the request, the CIA turned to an extra Justice branch division, the workplace of felony information, which obligingly issued two memos advising that interrogation techniques best constituted torture below domestic or international legislations in the event that they inflicted ache “equivalent in intensity to the ache accompanying severe genuine injury, equivalent to organ failure, impairment of bodily function, and even dying.”[35]

through 2003, the late John Rizzo, then CIA acting conventional counsel and a torture application architect, become sufficiently confident of office of criminal information cowl that he brushed apart considerations from a colleague that an undisclosed form of “pressure” all through interrogation may violate the Geneva Conventions, a collection of treaties providing minimal requisites for humane remedy of civilians, prisoners of war, and troopers who're in any other case unable to fight. the USA is among the many 196 nations that have ratified the Geneva Conventions.[36] The workplace of criminal information “has proven an ingenious means to interpret over, below and around” the Geneva Conventions, the UN convention against Torture and other merciless, Inhuman or Degrading remedy or Punishment, “and different pesky little foreign tasks,” Rizzo wrote in a as a result declassified memo.[37]

all over, Guantánamo continues to be one of the crucial enduring symbols of the injustice, abuse, and disrespect for the rule of thumb of legislations that the USA unleashed in accordance with the 9/11 attacks. due to the fact that January eleven, 2002, the united states has held as a minimum 780 overseas Muslim adult males there, 15 of them boys on the time of their catch. the USA armed forces continues to detain 39 guys rounded up within the wake of 9/11 at Guantánamo.[38] As of January 2, 2022, 27 of them had in no way been charged.[39]

lots of the detainees were passed over to the USA in the aftermath of 9/eleven by Pakistan or the Northern Alliance, a coalition of anti-Taliban militias in Afghanistan.[40] Bush’s vice president Dick Cheney referred to as the Guantánamo detainees “the worst of the worst.”[41] but in keeping with Jane Mayer’s The dark side, Maj. Gen. (ret.) Michael Dunlavey, a former operational commander at Guantánamo, estimated that as a minimum half the prisoners have been held via mistake.[42] A Seton corridor college law school look at concludes that at the least 55 % of the prisoners held at Guantánamo never engaged in any hostile acts against the us and handiest 8 p.c had any association with Al Qaeda.[43] Many allege that they have been taken into custody in return for bounties in accordance with false proof.[44]

The late defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld infamously labeled the first guys and boys to be despatched to Guantánamo “illegal combatants” who “should not have any rights beneath the Geneva conference.”[45] by means of keeping these foreigners overseas, the Bush administration hoped to keep away from US jurisdiction and law, prompting prison challenges that resulted in landmark, if imperfect, rebukes by way of the Supreme court.[46]

Torture and different Inhumane treatment

all the way through the Bush presidency the us defense force subjected the prisoners to torture and other unwell-medication that protected putting them in stress positions, retaining them in extended solitary confinement, threatening them with torture and dying, siccing attack dogs on them, depriving them of sleep, and exposing them for extended periods to extreme warmth, cold, and noise.[47]

most of the guys transferred to Guantánamo – including greater than half of those that remain – had already spent extended durations in secret CIA black sites.[48] One black website, which CIA agents nicknamed “Strawberry Fields” because detainees may conceivably remain there “always,” was really at Guantánamo, adjacent to the leading penal complex compound.[49] (The CIA secretly placed 4 men it considered to be among its maximum-value detainees, including two 9/11 suspects, in Strawberry Fields in 2003 after subjecting them to torture at other black websites. Six months later the company secretly flew the 4 guys returned to farther-flung black websites, hoping to circumvent a Supreme courtroom ruling that could supply prisoners at Guantánamo entry to attorneys. In 2006, after media exposed the black web page community, the men have been once again flown to Guantánamo and positioned mainly jail compound, the place they stay.[50])

Failure to shut Guantánamo

immediately after taking workplace Obama promised to shut the detention center at Guantánamo inside twelve months, but backed down following opposition from Congress, and didn't pursue government actions that could have bypassed congressional funding freezes on transferring prisoners to the U.S. for prosecution in federal courts.[51]

Trump did not fulfill his crusade vow to “load up [Guantánamo] with some dangerous dudes.”[52] having said that, he at once reversed his predecessor’s order to close the penitentiary at Guantánamo, did not switch any of the five men who had been cleared for free up by using the Obama administration, and most effective cleared one extra detainee for liberate.[53]

just weeks after taking office, President Joseph R. Biden initiated a review of operations at Guantánamo with the intention of closing the penitentiary earlier than his term ends.[54] besides the fact that children, as with his approach to lethal concentrated on, his administration’s movements so far carry the prospect that Biden will default to the fame quo of incorrect trials and indefinite detentions.

The day after Biden’s inauguration, the Pentagon sought charges in opposition t three men held at Guantánamo whom it alleged have been implicated in two sets of bombings in Indonesia – of Bali nightclubs in 2002 and a J.W. Marriott resort in Jakarta in 2003 – suggesting prosecutions at Guantánamo would continue.[55] The Biden administration also cleared eight guys for switch, bringing to 13 the variety of detainees last at Guantánamo regardless of being authorised to leave, three of them greater than a decade in the past.[56] besides the fact that children, as of January 2, 2022 it had most effective transferred one man, a Moroccan who had spent 19 years at Guantánamo for gratis and had been cleared to depart in 2016.[57] At time of writing, the branch of protection was building a second courtroom for militia commission trials at Guantánamo, suggesting that the Biden administration has no plans to shut down operations there any time quickly.[58]

Due manner Violations

The Guantánamo detainees had been denied due procedure rights and redress for abuses. greater than six years passed earlier than the USA Supreme court, in Boumediene v. Bush (2008), affirmed that the constitutional correct of detained individuals to challenge the lawfulness of their detention utilized to the guys at Guantánamo, miraculous down amendments to the federal statute to get rid of habeas jurisdiction for any “enemy combatant” in US custody.[59] besides the fact that children, the Supreme court docket didn't articulate a standard of review past directing lower courts to deliver a “significant” chance for petitioners to challenge the groundwork for their detention.[60] however lower US district courts granted many Guantánamo detainees habeas relief, a federal appeals court reversed nearly all but a kind of decisions that got here earlier than it and imposed a standard of evaluation that made it pretty much unattainable for detainees to win their instances.[61] In a intently watched case, the total federal appeals courtroom heard oral arguments in September 2021 on the query of “meaningful” assessment.[62]

the ten men at Guantánamo who were criminally charged encompass the five alleged September eleven co-conspirators, all of whom were tortured. They additionally encompass three guys accused of hyperlinks to the Bali and Jakarta bombings in 2002 and 2003.

The 27 men held for gratis encompass Abu Zubaydah, the first “ghost prisoner” who, right through 4 and a half years in CIA black websites earlier than his switch to Guantánamo, became waterboarded eighty three times, held bare and in stress positions, disadvantaged of sleep, limited in small, coffin-like boxes, disadvantaged of strong food, and bodily assaulted.[63] the USA has argued that releasing Zubaydah would represent too extraordinary a chance to countrywide protection.[64] the two different guys nonetheless held at Guantánamo are serving sentences after being convicted in mistaken militia fee device created for prisoners prosecuted there.[65]

Bush licensed the introduction of the military fee device at Guantánamo in November 2001 to try “certain non-citizens within the conflict in opposition t terrorism.”[66] regardless of subsequent reforms, together with by using Congress, the commissions remain basically damaged.[67] amongst their many flagrant due procedure violations, the commissions have disadvantaged defense tips of the capability to prepare a superb defense, averted the accused from seeing all evidence delivered towards them, and failed to competently make sure that assistance received by means of torture or ill-remedy would not be used as evidence. they've been stricken by recurrent allegations of executive interference including eavesdropping on private client-attorney conversations.[68] Such irregularities would be grounds for dismissal in a US federal court docket.

The pre-trial hearings at the militia fee for the 5 men charged in reference to the 9/eleven attacks have dragged on for 13 years, stricken by due technique violations and prosecution efforts to use facts derived from torture.[69] Presiding armed forces judges have come and long gone, and many were unqualified to supervise capital circumstances youngsters the prosecution continues to are seeking the demise penalty for all five guys.[70] The three guys accused of connections to the Indonesia attacks have been arraigned earlier than a defense force fee most effective in August 2021, 18 years after they have been apprehended, in complaints marred by translation complications as well as protection allegations that the accused had been tortured.[71]

In 2013, a pre-trial hearing within the 9/eleven case was disrupted when a purple censorship gentle abruptly flashed and the audio feed to the courtroom’s gallery become cut devoid of strengthen word to – a whole lot much less permission from – the decide.[72] The unilateral cut-off changed into later traced to the CIA. In 2020, protection information within the 9/eleven case accused the CIA of the use of a monitoring equipment in the court docket to direct the prosecution, not completely to steer clear of spills of labeled advice. The defense lawyers handiest found the gadget by accident as the decide had permitted it devoid of their advantage in an ex parte session with the prosecution.[73]

In an additional illustration, defense suggestions inadvertently realized in 2016 that the choose within the 9/eleven case had permitted, also in an ex parte session with the prosecution, the destruction of a CIA black web page where prisoners had been tortured in addition to proof interior it. The protection became beneath the impression that the choose had granted its request to block the web site’s destruction.[74]

In 2020, the prosecution in the 9/11 case invoked country wide safety privilege to dam the protection from questioning James Mitchell, the psychologist who designed the CIA’s so-called “greater interrogation techniques” together with his accomplice Bruce Jessen, about parts of a publication he posted on the RDI program, even if the CIA had cleared that fabric for publication years earlier.[75]

In October 2021, the image testimony of detainee Majid Khan about his torture by the hands of the CIA in three black websites within the early 2000s became so harrowing that a jury of US armed forces officers took the stunning circulate of writing a hand-written rebuke to the USA govt, calling Khan’s medication “a stain on the moral fiber of the usa.” The letter, from seven of the eight jurors, entreated clemency for Khan despite the fact that he had pleaded responsible to terrorism-linked expenses including serving as an Al Qaeda courier.[76]

youngsters the Biden administration has sought to curb some of the prosecution abuses, it has stopped brief of strong reform. As of January 2, 2022, prosecutors had no longer wholly retracted a action they made the old March that led the decide in the u.s.Cole case to rule that beneath certain situations, a choose may accept as true with statements got via torture in pretrial lawsuits. (In September, a Pentagon appeals panel overturned the decide’s ruling concerning the case in query however didn't get to the bottom of the broader concern of even if prosecutors can use evidence received through torture. The defendant’s attorneys then filed a petition in a US federal appeals courtroom asking it to bar prosecutors and the armed forces commission from any consideration of use of torture-tainted proof. That case became pending at time of writing.)[77] additionally of deep situation, the Biden administration, in a further legal problem involving a prisoner held since 2004 for gratis, has reportedly refrained from the query of no matter if the U.S. constitution’s assure of due manner rights applies to international detainees at Guantánamo.[78]

In a case heard in October 2021 via the united states Supreme court, the Justice branch under Biden has sought to bar Mitchell and Jessen from testifying about the CIA torture of detainee Zubaydah. The testimony can be utilized in an investigation by using the Polish government into the complicity of its nationals in abuse at a CIA black web page in Poland. US prosecutors have argued that the testimony would exhibit “state secrets and techniques,” even though, as referred to above, each Mitchell and Jessen had prior to now testified about supervising “greater interrogation,” Mitchell had written a publication about it, and particulars of Zubaydah’s torture were greatly stated in media.[79]

clinical Abuse

past due method violations, the guys held at Guantánamo proceed to be subjected to abuse including sporadic drive-feeding all the way through starvation strikes and scientific overlook even as their health wants become increasingly complicated as they age.[80] lots of the men who have been tortured nevertheless suffer physically and psychologically. Yet their clinical information lack particulars of their trauma histories, contributing to misdiagnoses and flawed remedies, and the penitentiary does not offer them torture rehabilitation capabilities, in accordance with a 2019 report by Physicians for Human Rights and the core for Victims of Torture. furthermore, the detention commander can override scientific thoughts, and in some circumstances prosecution pursuits have trumped medical pastimes, “as with a detainee who changed into compelled to attend courtroom proceedings on a gurney writhing in pain while improving from surgery,” the file discovered. lots of the guys will not have access to their own medical information and even once they do, big portions are sometimes categorised.[81]

continuing Outcry over Detentions

Protests over the executive’s failure to close the prison at Guantánamo continue both in and outdoors the government.

In February 2021, eight unbiased UN human rights experts and 111 nongovernmental groups marked the 19th anniversary of the outlet of the Guantánamo Bay reformatory by means of calling on Biden to close the detention middle and end indefinite militia detention there instantly.[82] “Guantánamo embodies the proven fact that, for essentially two a long time following the September 11, 2001 assaults, the USA government has considered communities of colour – residents and non-residents alike – via a security chance lens, to devastating consequences,” the agencies wrote. “here is no longer an issue of the previous. Guantánamo continues to cause escalating and profound hurt to the guys who nevertheless languish there, and the strategy it exemplifies continues to gasoline and justify bigotry, stereotyping, and stigma. Guantánamo entrenches racial divisions and racism more greatly, and hazards facilitating extra rights violations.”[83]

during the past 12 months, pretty much 100 contributors of each homes of Congress have advised Biden to shut the jail. Guantánamo is “a logo of lawlessness and human rights abuses,” 24 senators wrote the president in April.[84] The prison’s persisted operation is “a fundamental betrayal of their values” that “undermines their potential to suggest for human rights and the rule of law,” 75 representatives wrote in August.[85] all through a infrequent congressional listening to in December on Guantánamo, eight Democratic senators, a retired militia commander, and 9/11 victims’ loved ones expressed frustration over the Biden administration’s stalled efforts. Sen. Richard J. Durbin (D-sick.), the panel’s chairman, pointed out he changed into dismayed that “this hearing is even critical.” The Biden administration declined to even send a witness to testify.[86]

US counterterrorism practices have changed dramatically considering that Bush left office but stay deeply challenging and, in lots of situations, unlawful. youngsters the CIA torture software ended with the Bush presidency, the U.S. has endured to interact to some degree seeing that then in illegal counterterrorism-related detentions, interrogations, or transfers to countries that torture. on the identical time, Washington has changed seize with kill, conducting air strikes, commonly with armed drones which have killed heaps of civilians, including outdoor recognized battlefields. the united states counterterrorism campaign has unfold to 85 nations with scant transparency or oversight.[87]

deadly targeting and Air Wars

probably the most dramatic tendencies when you consider that Bush left workplace is the ascent of lethal focused on of alleged terrorism suspects both in and out of doors of recognized struggle zones. The CIA and US military have conducted thousands of attacks towards alleged individuals of Al Qaeda and so-called “associated forces” in nations including Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen, frequently with armed aerial drones and in some cases with particular forces.

whereas the U.S. insists that the overwhelming majority of its drone strikes and other deadly concentrated on operations are lawful and conducted with utmost care and precision, it has did not provide the transparency that might help impartial observers check such claims. impartial estimates of civilian deaths from lethal counterterrorism strikes backyard identified war zones latitude from the excessive a whole bunch to the low 2,000s.[88]

Bush began the deadly focused on program nevertheless it become Obama who embraced it, undertaking 563 strikes right through his two phrases, essentially 10 times the number as his predecessor.[89] “turns out I’m actually decent at killing individuals,” Obama reportedly advised aides in a quiet voice when assessing his achievements and compromises in 2011.[90] Yet experiences that lots of these strikes perceived to have unlawfully killed civilians abounded all the way through his presidency.[91] Trump further ramped up the deadly attacks whereas scaling again Obama’s already inadequate safeguards.[92] In promising first steps, President Biden, all through his first eleven months in workplace, dramatically curtailed drone strikes and apparent civilian casualties.[93] He has also initiated a review of US lethal focused on policy as a part of a broader evaluation of how you can mitigate civilian damage right through counterterrorism operations.[94] however, he doesn't look like deliberating an end to deadly focused on, according to his vow to behavior “over-the-horizon” responses to perceived terrorist threats via relying basically on drone strikes and low special forces operations in areas the place the U.S. isn't combating a standard floor struggle.[95]

The focused killing of terrorism suspects backyard cases of armed conflict violates foreign human rights law unless the suspect poses an imminent danger to life and the usage of lethal drive is a latest inn.[96] The laws of armed conflict, in distinction, permit deadly assaults on enemy opponents. but even then, opposing parties to the battle should take all feasible steps to lower civilian harm.

however the use of precision bombs and drones, the us-led defense force campaigns in opposition t ISIS in Iraq and Syria, and the Taliban and an ISIS department in Afghanistan also seem to have unlawfully killed way more civilians than the Pentagon has acknowledged and with insufficient accountability, transparency, or redress. A collection of manhattan instances investigations has provided one of the most compelling evidence. In its most sweeping findings, posted in December 2021 and drawing from research including 1,300 pages of Pentagon documents bought through Freedom of assistance Act litigation, The manhattan times alleged that seeing that 2014, these air wars demonstrate a demo of deeply unsuitable intelligence and rushed, imprecise focused on, ensuing in the deaths of heaps of civilians, many of them infants.[97]

These findings bolstered a new York times investigation from 2017, which found that one in 5 US-led coalition strikes towards ISIS in Iraq all through the Obama presidency resulted in civilian dying. That expense is 31 instances greater than that recounted by the coalition, which referred to 89 of its more than 14,000 airstrikes in Iraq resulted in civilian deaths, or about one among every 157 strikes.[98]

below Trump’s watch, a covert US special drive bombed dozens of women and children huddled within the open air, then bombed fleeing survivors right through the fight of Baghuz that toppled ISIS’s ultimate holdout in Syria in 2019, a brand new York instances investigation published in November 2021. The coordinated strikes reportedly killed about 80 people, making it some of the largest civilian casualty tolls of the struggle in opposition t ISIS. the U.S. defense force stalled reports of this apparent war crime and US-led coalition forces literally buried key evidence, bulldozing the website.[99] Weeks after The big apple times record, Biden’s protection secretary ordered a evaluation of the strike and cover-up however with the aid of the defense force itself, regardless of requires an unbiased assessment.[100]

On August 29, 2021, the penultimate day of the U.S. pullout from Afghanistan, the united states defense force carried out a drone strike in Kabul that the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of group of workers at first hailed as a “righteous” assault that looked as if it would have thwarted an approaching bombing through the Islamic State affiliate ISIS-Khorasan. but days later, following yet yet another exposé by way of The big apple instances, the Pentagon mentioned that the strike was a “tragic mistake” that as a substitute killed 10 Afghan civilians, together with seven toddlers and an worker of a US-primarily based help organization.[101] Compounding challenge, the united states armed forces’s review of the botched strike is still categorised. A one-web page truth sheet on its findings asserts there is not any foundation for criminal court cases, even though it doesn't preclude the chain of command taking corrective measures and assessing accountability “as applicable.”[102] In December, the Pentagon announced that not one of the US armed forces personnel thinking in the strike would face any variety of punishment.[103]

unlawful Detentions, Transfers, Harsh Interrogations

Obama, upon taking workplace, automatically issued an government order to end US secret detention and torture.[104] but he did not revoke CIA powers to briefly detain suspects and transfer them to other countries for interrogation or prosecution. instead, he pledged to be sure that their medicine changed into humane.[105] while no facts has emerged given that then that the united states has reprised the horrific courses of the Bush presidency, deeply disturbing situations or allegations of abusive practices beneath Obama and Trump continue to surface, in addition to one which carried into the Biden presidency.


most of the detention-connected violations that persevered after the Bush presidency took area in Afghanistan. In 2011, greater than two years after Obama declared an conclusion to torture and secret detention, his administration confirmed that terrorism suspects in Afghanistan had been being secretly detained and interrogated for as much as nine weeks, with out entry to a court docket or advice, at a couple of “brief” detention centers run through the united states defense force’s elite Joint particular Operations Command, including one at Bagram air base. Former detainees alleged they were pressured to strip upon arrival and held in solitary confinement in windowless, commonly excessively cold rooms with 24-hour lights, and were denied contact with attorneys and family members.[106]

BuzzFeed information published in 2016 that for as a minimum sixteen months in 2009 and 2010, the U.S. armed forces subjected as a minimum fifty eight detainees to “separation,” a procedure beneath which prisoners were held incommunicado from any one apart from personnel reminiscent of US guards, interrogators and medics, for as much as 30 days at a time. The apply could volume to inhumane remedy in and of itself. at least 23 instances, US personnel mixed “separation” with other complex tactics to induce detainees to speak, in keeping with US armed forces documents received with the aid of BuzzFeed information. the USA armed forces blacked out the guidance it provided BuzzFeed information on the additional strategies it used. in keeping with its legitimate intelligence-gathering guide,[107] interrogators can also couple “separation” with recommendations similar to sleep restrictions and “worry Up” – preying on detainees’ current fears.[108]

under Obama, US forces additionally passed over prisoners they captured to Afghan detention facilities where the detainees had been systematically tortured. amongst different methods, captors subjected detainees to electric shocks, hung them by their wrists, beat them with cables or sticks, eliminated their toenails, twisted and wrenched their genitals, and threatened them with sexual abuse.[109] additionally, the CIA additionally persisted to recruit, equip, train, and deploy Afghan paramilitary forces who summarily completed civilians during night raids, forcibly disappeared detainees, and attacked healthcare amenities for allegedly treating rebel fighters, among other grave crimes, without a accountability – a tradition that persisted all the way through the Trump presidency.[110]


The Obama administration engaged in unlawful practices elsewhere including in Africa. In 2009 and 2010, Nigerian officials held an Ethiopian Al Qaeda suspect for four months, right through which period he become interrogated first through a US “dirty” crew that neglected his Miranda rights, then through a “clear” team of US brokers.[111] in line with a diplomatic cable, US officials pressured Nigerian authorities to detain Ahmed.[112] the U.S. then brought the suspect, Mohamed Ibrahim Ahmed, to ny where he pled responsible to terrorism-connected prices in a federal court.[113]

In 2011, two Swedes and a U.k. citizen with ties to Somalia were arrested by means of Eritrean authorities in Djibouti, where US interrogators have been amongst those that wondered them for two months at no cost. The guys were then secretly indicted in absentia by using a US federal grand jury and flown by way of the FBI to long island, where they were convicted in 2016 of terrorism-linked costs.[114]

In 2014, The Nation pronounced that CIA brokers also constantly interrogated Al Shabab suspects in a basement prison in Somalia and saved Somali intelligence brokers there on the agency payroll. The detainees covered men illegally exceeded over to Somalia from neighboring Kenya, together with in as a minimum one case according to intelligence supplied through the U.S., the file mentioned. Former detainees informed The Nation the prisoners had been held in filthy, insect-infested, windowless cells, that they have been in no way allowed outdoors, and that some prisoners had been held for free of charge or trial for months or years.[115]

In separate operations in 2011, 2013 and 2014, US forces also apprehended three overseas guys – one in foreign waters off Somalia and two in Libya – and secretly detained them for prolonged intervals aboard armed forces ships, interrogating them for intelligence functions before separate US legislations enforcement groups read them their Miranda rights and re-interrogated them for prosecution on terrorism-related costs. This two-tiered approach circumvented longstanding US criminal and armed forces procedural protections against govt abuse, incommunicado detention, and torture.[116] within the first case, a team of Federal Bureau of Investigation, CIA, and defense branch personnel seized, secretly detained, and interrogated a Somali Al Qaeda suspect for more than two months aboard a US Navy ship for intelligence functions.[117]

specially, the united states has extended this flawed dual-interrogation method to its “conflict on medicine,” detaining americans it apprehends at sea on suspicion of drug smuggling for weeks and even months aboard ships dubbed “floating Guantánamos” earlier than they are arraigned in home courts.[118] In 2017, as an instance, the USA Coast preserve kidnapped and forcibly disappeared four Jamaican fisherman and saved them chained to the decks of four of its ships, incommunicado, for over a month.[119]

As lately as July 2021, a British citizen who had been held without charge when you consider that 2019 in Somalia claimed that his Somali captors had subjected him to hooding, sensory deprivation and waterboarding, and that he turned into puzzled between torture periods by two individuals with American accents who refused to expose their identities. the person spoke of he believed his torturers wanted him to cooperate with the CIA. He also said he turned into puzzled by using the FBI as currently as June 2021.[120]


The Trump administration additionally carried out unlawful renditions from northeast Syria to authorities in neighboring Iraq, regardless of the Iraqi government’s well-documented record of torture and due method violations of terrorism suspects.[121] In 2017 and 2018, the us forcibly transferred as a minimum 30 foreign ISIS suspects to Iraq. Two of the men alleged that after their transfer, Iraq’s Counter Terrorism provider beat them, held them in stress positions, and applied electric shocks to their genitals.[122]

the united states defense force in 2017 and 2018 unlawfully held a US citizen in Iraq for gratis, for greater than a yr, on suspicion of membership in ISIS. For the primary four months, the person, everyday most effective as “John Doe,” turned into held in secret with out a access to an legal professional. After numerous courtroom interventions by using the American Civil Liberties Union, together with one to cease the U.S. from sending the person to Syria, where his life was in danger, a federal courtroom ordered the person’s voluntary unencumber to an undisclosed third nation.[123]

In 2020, the Trump administration threatened to transfer two infamous British ISIS suspects to authorities in Iraq, if the U.k. government didn't without delay agree to allow them to be prosecuted in the US.[124] the two men, a part of an ISIS quartet of U.k. nationals implicated in summary executions known as “The Beatles,” had been being held with the aid of the us militia in Syria and Iraq. Britain’s maximum courtroom two months later authorized both suspects’ switch to the us for prosecution in return for diplomatic assurances that the U.S. would forgo the dying penalty.[125] one of the defendants pled guilty in September 2021 to helping torture and kill hostages and faces existence without parole.[126]

regardless of Bush administration protestations to the contrary, the us application of marvelous renditions, secret detentions, and torture following 9/11 openly flouted international and US legislations. The detentions for gratis and different abuses at Guantánamo, in addition to many counterterrorism operations in different nations, additionally violate these laws and a couple of look like conflict crimes.

international criminal requisites

the USA is party to a few foreign treaties that prohibit beneath all situations torture and different merciless, inhuman, and degrading medication. They consist of the foreign Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which prohibits any obstacles on the rights to life, and insurance plan towards torture and merciless, inhuman, and degrading treatment or punishment under any instances, even during states of emergency.[127] The ICCPR also prohibits arbitrary and indefinite detention without charge in violation of due technique.[128] prolonged incommunicado detention reminiscent of that at Guantánamo, Abu Ghraib, and other US-controlled detention centers quantities to torture or different merciless, inhuman, and degrading medicine.[129]

The conference against Torture, to which the united states is additionally celebration, units forth that “no top notch cases in any way,” together with conflict or the risk of struggle, may well be invoked as a justification for torture.[130] The conference also prohibits transferring any person to a further country the place there are giant grounds to agree with they face the risk of torture.[131] It offers that any observation made as a result of torture shall not be invoked as proof in any complaints.[132]

furthermore, the conference obligates countries that are events to both submit circumstances of torture for prosecution or extradite torture suspects. It also can provide countries standard jurisdiction, allowing home judicial authorities to prosecute torture suspects in spite of the fact that they are not their residents or are not accused of committing torture on their territory.[133] This provision on my own may still have compelled successive US administrations to open significant criminal investigations on the maximum stages into the U.S. armed forces and CIA use of torture and unwell-medication of detainees worldwide.

international humanitarian law, or the legal guidelines of warfare, deliver for the detention of prisoners-of-struggle and civilians who pose an integral safety chance. additionally, during non-foreign armed conflicts, such as the civil battle in Afghanistan or different fighting between states and non-state armed agencies, individuals who soak up fingers or are in any other case thinking in insurrection pastime may be detained and prosecuted in keeping with home legal guidelines. however, the four Geneva Conventions of 1949, to which the USA is celebration, entitle any one detained all the way through armed conflict to fundamental protections, together with towards torture and different ill-remedy.[134] normal Article 3 to all 4 conventions explicitly extends protections against homicide, mutilation, torture, merciless, humiliating, and degrading remedy, and reasonable trial violations to participants of non-state companies.[135] The medication of those the USA apprehended in connection to the armed battle in Afghanistan violated the provisions on humane medicine beneath normal Article three and usual foreign humanitarian legislation. The remedy of those the USA apprehended in Iraq also violated the Third Geneva convention, which states that prisoners of conflict need to be humanely treated constantly.[136]

but the Bush administration fought Geneva convention protections for overseas detainees the entire approach up to the united states Supreme court docket. more than four years passed earlier than the Supreme court docket affirmed in 2006 in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld that regular Article three applies to the us battle with Al Qaeda. The court docket additionally found that the structure of the armed forces commissions created to try detainees at Guantánamo violated each the fair trial standards of standard Article 3 and the domestic Uniform Code of militia Justice and was unconstitutional.[137]

the U.S. is in search of the demise penalty for the 5 men charged in connection to the 9/eleven attacks. international human rights legislation prohibits capital punishment following convictions in flawed complaints.[138]

the USA militia and CIA counterterrorism strikes all the way through cases of armed battle have in many cases violated the laws of battle. These laws enable assaults on enemy fighters, equivalent to contributors of armed agencies and other armed forces targets, however strictly prohibit assaults on civilians and civilian constructions. now not all assaults that cause civilian deaths or accidents violate the laws of battle – best people that goal civilians, do not discriminate between civilians and opponents, or cause anticipated civilian loss excessive to the expected military profit. parties to a battle need to take all possible steps to lower civilian hurt.[139] Governments have an responsibility to examine each severe violations and grave breaches of the legal guidelines of conflict, and prosecute those in charge.[140]

backyard cases of armed conflict, governments have even stronger duties to supply protection to human existence. international human rights legislations makes it possible for legislation enforcement to use lethal drive most effective as a latest resort, similar to when there's an drawing close chance to human life and trap is not possible.[141]

domestic law

The rights and protections in such international treaties are also enshrined within the US constitution and home law. The Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments to the USA charter prohibit cruel and strange punishments and due method violations. The Federal Anti-Torture Statute of 1994, enacted to conform to the convention in opposition t Torture, extends US federal jurisdiction over acts of torture dedicated abroad when the alleged wrongdoer is a US countrywide or is found within the US, no matter the nationality of the victim or the alleged offender.[142] The war Crimes Act of 1996 criminalizes grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions if both the sufferer or the perpetrator is a US countrywide or a member of the U.S. military. Convicted conflict criminals will also be punished with existence imprisonment or demise.

The Detainee remedy Act of 2005 bars the use of merciless, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment against any grownup in US custody.[143] An change to the 2016 national defense Authorization Act (widespread because the McCain-Feinstein modification), aims to protect against US torture and other sick-remedy of detainees by using limiting interrogation techniques to these contained in the US army container manual on Human Intelligence Collector Operations, the government’s important, albeit insufficient, instructions for the U.S. militia and CIA on lawful interrogation recommendations.[144] The amendment additionally requires well timed entry by using the international Committee of the pink move to detainees in US custody.[145]

the U.S. executive has failed to grasp dependable the important thing architects of publish-9/11 illegal renditions, detentions, and torture, regardless of clear and compelling facts that warrants criminal investigations of former Bush and exact participants of his administration, among others.[146] however some efforts abroad are extremely good, they stay inadequate.

naked-Bones US Investigations

The Obama administration only investigated the CIA for torture and other abuse, probing greater than 100 cases but ultimately declining to bring any expenses.[147] The administration restricted its investigations to situations in which interrogators exceeded felony authorizations, pushing aside that the authorizations themselves have been illegal.[148]

as an example, the Obama Justice branch declined to bring expenses towards any CIA officials for intentionally destroying 92 videotapes in 2005 that contained direct evidence of torture.[149] It additionally declined to prosecute any individual for the deaths of two guys in CIA custody after brutal interrogations in 2002 and 2003.[150] a type of men, Gul Rahman, iced over to loss of life in November 2002 in a CIA black web site dubbed “The Salt Pit” near Bagram in Afghanistan. Rahman died after his captors left him shackled to a cement wall in close-freezing temperatures, bare from the waist down. within the preceding days CIA interrogators had saved him conscious for 48 hours, blasted him with noise, immersed him in complete darkness and isolation, and doused him with bloodless water, amongst different abuses.[151] in fact, in place of prosecuting those officers accountable for Rahman’s demise, 4 months later the CIA bestowed a “cash award” of $2,500 to the officer who had ordered his shackling for his “perpetually advanced work.”[152] The CIA promoted or gave bonuses to a couple of other group of workers members who participated in the torture program.[153]

The different case concerned Manadel al-Jamadi, who died in 2003 at Abu Ghraib. US militia and CIA interrogators subjected al-Jamadi to “blunt force trauma” that broke five of his ribs, then suspended him from a barred window with the aid of his wrists, bare from the waist down with a sandbag on his head, the place after a half-hour he slumped over and stopped responding. Upon realizing al-Jamadi was useless, his captors packed his corpse in ice, wrapped it in plastic, stuck an intravenous drip into his arm and pretended he become on life help as they wheeled him out.[154] US army reservists posed for images together with his ice-packed corpse, smiling with thumbs up.[155] In both the Rahman and al-Jamadi situations, the Justice department claimed, astonishingly, that “the admissible facts would no longer be sufficient to acquire and maintain a conviction past an affordable doubt.”[156]

most effective small numbers of reduce-stage individuals in US military abuse have confronted justice. Of the 27 troopers and officers against whom US army investigators had advised criminal charges for the torture and, in two cases, deaths of Bagram detainees, simplest 15 were prosecuted, in 2004 and 2005. of those, handiest six have been convicted – five in guilty pleas and one at trial. probably the most severe punishment was five months in a armed forces penal complex.[157]

Following the unlock in 2004 via the “60 Minutes” television software of one of the most hundreds of photos documenting the rampant abuse of prisoners at Abu Ghraib, eleven US troopers were prosecuted and convicted in armed forces trials, together with two who posed with al-Jamadi’s corpse.[158] but the greater-ranked officers who knew of the abuses, and the deepest militia contractors who also participated, kept away from justice.[159]

In 2017 the psychologists Jessen and Mitchell settled a lawsuit introduced by using the American Civil Liberties Union, paying an undisclosed sum to two torture victims and the family unit of Rahman.[160]

as opposed to investigating and prosecuting government officers who participated in or endorsed torture, Trump promoted a few of them. these he promoted encompass Gina Haspel, his 2d CIA director, who reportedly oversaw torture at the CIA’s first black website in Thailand and performed a key position in destroying the videotaped facts of torture.[161] Michael Pompeo, Trump’s 2d Secretary of State and first CIA director, as a member of Congress defended the torture program as “in the legislations.”[162] all the way through his confirmation hearings for CIA director, Pompeo stated that “more suitable interrogation options” had been illegal under the 2015 McCain-Feinstein modification, however now not that they additionally violated US and overseas law at the time the Bush administration authorized them and the CIA used them.[163] Trump in 2018 nominated Marshall Billingslea to oversee the State department’s human rights work however as a Bush administration reputable he had endorsed harsher interrogation methods for guys detained at Guantánamo.[164] After the Senate deadlocked over Billingslea’s nomination, as a minimum partly on account of his record on torture, Trump appointed him to a position now not requiring Senate approval.[165]

nine years after the unencumber of the closely redacted summary of the 6,seven hundred-web page Torture document – lower than one-tenth of the total textual content – Biden has shown no greater inclination than his two predecessors to liberate the full contents.[166] His administration has also deflected questions on CIA abuse from the UN Committee in opposition t Torture, the physique that displays countries’ compliance with the conference in opposition t Torture. “[F]or motives of privateness, the USA isn't able to divulge the counsel sought with regard to imperative Intelligence agency (CIA) detained persons rendered to other nations,” reads a US submission to the committee from September 2021.[167]

conserving the file labeled prevents the general public from entirely knowing the torture software, shields the identities of the torturers, impedes the means of torture victims to entry scientific records regarding their abuse, and additional prolongs arguments over national safety classifications right through pre-trial hearings at Guantánamo.

inadequate Accountability abroad

a couple of other international locations have supplied compensation to former detainees held with the aid of the CIA or the us defense force in instances where their personal authorities additionally committed wrongdoing, or have prosecuted a few of those implicated in these abuses. notwithstanding international countries have done greater than the united states, their responses – most courtroom-ordered – have additionally in many circumstances been inadequate.[168]

enormously, the eu courtroom of Human Rights has found that 5 European countries – Macedonia, Poland, Italy, Romania, and Lithuania – violated provisions in the European convention on Human Rights via participating with the CIA’s RDI software. The violations included the prohibition on torture and unwell-medicine and the appropriate to liberty and protection. The court docket ordered the countries to pay damages to their 20 normal victims.[169]

The U.ok. has paid more than $28.8 million USD to Iraqi victims to settle complaints linked to a lot of, well-documented conflict crimes and different abuses that it committed as a associate in the US-led invasion of Iraq.[170] youngsters, the U.k. has handiest prosecuted its military forces for one of those crimes, the beating to demise of Basra resort receptionist Basa Mousa in British custody.[171] The U.k. government shelved an impartial inquiry into its forces’ involvement in publish-9/eleven outstanding renditions and torture.[172] It additionally shut down the important investigation group into alleged crimes by means of U.okay. forces in Iraq earlier than it had accomplished its work, following force from some media and contributors of parliament.[173]

In 2017 Canada apologized and paid $10.5 million CA ($8.1 million USD) in damages to Omar Khadr, a former infant solder who became 15 when US forces captured him in 2002 all the way through a firefight in Afghanistan.[174] Khadr, who was severely wounded, become held for three months at Bagram and for a decade at Guantánamo, throughout which time he alleges that he changed into brutally tortured.[175] In 2010, Canada’s Supreme court docket found that Khadr’s rights had been violated when Canadian intelligence officers interrogated him at Guantánamo.[176]

In 2009 and 2012, Italy convicted a complete of 25 alleged CIA agents and one US Air drive colonel for the kidnapping in Milan of an Egyptian cleric called Abu Omar, who become then handed over to Egypt by the use of Germany and allegedly tortured for 4 years while held without trial.[177] because the convictions had been in absentia, not one of the americans convicted served jail time.[178]

overseas crook court

each the Trump and Biden administrations have sought to thwart any accountability for international crimes by US forces before the international criminal courtroom (ICC). In 2020, Trump imposed exceptional sanctions on ICC personnel together with the prosecutor on the time, after the courtroom’s judges licensed an investigation into alleged war crimes and crimes towards humanity in reference to the conflict in Afghanistan that may have covered abuses with the aid of US nationals.[179] In April, the Biden administration lifted the us sanctions towards the court docket’s contributors but made clear it continued to oppose the court’s jurisdiction over US nationals and personnel in Afghanistan.[180] In a stream castigated by critics as capitulation to political pressure from Washington, the brand new ICC prosecutor, Karim Khan, introduced in September that he had sought permission from one of the vital court’s pre-trial chambers to proceed with the investigation but that he supposed to focal point best on grave crimes allegedly dedicated through the Taliban and ISIS-k and “deprioritize” these allegedly dedicated by means of the USA armed forces, CIA, and forces of the previous Afghan executive.[181] Khan’s motion dangers now not only perpetuating impunity for apparent US warfare crimes but also undermining the already fragile legitimacy of the ICC, the realm’s best everlasting court docket entrusted with prosecuting essentially the most serious overseas crimes including conflict crimes and crimes against humanity.

As a court docket of closing lodge, the ICC can simplest intervene in cases the place a state is unable or unwilling to carry out investigations and prosecutions. handiest if the USA were to change course and essentially are trying to find criminal accountability for the grave abuses committed with the aid of the united states military, CIA, and contractors with regards to the Afghanistan conflict would it's ready to legitimately challenge the ICC jurisdiction in these cases.[182]

The corrosive repercussions of the Bush-era detention and interrogation abuses proceed to this day, both at domestic and abroad. they've cost US taxpayers trillions of dollars and militarized police responses at domestic. they've robbed victims of 9/11 and other extremist armed attacks of justice and shattered the lives of overseas guys who had been brutally detained for years without charge. they've given cowl to foreign governments to carry out their own illegal detention and torture with impunity and to dismiss US human rights diplomacy as hypocrisy. they have shaken the foundations of the foreign human rights gadget, jeopardized the security of US residents overseas, and surpassed a propaganda device to armed agencies like Al Qaeda and ISIS.

home fees

The “conflict on Terror” has charge US taxpayers trillions of greenbacks and the detention component has with ease run into the billions. as a result of a good deal information on US unlawful detention and interrogation is categorized, the genuine charge of those practices to taxpayers continues to be elusive. having said that, a number of reports underscore the giant sums concerned.

US taxpayers are spending $540 million a 12 months simply to detain prisoners at Guantánamo, which comes to virtually $13 million yearly per prisoner, in keeping with a 2019 investigation by means of The ny instances.[183] This estimate contains the cost of basically 2,000 guards, health care for getting older detainees whose clinical wants are advanced with the aid of the abuse they suffered in CIA black websites or in Guantánamo itself, and the militia commissions. The proper expenses may be some distance higher because the estimate doesn't include categorised expenses, such as the CIA presence on the base.

by 2018, the “conflict on Terror” had can charge US taxpayers almost $three trillion, in response to a examine by way of the Stimson middle believe tank.[184] Brown tuition’s expenses of conflict venture, the writer of this paper, in September 2021 estimated the determine to be greater than $5.eighty four trillion, or $eight trillion counting estimated future care for veterans via 2050.[185] The stories don't consist of breakdowns for detentions overseas.

while backyard the scope of this paper, the fallout on the home criminal justice system has also been wide. throughout the us, the September eleven attacks ushered in warrantless surveillance, enabling the executive to achieve citizens’ most delicate statistics without any suspicion of wrongdoing.[186] They spurred extra militarized techniques to policing and religious, racial, and ethnic profiling in predominantly Muslim, Black, and brown communities.[187] They additionally ushered in abusive investigations, prosecutions, and detention conditions for Muslim American terrorism suspects.

A 2014 document by Human Rights Watch found a demo of sting operations in opposition t Muslim american citizens that facilitated or invented objectives’ willingness to act, imposed unnecessarily restrictive detention circumstances – including extended solitary confinement and curtailed pretrial communications that might be impeded suspects’ skill to help of their personal defense – and resulted in extreme penal complex sentences. These practices “have alienated the very communities the govt relies on most to document viable terrorist threats and diverted supplies from other, more effective methods of responding to the threat of terrorism,” Human Rights Watch pointed out.[188]

No Justice for September eleven Victims and families

the USA govt’s reliance on deeply mistaken defense force commissions, together with other due technique disasters, has no longer simplest violated the rights of the guys held at Guantánamo. It also has disadvantaged survivors of the 9/eleven assaults and households of the useless of their correct to justice. whereas the 9/eleven case continues to be mired in pretrial hearings, with the latest judge asserting the precise trial will not start until as a minimum late 2022, US federal courts have prosecuted hundreds of defendants on terrorism-connected fees, together with in complicated and high-profile situations such because the first World exchange center bombing in 1993.[189] To be sure, terrorism-related prosecutions in US federal court docket have their share of flaws.[190] however had the September 11 defendants been prosecuted in federal court docket from the delivery, their trials almost actually would have concluded years in the past.

Survivors and members of the family of 9/11 victims battle even to have their day in court in pretrial proceedings. Seats are limited on the small courthouse at Guantánamo, so survivors and loved ones of the lifeless should enter a lottery to attend a listening to in person. Their handiest different alternative is to monitor the court cases via closed circuit television channels at a small variety of US armed forces bases or on the Pentagon. whereas some family of 9/11 victims laud the defense force commissions, others have expressed frustration at the delays, and others still, including some participants of the group 9/11 families for peaceful Tomorrows, have referred to that the not easy proceedings make contributions to their suffering.[191]

“What has slowly been printed – yr after 12 months – is the inability of care and foresight invested in getting this right,” the neighborhood’s co-founder, Colleen Kelly, whose brother become killed on 9/11, instructed us. “There’s an emotional and psychological can charge to the shortcoming of accountability, and using a defense force fee device that has misplaced all legitimacy.… however the biggest can charge i believe is happening in techniques they don't seem to be yet aware of – what occurs to a nation's collective judgment of right and wrong and moral compass when those answerable for horrific wrongdoing are never held liable? This sluggish erosion of justice is ingesting away at their soul, and my heart.”[192]

Elizabeth Miller, whose father was killed on 9/11, noted the torture of defendants left her dubious that justice can ever be served. “dropping my father turned into a demanding experience,” she noted, “but the moves that the us has taken following 9/eleven, that’s the wound so that you can under no circumstances heal.”[193]

Leila Murphy, whose father changed into killed on 9/eleven, referred to she became upset attending pre-trial hearings at Guantánamo because the prosecution team time and again advised her and the different family members in attendance that they have been combating for her rights as a sufferer, yet didn't consult her on their strategy – including their pursuit of the loss of life penalty, which she opposes on precept. “Being there as a victim definitely hits domestic that nobody is basically advancing your pastimes,” she pointed out. in its place, she observed, she felt her name was “used” to “justify acts that you haven't any relationship with or handle over and don’t need to take place.”[194]

the use of military commissions and different due manner failures have stalled accountability for other mass-casualty attacks as smartly. as an example, well-nigh a decade has handed considering that the arraignment of a man held at Guantánamo who's accused in the bombing of the USACole that killed 17 US sailors off the coast of Yemen in 2000.[195]

under power from households of 9/11 victims and a bipartisan neighborhood of US lawmakers, Biden in September ordered the FBI and other vital govt businesses to release inside six months long-classified files concerning the assaults.[196] The families and contributors of Congress have talked about they believe the documents will element connections between the government of Saudi Arabia and the 19 alleged hijackers, 15 of whom have been Saudi.[197] the primary released document, from 2016, suggests a more in-depth relationship than had been up to now disclosed between the hijackers and two Saudis, including one with diplomatic fame, but doesn't at once link these attackers to the Saudi govt.[198] Biden’s circulate, whereas welcome, is just one modest step towards closing the submit-9/11 accountability and transparency gaps.

fees to US have an impact on and the overseas Human Rights system

the united states unlawful renditions, detentions, and interrogations in view that 9/eleven and its failure to conclusion impunity for these crimes undermine the very human rights concepts that Washington traditionally championed and that Obama and Biden pledged to re-include. These practices additionally threaten the international treaties and monitoring their bodies that the us was deeply concerned in growing within the aftermath of World war II with the goal of upholding rights for everyone. by means of flouting the Geneva convention prohibitions on inhumane medicine of prisoners and unlawfully attacking civilians, increasing the so-known as struggle on Terror to companies that didn't exist at the time of 9/eleven and to areas far from any diagnosed battlefield, circumventing minimal due procedure necessities enshrined in the ICCPR, equivocating on consideration of torture-tainted proof despite the conference towards Torture’s clear prohibition on its use in lawsuits, failing to reply to questions from the Committee in opposition t Torture on CIA abuse, and bullying the international criminal courtroom rather than essentially investigating grave abuses overseas by means of its personal armed forces and intelligence agents, the united states has made it simpler for different international locations to deflect foreign condemnation of their own critical human rights violations.

Of path, many international locations practiced abhorrent detention and brutal interrogation and flouted foreign prison necessities and institutions lengthy earlier than 9/eleven. however by way of institutionalizing these practices over three successive presidencies, the united states has signaled to the leisure of the area and to its personal safety and intelligence functions that the widespread rights it purports to champion are dispensable when countering Islamist armed businesses.

now not incredibly, this has undercut the U.S. govt’s credibility when it calls out different international locations for engaging in their own abuses.

“The devil preaches!” wrote the editor-in-chief of state-owned Al-Ahram, Egypt’s greatest day by day, in a 2010 editorial excoriating the Obama administration for urging better freedoms in the Arab world while failing to shut Guantánamo.[199] speedy-ahead to the Biden presidency and Al-Ahram become still advertising that narrative. “At a time when the united states directed accusations in opposition t Egypt,” a pro-executive member of parliament wrote in an Al-Ahram column, “it ignores the numerous violations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Abu Ghraib reformatory, Guantanamo Bay and others!”[200]

In June 2021, following a meeting with Biden, Russian President Vladimir Putin deflected a media query about Russia’s human rights record by raising the carrying on with US operation of the penal complex at Guantánamo.[201]

Cuba has additionally jumped on abuse at Guantánamo to deflect US criticism of Cuban rights abuses together with its persecution of political prisoners. “there is one region in Cuba where torture happens,” study the headline of a column within the authentic Communist party mouthpiece Granma, following the graphic testimony of Guantánamo detainee Majid Khan in October on his torture in CIA black websites years prior. “The country that threatens Cuba… has no ethical authority to demand anything else from anybody. Do as I say and not as I do – a asserting that appears healthy the empire’s moves completely.”[202]

China has long used the so-called warfare on Terror and the detention of 22 Muslim Uyghurs from Xinjiang province at Guantánamo to justify its mass surveillance, internment, and indoctrination software in opposition t Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims, which Human Rights Watch has found to be crimes in opposition t humanity.[203] In 2019, Shohrat Zakir, the legit overseeing camps unlawfully detaining as many as 1 million Uyghurs in Xinjiang, similarly criticized US law calling for the camps’ closure as hypocritical in gentle of US counterterrorism measures and detentions at Guantánamo.[204]

submit-9/11 Abuses by using US safety Allies

lots of the international locations that perform enforced disappearances, illegal indefinite detentions, torture, and essentially unsuitable trials in the identify of countrywide safety are close US counterterrorism allies. whereas in some situations, the USA has sought to curb these abuses, often to little avail, in others it has shown a willingness to fail to see them.

Mass Detentions and unsuitable Trials

In northeast Syria, the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces, which partnered with the USA-led foreign Coalition against ISIS to rout ISIS from its so-known as caliphate, has for more than 2.5 years held about forty five,000 international ISIS suspects and members of the family in deeply degrading, lifestyles-threatening and in many situations inhumane situations, with no access to courts to challenge the legality and necessity of their detention. many of the foreigners are Iraqi whereas basically 14,000 others are guys, ladies, and youngsters from basically 60 nations as far off as Australia, Canada, France, Egypt, Morocco, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, and the U.okay. Of the non-Iraqi foreigners, just about 12,000 are women and youngsters held in locked camps, while the relaxation are guys and boys held in severely overcrowded prisons.[205] handiest a couple of international locations, together with Russia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, have introduced domestic colossal numbers of detainees.[206] whereas there are not any allegations that the detaining forces are conducting abuses of the kind that blighted the Bush presidency, the inactivity of nations whose nationals are held in northeast Syria risks creating a Guantánamo 2.0 with an exponentially larger variety of detainees, most of them children. Allies have for essentially the most part neglected repeated calls by means of Washington for them to repatriate their nationals. Few have taken up the us defense force’s offers to support them accomplish that.[207]

In Iraq, more than 50,000 individuals have been detained as of September 2021 for hyperlinks to ISIS or different terrorism-connected prices and half were sentenced to death, in keeping with the country’s Ministry of Justice.[208] as a minimum 20,000 have been detained considering that 2013.[209] The prisoners reportedly encompass more than seven hundred foreigners.[210] Many defendants have been reportedly detained as a result of their names looked on inaccurate wanted lists or because they had been family members of listed suspects.[211] The detainees encompass more than 900 toddlers.[212] as a minimum 280 of those convicted of terrorism had been achieved as of January 2021.[213]

Many defendants have been convicted of membership in or assist for ISIS in preference to for selected crimes.[214] not one has been convicted of grave international crimes, for instance for the mass conversions, sexual enslavement, and killings of Yezidis, which quantity to battle crimes and can be crimes towards humanity or part of a genocide.[215]

Defendants are often held incommunicado in inhuman circumstances.[216] protection legal professionals’ access to their consumers’ case information is severely confined.[217] Convictions are generally in line with secret testimony or confessions.[218] The courts can convict infants as younger as 9 years old.[219]

Judges have routinely surpassed out lifestyles sentences or even the dying penalty to lessen-stage foot troopers or cooks, mechanics, and cleaners.[220] they have got been followed issuing such sentences without first since defendants’ testimony that their confessions have been extracted through torture, or that their affiliation with ISIS become involuntary, and even their most effective method to live on in areas the group controlled.[221] Iraq has no longer prosecuted extensively suggested conflict crimes by means of Iraq military and allied militia.[222]

Nigeria has held as a minimum 6,500 Boko Haram suspects in armed forces prisons, some for as much as nine years at no cost.[223] The protection forces additionally detained more than three,600 children for months or years for alleged Boko Haram ties. The infants have been held incommunicado and often for gratis in severely overcrowded and squalid detention facilities, and have alleged that they were overwhelmed and lacked enough food. Half of the children reportedly had been released in 2019 and 2020.[224]

After years of inactiveness, the Nigerian authorities prosecuted more than 1,660 alleged Boko Haram members in three mass trials in 2017 and 2018, leading to about 360 convictions. most of the different cases had been pushed aside for lack of evidence, and scores have been adjourned. Sentences ranged from three to 60 years in jail.[225] The govt has time and again postponed extra prosecutions.

Federal excessive court judges performed the mass trials however in makeshift courts on a remote armed forces base, making them inaccessible to victims and family members. Defendants described being held incommunicado in overcrowded military barracks for months or years for free of charge. They pointed out torture became frequent and that some prisoners have been loss of life of starvation, thirst, and insufficient medical care.[226]

Most of these convicted were lessen-stage suspects discovered responsible of membership or featuring non-violent support to Boko Haram for acts reminiscent of repairing motors, washing clothing, imparting food, or failing to supply the executive with counsel about the neighborhood despite the dangers of reprisal.[227]

The courts lacked reliable interpreters and a lot of defendants didn't see a lawyer except the day of the trial.[228] Convictions were primarily based fully on coerced confessions.[229] proceedings lasted mere minutes.[230] Most costs lacked particular details, and judges from time to time did not believe whether the accused had joined or supported Boko Haram involuntarily.[231] The courts ordered lots of the defendants whose circumstances have been pushed aside to then again endure “rehabilitation” despite the lack of facts in opposition t them.[232] best 10 individuals of the Nigerian militia reportedly had been prosecuted for serious counterterrorism-linked offenses.[233]

Nigerian troopers and protection agents have performed rape and different acts of sexual violence against women and youngsters detained for links to Boko Haram, including many who have been kidnapped by the neighborhood, with out a accountability. troopers reportedly have demanded sex from the ladies in exchange for meals, soap, and other needs, and the promise of freedom.[234]

In Somalia, intelligence companies have held children incommunicado, overwhelmed or threatened them, forced them to sign confessions, and denied them attorneys right through trial in the event that they suspect them of hyperlinks to Al Shabab, even when the neighborhood abducted the infants and compelled them to battle.[235]

Egypt’s systematic counterterrorism abuses consist of mass detention and torture of civil society participants in squalid prisons within the name of countering the Muslim Brotherhood, a bunch Egypt manufacturers as terrorist; obvious extrajudicial executions disguised as shootouts with Muslim Brotherhood “terrorists”; war crimes against inhabitants of North Sinai, home to an ISIS affiliate; and executions of defendants following fallacious mass terrorism trials.[236]

The Egyptian executive’s dismissal of primary rights prolonged to its abuse of a touring American man whom its security forces arrested in 2013, curiously by means of mistake, in a crackdown on an anti-executive sit-in. regardless of repeated appeals from Washington to free up the person, Egypt held him for greater than five years without trial. A yr after his conviction on bogus charges in a mistaken mass trial, the man died in an Egyptian penal complex in 2020 after occurring starvation strike.[237]

Abuses of Former Guantánamo Detainees

despite diplomatic assurances between Washington and receiving governments for humane medication, many foreign authorities have abused the men whom the USA transferred to third nations or their international locations of nationality after detaining them for years without charge at Guantánamo.[238]

at the least 19 men – one Russian and 18 Yemenis – whom the us ostensibly transferred for “rehabilitation” to the United Arab Emirates between 2015 and 2017 have informed members of the family that the Emiratis detained them without charge in undisclosed areas. The Yemeni men even spoke of they favorite returning to Guantánamo to remaining within the UAE.[239] In 2021, the UAE transferred the 18 Yemenis to their warfare-torn place of birth, curiously in opposition t their will.[240] probably the most men reportedly turned into so severely traumatized he did not appreciate members of the family and as soon as home fled, handiest to be kidnapped with the aid of the Houthis, an armed group fighting UAE-backed forces in Yemen.[241] The final man held by means of the UAE, a Muslim Tartar and former soldier and ballet dancer who fled Russia for worry of persecution, reportedly faces forcible repatriation to Russia regardless of grave hazards of abuse there.[242]

In 2021 a couple of UN unbiased human rights consultants called on the UAE to no longer forcibly repatriate the Russian and Yemeni detainees, noting that that they face “a possibility of torture and sick-medication” in their nations of beginning.[243]

men repatriated from Guantánamo have also been treated harshly by means of authorities of their international locations of nationality. Mohamedou Ould Slahi of Mauritania, for instance, become repatriated from Guantánamo in 2016 after the USA held him for greater than 14 years without charge. below suggested force from the united states, Mauritania for three years refused to supply Slahi with a passport he had sought to go back and forth overseas for clinical medicine.[244] Slahi suffered from again ache because of an operation at Guantánamo.[245]

Few consequences for Allies’ Abuses

Successive US presidents considering the fact that 9/11 have further lowered the bar for different international locations via making tepid attempts at most effective to impose penalties for counterterrorism allies’ abuses. the USA continues to supply smartly over $1 billion yearly in support to Egypt, virtually all of it protection tips, and senior officials have generally kept away from strong condemnations of President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi despite the fact he has ushered within the nation’s worst human rights abuses in a long time. In September 2021 the Biden administration froze $a hundred thirty million in support unless Egypt meets definite – undisclosed – human rights benchmarks, a long way short of the freeze of up to $300 million that Congress had authorized.[246]

In contrast to the Trump White apartment, the Biden administration has referred to as out Saudi Arabia on its deplorable human rights checklist, which additionally comprises illegal detentions and torture of activists and others falsely labeled terrorism suspects, and wrong mass terrorism trials and executions.[247] especially, it additionally has briefly frozen a huge sale of offensive weapons to Riyadh over human rights concerns. but in November it authorised $650 million in missiles and missile launchers to the dominion for “protecting purposes.”[248] furthermore, the united states has sidestepped calls for sanctions in opposition t the de facto Saudi leader, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, even though a US intelligence evaluation that he permitted the killing of the journalist Jamal Khashoggi.[249]

Torture as a Boon to Armed Extremist agencies

Islamist armed organizations have also profited from US abuses due to the fact 9/eleven, making these practices not best unconscionable and illegal but additionally counterproductive. ISIS has used these abuses as a propaganda tool to both entice recruits and justify its own abhorrent acts, as an example through placing hostages from the united states and different nations in orange jumpsuits, corresponding to those worn via prisoners at Guantánamo, earlier than executing them.[250]

As a gaggle of US safety, intelligence, and interrogation authorities wrote in a joint remark upon the liberate of the Torture file abstract, torture can “function a foundational theme for recruiting campaigns designed to appeal to others to violent extremism” and “invites reciprocity” through armed businesses retaining US captives. For these being subjected to abuse, “[t]orture and different kinds of abusive or coercive techniques commonly serves to make stronger someone’s unravel to resist [and] deepen his commitment to a cause,” they noted.[251]

To make certain, a number of factors, many unrelated to US acts or policies, have compelled people to join armed corporations reminiscent of Al Qaeda, ISIS, Boko Haram and Al Shabab. however abuses via US forces have without doubt fueled grievances within marginalized Muslim communities and contributed to the Islamist armed extremist narrative that the united states and its Western allies are waging a campaign against Muslims.[252]

“Perceived US abuses of and shortage of due method for detainees at Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo Bay” is still “a key driver” of foreign terrorist opponents to Iraq and is “undermining foreign self assurance in the u.s.' ability to habits an effective struggle on terrorism that is still genuine to American values,” a confidential US diplomatic cable warned way back to 2006.[253]

Torture is also ineffective, prompting its victims to say anything, notwithstanding it is fake, to get their torturers to stop the ache.[254] as the declassified summary of the Torture file notes, at no time did the CIA’s coercive interrogation concepts produce intelligence of an approaching danger. somewhat, according to the CIA’s own memos, these held in CIA black websites based on 9/11 who supplied significant accurate intelligence did so just before or while not having been subjected to “more advantageous interrogation suggestions.” Conversely, assorted CIA detainees fabricated information beneath and following torture, leading to erroneous intelligence together with on vital considerations comparable to terrorist threats.[255]

It isn't too late for the united states to mitigate one of the hurt from its illegal detentions, torture, and other violations of the rights of each victims and suspects. The Biden administration should promptly put into effect measures geared toward ending crimes and violations perpetrated below the rubric of the war on Terror, together with unlawful air strikes and raids that kill or injure civilians both out and in of identified conflict zones. those reforms should encompass increasing transparency and accountability when operations go awry.

Biden should still stand firm on his vow to shut the united states prison at Guantánamo and end the deeply flawed defense force commissions device. He should ship the prisoners who can't be prosecuted domestic – or to 3rd international locations should still repatriation present hazards of torture or other ill-remedy. The president should still press Congress to raise the ban on transferring the leisure to the USA for prosecution in federal courts with out the use of torture-tainted proof, and, for these convicted, to serve their sentences in federal prisons.

If he can't garner satisfactory assist from Congress, Biden should use his executive authority to empower the Justice department to pursue plea agreements in federal courts, via videoconferencing if vital. moreover, Biden should still declassify the RDI application as neatly because the total Torture document, redacting only what is exactly fundamental to protect countrywide protection, to aid provide a full public accounting. Biden may still provide redress and rehabilitative features for victims. The President should still additionally acknowledge wrongdoing and apologize to victims of torture and different illegal practices.

furthermore, Biden may still direct the lawyer everyday to appoint a unique prosecutor to habits an intensive, impartial, and credible investigation into US govt detention practices and interrogation strategies due to the fact that 9/11, with a watch toward prosecutions. The investigation should determine the position of US officers, no count their position or rank, who participated in, approved, ordered, or had command responsibility for torture or sick-remedy and different unlawful detention practices, together with enforced disappearance and rendition to torture.

the us Congress may still create an independent, impartial fee to investigate enforced disappearances, fantastic renditions, torture, and other abuses of detainees in US custody when you consider that 9/eleven. such a commission may still hang hearings, have full subpoena power, compel the construction of facts, and have authority to advocate appointing a different prosecutor to investigate feasible crook offenses, if the attorney customary has not yet opened such an investigation.

Judicial authorities in other nations should still activity common jurisdiction, or different sorts of jurisdiction as supplied below foreign and home legislation, to prosecute nationals from the U.S. or elsewhere speculated to be thinking in severe overseas crimes towards detainees seeing that 9/eleven. Governments that participated in the RDI software may still also ensure neutral and independent criminal investigations into the roles of their own nationals and prosecute those implicated in crimes.

until it conducts exact investigations domestically, the U.S. should encourage inclusion of abuses by means of US nationals within the overseas criminal court’s investigation of grave crimes in Afghanistan.

whereas these steps could be politically challenging, they're the best option, should still the USA want to uphold the rule of thumb of legislation and its proclaimed values, and offer protection to fundamental rights together with the appropriate to lifestyles. The most effective victors in keeping the repute quo are governments in search of justification for unlawful practices within the identify of protection, and organizations like Al Qaeda, ISIS, and their offshoots, which aspect to US abuses to underscore their narrative that the West is at battle with Islam.


[1] Elisa Epstein is the former Advocacy Officer for the Washington Advocacy group at Human Rights Watch, where she performed advocacy with the U.S. executive on countrywide security and overseas policy concerns.

[2] “The vice chairman appears on Meet the click with Tim Russert,” The White condominium, September 16, 2001, https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/vicepresident/news-speeches/speeches/vp20010916.html. “Remarks through attorney accepted Ashcroft, Smithsburg high faculty, Smithsburg, Maryland,” workplace of the press Secretary, the White condo, September sixteen, 2001, https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010916.html.

[3] “Committee analyze of the imperative Intelligence agency’s Detention and Interrogation software (“Torture file”),” u.s. Senate choose Committee on Intelligence, 2014, pp. 2 and 12. On overseas governments’ participation see “Globalizing Torture: CIA Secret Detention and astounding Rendition,” Open Society Justice Initiative, 2013, https://www.#/uploads/655bbd41-082b-4df3-940c-18a3bd9ed956/globalizing-torture-20120205.pdf, pp. 61-sixty two.

[4] involving sexual violence against feminine detainees see “Iraqi women raped at Abu Ghraib: reviews,” SBS information, August 22, 2013, https://www.sbs.com.au/information/iraqi-women-raped-at-abu-ghraib-reviews; Thomas Frank, “Fatima Boudchar became sure, Gagged and Photographed naked. John McCain wishes to grasp If Gina Haspel's k With That,” Buzzfeed news, March 23, 2018, https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/thomasfrank/fatima-bouchar-turned into-certain-gagged-and-photographed-naked-john. The “Taguba file,” on abuses of detainees at Abu Ghraib, blanketed stories of rape and different sexual violence by using US and Iraqi forces in opposition t male detainees, see “U.S. military 15-6 file of Abuse of Prisoners in Iraq,” 2004, https://irp.fas.org/agency/dod/taguba.pdf; concerning the alleged rape of an imprisoned Iraqi boy see also Scott Higham and Joe Stephens, “New particulars of jail Abuse Emerge,” The Washington put up, may 21, 2004, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2004/05/21/new-details-of-penal complex-abuse-emerge/7346e4cb-47f8-42ab-8897-38a021a1bd0c/.

[7] For casualty figures, see “The 9/11 commission record,” national commission on Terrorist assaults Upon the united states, August 2004, https://9-11commission.gov/record/, pp. https://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/file/911Report_Exec.pdf1-2. For influence on victim-survivors and families, see Julia E. Rodriguez, “Sister of 9:eleven sufferer: Guantánamo Will by no means convey Justice,” Time, January 14, 2016, https://time.com/4178889/guantanamo-will-in no way-deliver-justice/; Laura Pitter (Human Rights Watch), “13 Years On, Will 9/eleven Ever Go to Trial?” commentary, foreign coverage, August 28, 2014, https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/08/28/13-years-will-9/eleven-ever-go-trial.

[8] The torture scenes in Zero darkish Thirty are controversial and traditionally doubtful. See Laura Pitter (Human Rights Watch), “US: Zero darkish Torture,” commentary, international coverage, January 11, 2013, https://www.hrw.org/news/2013/01/eleven/us-zero-dark-torture. The film, starring Jessica Chastain, grossed more than $132 million global. That compares to the miniscule container workplace revenues for movies that greater realistically portrayed the harms of post-September 11 practices. These include The Mauritanian from 2021, which received actor Jodie Foster an Academy Award but grossed simplest $4.three million – its income can also also may also have been hampered by means of the Covid-19 pandemic – and The file from 2019, starring Adam Driver and John Hamm, which grossed $232,305, in response to the movie business database IMDb.com. For assistance on the torture demonstrate see “secret agent Museum Responds to Senators’ enchantment To alter Its display Misrepresenting CIA Torture software,” office of US Senator Martin Heinrich, January 9, 2020, https://www.heinrich.senate.gov/press-releases/undercover agent-museum-responds-to-senators-attraction-to-modify-its-reveal-misrepresenting-cia-torture-application-; Zachary Small, “The foreign secret agent Museum considered in the course of the Eyes of a Human Rights professional,” Hyperallergic, September 4, 2019, https://hyperallergic.com/514255/the-foreign-secret agent-museum-seen-via-the-eyes-of-a-human-rights-expert/.

[14] “Remarks by means of the President Upon Arrival,” The White residence office of the clicking Secretary, September 16, 2001, https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010916-2.html. four days later, on September 20, Bush declared, “Our struggle on terror begins with al Qaeda, nevertheless it doesn't conclusion there. it'll no longer conclusion unless each terrorist neighborhood of international attain has been discovered, stopped and defeated.” See “tackle to a Joint Session of Congress and the American people,” The White apartment workplace of the clicking Secretary, September 20, 2001, https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/information/releases/2001/09/20010920-eight.html.

[15] Torture file, p. 9.

[19] The 2014 Senate Intelligence Committee document says at the least 119 americans had been detained; see Torture report, p. three. An Open Society Justice Initiative file says at least 136 individuals had been detained; see Globalizing Torture, pp. 15-sixteen.

[21] Torture report, p. 12.

[22] Ibid., pp. three-four. See also Globalizing Torture, p. sixteen; and Human Rights Watch, Getting Away with Torture: The Bush Administration and Mistreatment of Detainees, July 12, 2011, https://www.hrw.org/document/2011/07/12/getting-away-torture/bush-administration-and-mistreatment-detainees. Physicians for Human Rights has greatly documented clinical abuses of detainees, see “CIA Torture file Highlights useless clinical manner,” Physicians for Human Rights, December 10, 2014, https://phr.org/news/cia-torture-document-highlights-unnecessary-scientific-manner/.

[26] Globalizing Torture, pp. sixty one-62.

[27] related to sexual violence towards female detainees see “Iraqi women raped at Abu Ghraib: stories,” SBS news, August 22, 2013, https://www.sbs.com.au/news/iraqi-women-raped-at-abu-ghraib-stories; Thomas Frank, “Fatima Boudchar changed into sure, Gagged and Photographed naked. John McCain wishes to know If Gina Haspel's ok With That,” Buzzfeed news, March 23, 2018, https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/thomasfrank/fatima-bouchar-turned into-certain-gagged-and-photographed-bare-john. The “Taguba report,” on abuses of detainees at Abu Ghraib, blanketed experiences of rape and other sexual violence by US and Iraqi forces in opposition t male detainees, see “U.S. army 15-6 report of Abuse of Prisoners in Iraq,” 2004, https://irp.fas.org/agency/dod/taguba.pdf; regarding the alleged rape of an imprisoned Iraqi boy see also Scott Higham and Joe Stephens, “New particulars of jail Abuse Emerge,” The Washington put up, can also 21, 2004, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2004/05/21/new-details-of-penitentiary-abuse-emerge/7346e4cb-47f8-42ab-8897-38a021a1bd0c/.

[28] Eleven detainees died from torture in Iraq and 6 in Afghanistan, see Steven H. Miles, “medical Investigations of Homicides of Prisoners of battle in Iraq and Afghanistan,” MedGenMed, 7(3):4, 2005, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1681676/. See also Scott A. Allen, “Deaths of Detainees within the Custody of U.S. Forces in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2002 to 2005,” MedGenMed, eight(4): forty six, 2006, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1868355/#R8.

[31] Guantánamo detainee Adnan Latif, who two years before taking his lifestyles in 2012, wrote to his legal professional, “you're nevertheless hunting for justice and looking for hearings…i'm being pushed toward loss of life.” See Letta Tayler (Human Rights Watch), “Guantanamo nonetheless a Blight on U.S. record,” commentary, CNN, September 17, 2012, https://www.hrw.org/news/2012/09/17/guantanamo-still-blight-us-listing.

[33] In a sequence of experiences starting in 2005, Human Rights Watch has known as for crook investigations into the function of desirable Bush administration officers within the detainee abuse together with then-President Bush, vp Dick Cheney, defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, CIA Director George Tenet, and Rizzo and different senior officials. See Human Rights Watch, Getting Away with Torture?: Command responsibility for the U.S. Abuse of Detainees, April 23, 2005, https://www.hrw.org/node/255515/printable/print; Human Rights Watch, Getting Away with Torture: The Bush Administration and Mistreatment of Detainees; Human Rights Watch, extra Excuses: A Roadmap to Justice for CIA Torture, December 1, 2015, https://www.hrw.org/record/2015/12/01/no-more-excuses/roadmap-justice-cia-torture, pp. 35-69.

[34] Human Rights Watch, No extra Excuses, p. 12. The CIA sought the Justice department declination of prosecution for its interrogation of Abu Zubaydah (see component to this essay titled “No Due process for Guantánamo Detainees”).

[35] Memos from Assistant lawyer frequent for the workplace of felony suggestions Jay Bybee and his deputy John Yoo, August 1, 2002. the primary memo, quoted right here, is known as “Bybee I.” See Human Rights Watch, No more Excuses, pp. 12-13; “Memorandum for Alberto R. Gonzales guidance to the President,” US department of Justice office of criminal assistance, August 1, 2002, https://www.justice.gov/websites/default/info/olc/legacy/2010/08/05/memo-gonzales-aug2002.pdf.

[36] the provision that the colleague raised with Rizzo concerned the Fourth Geneva conference, which prohibits “actual or moral coercion” against prisoners, “in selected to obtain tips from them or from third parties.” Geneva convention relative to the protection of Civilian individuals in Time of conflict (“Fourth Geneva conference”), adopted August 12, 1949, 75 U.N.T.S. 287, entered into force October 21, 1950, https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/files/atrocity-crimes/Doc.33_GC-IV-EN.pdf, paintings. 31.

[38] Obama ended the RDI application in 2009. He transferred administration of US-run prisons in Iraq to the Iraqi executive in 2010, and of US-run prisons in Afghanistan to Afghan authorities in 2014. See Scott Shane, “Obama Orders Secret Prisons and Detention Camps Closed,” big apple times, January 22, 2009, https://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/23/us/politics/23GITMOCND.html; Ned Parker, “U.S. fingers over closing prison to Iraqi manage,” la instances,” July 15, 2010, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2010-jul-15-la-fg-iraq-camp-handover-20100716-story.html; “U.S. transfers handle of ultimate detention center to Afghanistan,” France 24, December 11, 2014, https://www.france24.com/en/20141211-u . s .-transfers-controls-ends-afghanistan-penal complex-taliban.

[40] “mp;A: Guantanamo Bay, U.S. Detentions, and the Trump Administration,” Human Rights Watch news unlock, June 27, 2018, https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/06/27/qa-guantanamo-bay-us-detentions-and-trump-administration; “Guantanamo's children: The Wikileaked memories,” university of California Davis core for the study of Human Rights in the Americas, March 22, 2013, https://humanrights.ucdavis.edu/experiences/guantanamos-children-the-wikileaked-memories; Mark Denbeaux and Joshua Denbeaux, “record on Guantánamo Detainees: A Profile of 517 Detainees through analysis of branch of defense information,” Seton hall legislations evaluate (2006): vol. 41: concern. four, Article 2, https://scholarship.shu.edu/shlr/vol41/iss4/2, pp. 14-15.

[42] Jane Mayer, The darkish side: The internal Story of How the conflict on Terror grew to become into a conflict on American ideals (long island: Doubleday, 2008), p. 184.

[43] record of Guantánamo Detainees, p. 15.

[44] See Fatima Bhutto, “Nothing but Pitch Black Darkness,” foreign policy, August 14, 2021, https://foreignpolicy.com/2021/08/14/guantanamo-torture-afghanistan-pakistan-ahmed-rabbani-no-can charge-trial-biden-obama-trump-reprieve/; “Pakistan: Human Rights omitted in the ‘struggle on Terror,’” Amnesty foreign, September 28, 2006, https://www.amnesty.org/en/wp-content material/uploads/2021/08/asa330362006en.pdf, pp. 12, 19; report of Guantánamo Detainees, pp. 14-15; “Guantánamo Inmates Say They have been sold,” The associated Press, might also 31, 2005, https://www.nbcnews.com/identity/wbna8049868.

[59] Boumediene v. Bush, 553 US 723 (2008).

[60] Boumediene v. Bush, at 779.

[61] for example, that appeals court docket, the U.S. court docket of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, held that the government can count on records derived fully from hearsay. It also held that lessen courts have to apply a “conditional chance” analysis in which they ought to seem to be in any respect evidence as a whole and will now not discard parts they regarded unreliable. See Laura Pitter (Human Rights Watch), “countrywide protection and court docket Deference: Ramifications and worrying traits,” essay, center on national protection, December 20, 2018, https://www.hrw.org/information/2018/12/20/country wide-protection-and-courtroom-deference-ramifications-and-worrying-tendencies.

[62] The case, which become heard by the us court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, is Al-Hela v. Biden. See Ann E. Marimow and Missy Ryan, “Appeals courtroom looks reluctant to claim Guantánamo detainees have due manner rights,” Washington submit, September 23, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/courts_law/guantanamo-due-procedure-case/2021/09/29/09ad4982-206a-11ec-8200-5e3fd4c49f5e_story.html. On the concern of how the us withdrawal from Afghanistan might affect the case see Jonathan Hafetz, “What the U.S. Withdrawal from Afghanistan could imply for Guantanamo Detainees and the Due process Clause,” just protection, September 1, 2021, https://www.justsecurity.org/77992/what-the-united states of americawithdrawal-from-afghanistan-might-suggest-for-guantanamo-detainees-and-the-due-process-clause/.

[65] Eight guys held at Guantánamo have been convicted however some were transferred out of the penitentiary. Three convictions had been thrown out, others had been partially reversed. just one Guantánamo detainee was transferred to a US federal courtroom for trial; he changed into found guilty. See “mp;A: Guantanamo Bay, US Detentions, and the Trump Administration,” Human Rights Watch information unlock, June 27, 2018, https://www.hrw.org/information/2018/06/27/qa-guantanamo-bay-us-detentions-and-trump-administration. both men found guilty who had been nevertheless at Guantánamo as of September 2021 are Majid Shoukat Khan, who pleaded guilty to battle crimes in 2012 for serving as an Al-Qaeda courier; and Ali Hamza al-Bahlul, who changed into accused of being a media secretary for Osama bin encumbered and became convicted in 2008 of three terrorism-connected costs, however refused to take part in his military fee trial. Two of Bahul’s convictions had been overturned. See “The Guantánamo Docket: ‘Convicted in defense force commissions device,’” big apple instances Database, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/us/guantanamo-bay-detainees.html#convicted.

[67] “‘Disgraceful’ Guantánamo Bay detention facility should be closed now, say UN experts,” United international locations Human Rights office of the high Commissioner information release, January 11, 2021, https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26649&LangID=E. One landmark Supreme court ruling that forced reforms to the military commission systems became Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 548 US 557 (2006), which held that the common armed forces fee device created with the aid of the Bush administration violated the Geneva Conventions and the USA Uniform Code of militia Justice. one other changed into Boumediene v. Bush, 553 US 723 (2008), which held that the 2nd new release of the defense force commissions accredited by using Congress in keeping with Hamdan v. Rumsfeld denied Guantánamo detainees their habeas corpus rights to challenge their detention in federal courts, in violation of article 1, part 9 of the USA charter.

[70] As one journalist notes in a September 2021 article, the judge at that time, Colonel Matthew McCall, “is, reckoning on the way you count, the fourth, seventh, or ninth to preside.” See Amy Davidson Sorkin, “The continually Trial at Guantanamo,” New Yorker, September 12, 2021, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2021/09/20/the-invariably-trial-at-guantanamo.

[73] Gabriel Beugelmans, “Navigating concerns of Secrecy and national security at GTMO,” Pacific Council on international policy, March 31, 2020, https://www.pacificcouncil.org/newsroom/navigating-issues-secrecy-and-country wide-protection-gtmo; see additionally workplace of militia Commissions, Unofficial/Unauthenticated Transcript of the R.M.C. 803 session, February 19, 2020, https://www.mc.mil/Portals/0/pdfs/KSM2/KSMpercent20IIp.c20(TRANS19Feb2020-MERGED).pdf, pp. 32, 777-793.

[77] Prosecutors asked the choose to get rid of from the listing statements that the CIA had obtained while torturing a person as a result charged with organizing the USACole bombing. although, they stopped wanting asking the decide to vacate the essence of his ruling that on definite activities a judge may believe torture-tainted information in interlocutory complaints, in spite of the fact that US and overseas legislation bar use of such information as evidence at trial. See Carol Rosenberg, “Appeals Panel Overturns military decide’s Ruling on Torture,” new york instances. September 20, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/09/20/us/politics/torture-terror-guantanamo-bay.html. On the petition for a writ of mandamus on the US courtroom of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit see David Luban, Scott Roehm, et al., “The Biden Administration’s moment of fact on Torture facts,” just security, December 1, 2021, https://www.justsecurity.org/79382/the-biden-administrations-moment-of-reality-on-torture-facts/.

[78] The Trump administration argued that the correct to due method assured under the fifth and 14th amendments to the USA constitution didn't follow to the foreign detainees at Guantánamo. however the Biden administration reportedly has no longer counseled that position, it stopped in need of declaring that these Constitutional protections extended to the non-citizens on the US military prison. See Ryan Goodman, “What the U.S. government short may still Have referred to in Al-Hela: On Guantanamo and Due manner,” just protection, July 12, 2021, https://www.justsecurity.org/77386/what-the-us-government-short-should-have-spoke of-in-al-hela-on-guantanamo-and-due-process/; and Charlie Savage, “Biden Administration Punts on Due technique Rights for Guantánamo Detainees,” ny times, July 9, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/09/us/politics/guantanamo-detainees-due-technique.html.

[81] Sondra Crosby, Katherine Porterfield, Stephen N. Xenakis, “statement of independent clinical experts on ‘Closing Guantánamo: Ending twenty years of Injustice’ earlier than the Senate Judiciary Committee,” center for Victims of Torture, December 7, 2021, https://www.cvt.org/sites/default/info/attachments/u93/downloads/medical_experts_statement_12-7_sjc_gtmo_hearing_final.pdf. See additionally “Deprivation and Despair: The crisis of medical Care at Guantánamo,” Physicians for Human Rights and the center for Victims of Torture, June 2019, https://phr.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/PHR_CVT-Guantanamo-clinical-disaster-record-June-2019-1.pdf, pp. three-4, and 9.

[88] See basis for defense of Democracies, “US Airstrikes in the lengthy battle,” lengthy struggle Journal, undated, https://www.longwarjournal.org/us-airstrikes-in-the-long-war; Peter Bergen, David Sterman, and Melissa Salyk-Virk, “the usa’s Counterterrorism Wars,” New the united states, June 17, 2021, https://www.newamerica.org/foreign-protection/experiences/americas-counterterrorism-wars/; and “Drone conflict,” The Bureau of Investigative Journalism, undated, https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/tasks/drone-struggle. For examples of US failure to supply redress to civilian victims of lethal strikes, see Amanda Sperber, “U.S. Airstrikes Have Torn Somali families aside. They’re nonetheless searching for Justice, Vice World news, July 22, 2021, https://www.vice.com/en/article/m7exg8/us-airstrikes-have-torn-somali-families-apart-theyre-nonetheless-in quest of-justice; and Leah Feiger and Nick Turse, “A Yemeni household was again and again Attacked by U.S. Drones. Now, They’re looking for Justice,” Vice World information, January 26, 2021, https://www.vice.com/en/article/3anj33/a-yemeni-household-turned into-repeatedly-attacked-via-us-drones-now-theyre-in search of-justice.

[90] Peter Hamby, “10 more secrets and techniques from crusade 2012,” CNN, November 4, 2013, https://www.cnn.com/2013/11/04/politics/double-down-2012-crusade/index.html. For an assessment of Obama’s drone strike application see Micah Zenko, “Obama’s last Drone Strike facts,” Council on foreign members of the family, January 20, 2017, https://www.cfr.org/blog/obamas-remaining-drone-strike-statistics.

[91] Micah Zenko, “Obama’s last Drone Strike data,” Council on foreign relations, January 20, 2017, https://www.cfr.org/blog/obamas-remaining-drone-strike-data; see additionally, Human Rights Watch, Between a Drone and Al-Qaeda: The Civilian of U.S. focused Killings in Yemen, October 22, 2013, https://www.hrw.org/report/2013/10/22/between-drone-and-al-qaeda/civilian-cost-us-focused-killings-yemen; and a marriage That became a Funeral: US Drone assault on Marriage Procession in Yemen, February 19, 2014, https://www.hrw.org/report/2014/02/19/marriage ceremony-grew to become-funeral/us-drone-assault-marriage-procession-yemen.

[92] Hina Shamsi, “Trump’s Secret suggestions for Drone Strikes and Presidents’ Unchecked License to Kill,” simply protection, can also three, 2021, https://www.aclu.org/information/national-safety/trumps-secret-suggestions-for-drone-strikes-and-presidents-unchecked-license-to-kill/. See also Amanda Sperber, “U.S. Airstrikes Have Torn Somali families aside. They’re nonetheless in the hunt for Justice, Vice World news, July 22, 2021, https://www.vice.com/en/article/m7exg8/us-airstrikes-have-torn-somali-families-aside-theyre-nevertheless-in quest of-justice.

[97] Azmat Khan, “Hidden Pentagon data demonstrate Patterns of Failure in deadly Airstrikes,” long island times, December 18, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/12/18/us/airstrikes-pentagon-statistics-civilian-deaths.html; and Azmat Khan, “Airstrikes allowed the united states to wage battle with minimal possibility to its troops,” ny times, December 19, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/19/journal/victims-airstrikes-core-east-civilians.html.

[98] involving airstrikes in Iraq see Azmat Khan and Anand Gopal, “The Uncounted,” big apple instances, November sixteen, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/11/16/journal/uncounted-civilian-casualties-iraq-airstrikes.html. On the civilian toll in the Iraqi metropolis of Mosul on my own see Susannah George, Qassim Abdul-Zahra, et al., “Mosul is a graveyard: remaining IS battle kills 9,000 civilians,” AP information, December 20, 2017, https://apnews.com/article/core-east-most effective-on-ap-islamic-state-group-bbea7094fb954838a2fdc11278d65460. related to Afghanistan, see prices of war: Afghan Civilians, Watson Institute for international & Public Affairs, Brown tuition, April 2021, https://watson.brown.edu/costsofwar/expenses/human/civilians/afghan; Nick Turse, “Pentagon Undercounts Civilian Casualties in New record, experts Say,” The Intercept, June three, 2021, https://theintercept.com/2021/06/03/pentagon-civilian-casualties-record/.

[103] Eric Schmitt, “No U.S. Troops should be Punished for deadly Kabul Strike, Pentagon Chief Decides,” long island times, December 13, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/12/13/us/politics/afghanistan-drone-strike.html. See also “US: end Impunity for Civilian Casualties,” Human Rights Watch news unlock, December 14, 2021, https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/12/14/us-end-impunity-civilian-casualties.

[106] Kimberly Dozier, “CIA Afghan ‘Black sites’ changed via gray Areas,” associated Press, April eight, 2011, https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna42495322. See additionally “Confinement situations at a U.S. Screening Facility on Bagram Air Base,” Regional coverage Initiative on Afghanistan and Pakistan, Open Society Foundations, October 2010, https://www.#/publications/confinement-situations-us-screening-facility-bagram-air-base. Informative roundups of reporting on these practices under President Obama encompass Cora Currier and Suevon Lee, “The optimum Reporting on Detention and Rendition beneath Obama,” ProPublica, July 13, 2012, https://www.propublica.org/article/the-most appropriate-reporting-on-detention-and-rendition-under-obama.

[107] The guide is The army field guide on Human Intelligence Collector Operations.

[111] The Ethiopian suspect became at the beginning misidentified in some media as Eritrean. See Craig Whitlock, “Renditions continue under Obama, regardless of Due system concerns,” Washington post, January 1, 2013, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-protection/renditions-proceed-beneath-obama-regardless of-due-system-concerns/2013/01/01/4e593aa0-5102-11e2-984e-f1de82a7c98a_story.html; “Al Shabaab Operative Sentenced in manhattan Federal courtroom to 111 Months in prison for Conspiring to assist and obtain defense force-category practicing from a foreign Terrorist corporation,” Federal Bureau of Investigation press release, March 27, 2013, https://archives.fbi.gov/archives/newyork/press-releases/2013/al-shabaab-operative-sentenced-in-long island-federal-courtroom-to-111-months-in-penitentiary-for-conspiring-to-aid-and-acquire-militia-category-training-from-a-foreign-terrorist-firm.

[114] Craig Whitlock, “Renditions continue beneath Obama, regardless of Due technique concerns,” Washington publish, January 1, 2013, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/countrywide-security/renditions-proceed-beneath-obama-despite-due-technique-concerns/2013/01/01/4e593aa0-5102-11e2-984e-f1de82a7c98a_story.html; “Two members of Al-Shabaab Sentenced to 11 Years for Conspiring To supply cloth guide to the Terrorist company,” US attorney’s office eastern District of manhattan news free up, January 15, 2016, https://www.justice.gov/usao-edny/pr/two-contributors-al-shabaab-sentenced-11-years-conspiring-give-cloth-assist-terrorist.

[115] Jeremy Scahill, “The CIA’s Secret sites in Somalia,” The Nation, December 10, 2014, https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/cias-secret-websites-somalia/. See also Jeffrey Gettleman, Mark Mazzetti, and Eric Schmitt, “U.S. relies on Contractors in Somalia conflict,” manhattan instances, August 10, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/11/world/africa/11somalia.html?pagewanted=all.

[117] Ken Dilanian, “Terrorism suspect secretly held for two months,” la instances, July 6, 2011, https://www.latimes.com/world/la-xpm-2011-jul-06-la-na-somali-detainee-20110706-story.html. In December 2011, the suspect pleaded guilty in US federal court. See Benjamin Weiser, “Terrorist Has Cooperated with U.S. seeing that Secret responsible Plea in 2011, Papers display,” ny instances, March 25, 2013, https://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/26/nyregion/due to the fact-2011-responsible-plea-somali-terrorist-has-cooperated-with-authorities.html.

[127] overseas Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), adopted December 16, 1966, G.A. Res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. sixteen) at fifty two, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force March 23, 1976, https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx, arts. 6 and seven.

[129] Ibid., arts. 7 and 9. United countries Human Rights Committee, typical remark No. 35, Article 9 (Liberty and protection of person), UN doc CCPR/C/GC/35, December 16, 2014, https://www.refworld.org/docid/553e0f984.html, para 56. “US: extended Indefinite Detention Violates foreign legislations,” Human Rights Watch information unlock, January 24, 2011, https://www.hrw.org/information/2011/01/24/us-prolonged-indefinite-detention-violates-foreign-legislations.

[130] conference in opposition t Torture and other merciless, Inhuman or Degrading remedy or Punishment (conference against Torture), adopted December 10, 1984, G.A. res. 39/46, annex, 39 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, U.N. Doc. A/39/fifty one (1984), entered into drive June 26, 1987, https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cat.aspx, art. 2.

[134] Geneva convention for the Amelioration of the circumstance of the Wounded and unwell in armed forces within the container (“First Geneva convention”), adopted August 12, 1949, seventy five U.N.T.S. 31, entered into drive October 21, 1950, https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/INTRO/365?OpenDocument. art. 12; Geneva convention for the Amelioration of the circumstance of Wounded, sick and Shipwrecked participants of armed forces at Sea (“2nd Geneva conference”), adopted August 12, 1949, 75 U.N.T.S. eighty five, entered into drive October 21, 1950, https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.31_GC-II-EN.pdf, art. 12; Geneva convention relative to the treatment of Prisoners of war (“Third Geneva convention”), adopted August 12, 1949, 75 U.N.T.S. 135, entered into drive October 21, 1950, https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.32_GC-III-EN.pdf, arts. 17, eighty three, and 89; Fourth Geneva conference, art. 32.

[135] See Geneva Conventions (1949), usual artwork. three(1)(a), (c) and (d).

[136] Third Geneva convention, paintings. 13. The article further holds that “Any illegal act or omission by using the Detaining energy inflicting death or severely endangering the health of a prisoner of war in its custody is unlawful, and will be viewed as a serious breach of the latest conference.”

[138] Human Rights Watch opposes the death penalty in all situations since it is inherently cruel and irreversible. the world is relocating towards abolition of the demise penalty, with a hundred and forty four nations having ended capital punishment in legislations or in observe via the end of 2020. See Amnesty international, death Penalty, undated, https://www.amnesty.org/en/what-we-do/demise-penalty/.

[139] Protocol further to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and concerning the protection of Victims of overseas Armed Conflicts (“Protocol I”), adopted June eight, 1977, 1125 U.N.T.S. three, entered into drive December 7, 1978, https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/ihl/INTRO/470, arts. 51, fifty two, and 57; Protocol additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and regarding the insurance policy of Victims of Non-foreign Armed Conflicts (“Protocol II”), 1125 U.N.T.S. 609, entered into drive December 7, 1978, https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/protocolii.aspx, art. 13(2). The principle of big difference between civilians and warring parties is a norm of widely wide-spread foreign law including in armed conflicts wherein one or extra events are non-state forces.

[141] fundamental concepts on the use of drive and Firearms via law Enforcement officials, Eighth United international locations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the medicine of Offenders, Havana, 27 August to 7 September 1990, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.a hundred and forty four/28/Rev.1 at 112 (1990), http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/i2bpuff.htm.

[147] Human Rights Watch, No extra Excuses, pp. 25-27.

[152] Torture record, pp. fifty four-fifty five.

[154] Scott Shane, “No costs Filed on Harsh strategies Used by using the C.I.A.,” ny times, August 30, 2012, https://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/31/us/holder-rules-out-prosecutions-in-cia-interrogations.html?_r=1&pagewanted=1; Scott Horton, “Holder pronounces Impunity for Torture-homicide,” Harper’s magazine, August 31, 2012, https://harpers.org/2012/08/holder-broadcasts-impunity-for-torture-homocides/.

[159] Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski, who commanded the forces at Abu Ghraib and different prisons run by the us-led coalition in Iraq on the time, was demoted and transferred after the scandal broke although the armed forces didn't formally state the detainee abuse as the rationale. Karpinski claimed she changed into made a scapegoat. See “Head of Abu Ghraib jail Speaks Out,” ABC information, August 14, 2009, https://abcnews.go.com/Nightline/IraqCoverage/story?identity=751870&web page=1.

[165] Mike DeBonis, “appropriate human rights put up goes vacant as Trump nominee confronts hyperlinks to submit-9/eleven torture software,” Washington post, November 29, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/powerpost/good-human-rights-publish-goes-vacant-as-trump-nominee-confronts-links-to-submit-911-torture-program/2019/11/29/e1a99644-113d-11ea-bf62-eadd5d11f559_story.html. In 2020, Trump nominated Billingslea for one other ranking place requiring Senate approval. See Julian Borger, “Trump picks reliable concerned in Bush-era torture software as his nuclear envoy,” The Guardian, March 4, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/us-information/2020/mar/04/trump-nuclear-talks-envoy-marshall-billingslea. but the Senate did not take up the nomination.

[168] Human Rights Watch, No extra Excuses: A Roadmap to Justice for CIA Torture, pp. 107-eight.

[169] European court of Human Rights, El-Masri v. the previous Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; Al Nashiri v. Poland and Husayn (Abu Zubaydah) v. Poland; Nasr and Ghali v. Italy; Al Nashiri v. Romania; and Abu Zubaydah v. Lithuania, https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng. See also “Timeline: The Council of Europe’s investigation into CIA secret prisons in Europe,” Parliamentary assembly, July 24, 2014, https://pace.coe.int/en/information/5722.

[170] Ian Cobain, “UK government says payouts for Iraq abuse claims ‘too many to count number,’” center East Eye, August 26, 2020, https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/iraq-british-soldiers-abuse-payouts-count-uk-executive. For a partial record of probably battle crimes dedicated with the aid of UK forces in Iraq see workplace of the Prosecutor, condition in Iraq/UK – remaining record, foreign criminal courtroom, December 9, 2020, https://www.icc-cpi.int/itemsDocuments/201209-otp-last-file-iraq-uk-eng.pdf. despite considerable evidence the court docket declined to examine, concluding – incorrectly in the view of this text’s authors – that the U.okay. turned into willing to investigate and prosecute the circumstances itself. See Clive 1st earl baldwin of bewdley, “The ICC Prosecutor workplace’s Cop-Out on UK military Crimes in Iraq,” OpinioJuris, December 18, 2020, http://opiniojuris.org/2020/12/18/the-icc-prosecutor-workplaces-cop-out-on-uk-militia-crimes-in-iraq/.

[174] Ian Austen, “Canada Apologizes and pays tens of millions to Citizen Held at Guantánamo Bay,” new york instances, July 7, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/07/world/canada/omar-khadr-apology-guantanamo-bay.html. In 2010, Khadr pleaded guilty at Guantánamo to throwing a grenade that killed a U.S. soldier in Afghanistan, but later referred to he made the plea beneath duress. In 2012 he back to Canada to serve the the rest of his sentence. He became launched in may additionally 2015.

[177] Abu Omar’s criminal identify is Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr. “Italy/US: Italian court Rebukes CIA Rendition apply,” Human Rights Watch news free up, November four, 2009, https://www.hrw.org/news/2009/eleven/04/italy/us-italian-court docket-rebukes-cia-rendition-apply; Judith Sunderland, “Dispatches: Italy Stands by myself on Justice for CIA Abuses,” commentary, Human Rights Watch dispatch, March 12, 2014, https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/03/12/dispatches-italy-stands-alone-justice-cia-abuses.

[178] while some nations enable for trials in absentia, Human Rights Watch believes that equity requires that the accused be present in court docket all the way through a trial to put ahead a protection. If an accused is apprehended following a trial wherein he become convicted in absentia, the verdict rendered in absentia should still be quashed and a completely new trial held. One agent became extradited to Italy after entering Portugal but become allowed to leave the country after serving most of a neighborhood carrier sentence. She became among four of the americans together with the Air force pilot to receive full or partial clemency. See Colleen Barry, “Ex-CIA agent convicted in kidnap skips Italian justice,” associated Press, October 29, 2019, https://apnews.com/article/b22a5ec9711645c291404073e7113524; “Italy pardons U.S. pilot convicted in CIA rendition case,” Reuters, April 5, 2013, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-italy-pardon/italy-pardons-usapilot-convicted-in-cia-rendition-case-idUSBRE9340U620130405.

[187] Sabrina Alimahomed-Wilson, “When the FBI Knocks: Racialized State Surveillance of Muslims,” essential Sociology (2019), Vol. forty five(6). doi/10.1177/0896920517750742; Faiza Patel and Meghan Koushik, “Countering Violent Extremism,” Brennan center for Justice, March 16, 2017, https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-stories/countering-violent-extremism. See additionally Desmond Upton Paton, Douglas-Wade Brunton, et al., “stop and Frisk on-line: Theorizing established Racism and Digital Policing in the Use of Social Media for Identification of crook behavior and Associations,” Social Media + Society (2017), https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2056305117733344.

[189] Suspects convicted of terrorism-connected offenses in US federal courts consist of Osama bin laden’s son-in-legislations Sulaiman Abu Ghaith, for conspiring to kill US nationals in 2014; Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, for the Boston Marathon bombing in 2013; Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, for the attempted “underwear bombing” of a passenger jet in 2009; Richard Reid, for the attempted “shoe bombing” of a passenger jet in 2001; Ramzi Yousef, for the world alternate center bombing in 1993; and Faisal Shahzad, for the tried instances rectangular motor vehicle bombing in 2010.

[190] See Human Rights Watch, phantasm of Justice.

[191] Jeremy Varon, “we are Pushing Biden to shut Guantanamo,” peaceable Tomorrows, March 18, 2021, https://peacefultomorrows.org/we-are-pushing-biden-to-close-guantanamo/; Julia E. Rodriguez, “Sister of 9/eleven victim: Guantánamo Will not ever convey Justice,” Time, January 14, 2016, https://time.com/4178889/guantanamo-will-in no way-convey-justice/.

[192] Elisa Epstein cellphone interview with Colleen Kelly, July 15, 2021.

[193] Elisa Epstein mobilephone interview with Elizabeth Miller, July 21, 2021.

[194] Elisa Epstein cellphone interview with Leila Murphy, July 21, 2021.

[203] Geoffrey Cain, “How the battle on Terror Enabled China’s Surveillance Dystopia,” The every day Beast, July 12, 2021, https://www.thedailybeast.com/how-the-warfare-on-terror-enabled-chinas-surveillance-dystopia; James Griffiths, “These Uyghurs have been locked up via the U.S. in Guantanamo. Now they’re getting used as an excuse for China’s crackdown in Xinjiang,” CNN, may additionally 15, 2021, https://www.cnn.com/2021/05/15/china/china-xinjiang-guantanamo-uyghurs-intl-hnk/index.html. The 22 Uyghurs have been captured in 2001. the united states transferred them from Guantánamo to 3rd international locations between 2006 and 2014. None had been charged with a criminal offense. See Charlie Savage, “U.S. Frees closing of the chinese Uighur Detainees from Guantánamo Bay,” long island instances, December 31, 2013, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/01/us/us-frees-final-of-uighur-detainees-from-guantanamo.html. some of the launched Uyghurs are nonetheless trying to be reunited with their families. See Leyland Cecco, “’It breaks my heart’: Uighurs wrongfully held at Guantánamo plead to be with families,” The Guardian, October 7, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/oct/07/uighur-guys-guantanamo. For more assistance on atrocities towards Uyghurs see Human Rights Watch, “spoil Their Lineage, break Their Roots”: chinese language executive Crimes towards Humanity concentrated on Uyghurs and different Turkic Muslims, April 19, 2021, https://www.hrw.org/record/2021/04/19/smash-their-lineage-spoil-their-roots/chinas-crimes-towards-humanity-targeting.

[204] “Governor of China's Xinjiang province accuses U.S. of hypocrisy over Uighur bill,” The Telegraph, December 9, 2019, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/information/2019/12/09/governor-chinas-xinjiang-province-accuses-us-hypocrisy-uighur/. See also linked Press, “China: Guantanamo file suggests U.S. hypocrisy,” video clip, YouTube, December eleven, 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zsHX2ffwdPs. The 22 Uyghurs were captured in 2001. the united states transferred them from Guantánamo to 3rd international locations between 2006 and 2014. None had been charged with a crime. See Charlie Savage, “U.S. Frees closing of the chinese Uighur Detainees from Guantánamo Bay,” long island instances, December 31, 2013, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/01/us/us-frees-remaining-of-uighur-detainees-from-guantanamo.html. some of the released Uyghurs are still trying to be reunited with their households. See Leyland Cecco, “’It breaks my heart’: Uighurs wrongfully held at Guantánamo plead to be with families,” The Guardian, October 7, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/us-information/2020/oct/07/uighur-guys-guantanamo.

[207] Missy Ryan and Louisa Loveluck, “Biden administration attempts to beat reluctance of nations to repatriate Islamic State combatants from Syria,” Washington publish, October 15, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/countrywide-security/islaimc-state-prisoners-repatriation/2021/10/15/f8e722b2-2a91-11ec-92bd-d2ffe8570c7d_story.html. See additionally Simon Hooper, “U.S. offers to repatriate international nationals held in northeast Syria,” center East Eye, November 17, 2020, https://www.middleeasteye.internet/news/us-presents-repatriate-foreign-nationals-held-northeastern-syria.

[210] “The judiciary reveals the number of foreigners accused of terrorism all through the existing year,” country wide Iraqi information agency, December 31, 2018; “Foreigners Accused of Terrorism.” replica on file with authors.

[211] Mara Revkin, “After the Islamic State: Balancing Accountability and Reconciliation in Iraq” within the Limits of Punishment: Transitional Justice and Violent Extremism, 2018, Institute for integrated Transitions, United international locations school, p. fifty eight; Human Rights Watch, fallacious Justice: Accountability for ISIS Crimes in Iraq, p. 23.

[213] Qassim Abdul-Zahra and Susannah George, “Iraq keeping more than 19,000 because of IS, militant ties,” associated Press, March 21, 2018, https://perma.cc/K3Z9-AGWW; “Iraq hangs three convicted of ‘terrorism’: safety source,” France 24, January 25, 2021, https://www.france24.com/en/are living-information/20210125-iraq-hangs-three-convicted-of-terrorism-protection-source.

[214] Revkin, “After the Islamic State,” p. 55; Ben Taub, “Iraq’s submit-ISIS crusade of Revenge,” the brand new Yorker, December 24, 2018, https://perma.cc/PN5N-D8PV; Human Rights Watch, fallacious Justice: Accountability for ISIS Crimes in Iraq, p. 27.

[217] Ben Taub, “Iraq’s post-ISIS crusade of Revenge,” the brand new Yorker, December 24, 2018, https://perma.cc/PN5N-D8PV; United international locations suggestions Mission for Iraq and workplace of the United nations excessive Commissioner for Human Rights, Human Rights in the Administration of Justice in Iraq, pp. 12-13.

[218] Ben Taub, “Iraq’s put up-ISIS campaign of Revenge,” the new Yorker, December 24, 2018, https://perma.cc/PN5N-D8PV; Human Rights Watch, unsuitable Justice: Accountability for ISIS Crimes in Iraq, pp. 21, 31, forty seven-48, and 50-fifty one; Revkin, “After the Islamic State,” p. 58.

[220] Human Rights Watch, improper Justice: Accountability for ISIS Crimes in Iraq, p. 30.

[221] Revkin, “After the Islamic State,” pp. fifty six-57; Ben Taub, “Iraq’s put up-ISIS campaign of Revenge,” the brand new Yorker, December 24, 2018, https://perma.cc/PN5N-D8PV; Vera Mironova, “who are the ISIS people?” in perspectives on Terrorism, Terrorism analysis Initiative, February 2019, https://perma.cc/Z8RX-SMBK, pp. 32 and 35.

[222] Human Rights Watch, mistaken Justice: Accountability for ISIS Crimes in Iraq, pp. sixty seven-69.

[223] “FG receives closing document of Presidential committee on Boko Haram detainees,” daily have confidence, April 25, 2018, https://dailytrust.com/amp/fg-receives-final-file-of-presidential-committee-on-boko-haram-detainees; Amnesty foreign, Willingly Unable: ICC Preliminary Examination and Nigeria’s Failure to tackle Impunity for international Crimes, December 2, 2019, https://www.amnesty.org/en/wp-content material/uploads/2021/05/AFR4494812018ENGLISH.pdf?__cf_chl_managed_tk__=ykFuBJavMDQ_tBm9o71Mri79LwW3t8cJGXfhcS83YVI-1641471735-0-gaNycGzNC-U, p. 17; Vanda Felbab-Brown, “’In Nigeria, They Don’t desire Them back’: Amnesty, Defectors’ courses, Leniency Measures, informal Reconciliation, and Punitive Responses to Boko Haram” in the Limits of Punishment: Transitional Justice and Violent Extremism, 2018, Institute for built-in Transitions, United international locations college, p. eighty two.

[226] Amnesty foreign, Willingly Unable, p. 20.

[227] international criminal courtroom, workplace of the Prosecutor, record on Preliminary Examination activities 2018, December 5, 2018, https://www.icc-cpi.int/itemsDocuments/181205-rep-otp-PE-ENG.pdf, paras. 216 and 237-238; “Nigeria: wrong Trials of Boko Haram Suspects,” Human Rights Watch information liberate, September 17, 2018, https://www.hrw.org/information/2018/09/17/nigeria-wrong-trials-boko-haram-suspects.

[232] “Nigeria: mistaken Trials of Boko Haram Suspects,” Human Rights Watch information unencumber, September 17, 2018, https://www.hrw.org/information/2018/09/17/nigeria-incorrect-trials-boko-haram-suspects. See also “Nigeria jails 45 Boko Haram suspects in mass trial held in secret,” Reuters, October 13, 2017, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-nigeria-security-idUSKBN1CI2BN; and “Nigeria's Boko Haram crisis: courtroom frees 475 suspects,” BBC, February 19, 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-43111860.

[233] Amnesty foreign, Willingly Unable, p. 19.

[236] Human Rights Watch has considerably documented systematic abuse in Egypt. See Amr Magdi (Human Rights Watch), “Egypt’s Execution Frenzy Has to cease,” commentary, core East Eye, June 28, 2021, https://www.hrw.org/information/2021/06/28/egypts-execution-frenzy-has-cease; Human Rights Watch, “security Forces handled Them”: Suspicious Killings and Extrajudicial Executions with the aid of Egyptian protection Forces, September 7, 2021, https://www.hrw.org/record/2021/09/07/protection-forces-dealt-them/suspicious-killings-and-extrajudicial-executions; “Egypt: serious Abuses, war Crimes in North Sinai,” Human Rights Watch information free up, may additionally 28, 2019, https://www.hrw.org/information/2019/05/28/egypt-serious-abuses-warfare-crimes-north-sinai.

[240] The UAE sent the primary six Yemenis home in July. See Samy Magdy, “UAE sends 6 Gitmo detainees to Yemen amid issues,” AP, July 31, 2021, https://apnews.com/article/joe-biden-core-east-africa-yemen-d77ecfc5cc02de4bd49618765eda0777. It despatched the different 12 Yemenis domestic in October. See Mansoor Adayfi, “Yemeni former Guantanamo detainee disappears day after release,” core East display screen, November 27, 2021, https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20211127-yemeni-former-guantanamo-detainee-disappears-day-after-free up/.

[241] Adayfi, “Yemeni former Guantanamo detainee disappears day after unencumber.”

[243] “UAE: UN experts condemn compelled return of ex-Guantanamo inmate to Russia despite torture chance,” United international locations Human Rights workplace of the excessive Commissioner, July 2, 2021, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=27255&LangID=E. Abuse of terrorism suspects and Guantánamo detainees in Yemen and Russia is smartly documented. See Human Rights Watch, No direction home: Returns from Guantanamo to Yemen, March 28, 2009, https://www.hrw.org/report/2009/03/28/no-path-domestic/returns-guantanamo-yemen; and The “Stamp of Guantanamo:” The Story of Seven men Betrayed through Russia’s Diplomatic Assurances to the us, March 2007, https://www.hrw.org/stories/2007/russia0307/.

[249] Frank Gardner, “Khashoggi murder: U.S. softens in opposition t Saudi chief,” BBC, July 14, 2021, https://www.bbc.com/information/world-core-east-57760786. For information on Saudi Arabia’s abuses of detainees see “Saudi Arabia: New particulars of Alleged Torture Leaked,” Human Rights Watch news unencumber, July eleven, 2021, https://www.hrw.org/information/2021/07/eleven/saudi-arabia-new-details-alleged-torture-leaked; “Saudi Arabia: Repression Rages on despite Releases,” Human Rights Watch news release, might also 23, 2021, https://www.hrw.org/information/2021/05/23/saudi-arabia-repression-rages-despite-releases. For tips on executions for terrorism see “Saudi Arabia Executes Man Accused of participating in a riot,” associated Press, June 15, 2021, https://www.voanews.com/core-east/saudi-arabia-executes-man-accused-taking part-riot.

[252] Human Rights First, Al Qaeda and ISIS Use of Guantanamo Bay prison in Propaganda and substances, September 2017, https://www.humanrightsfirst.org/sites/default/info/AQ-ISIS-Propaganda-Use-of-Gitmo-subject-quick.pdf; Douglas A. Johnson, Alberto Mora, and Averell Schmidt, “The Strategic fees of Torture: How ‘more suitable Interrogation’ damage the united states, overseas Affairs, September/October 2016, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/strategic-costs-torture?__cf_chl_managed_tk__=fvTFH0NviDNFXkYrYiHHB_B5zqShCaQRzgK2AeMis68-1641474672-0-gaNycGzNCL0; Somini Sengupta and Salman Masood, “Guantánamo comes to outline U.S. to Muslims,” manhattan times, can also 21, 2005, https://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/21/world/asia/guantanamo-comes-to-outline-us-to-muslims.html.

[255] Torture document, pp. 2-three.

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